Table 22Hypertension: strength of evidence for education (face-to-face with pharmacist) interventions

InterventionNumber of Studies; Subjects (Analyzed)OutcomeRisk of BiasConsistencyDirectnessPrecisionMagnitude of Effect and Strength of Evidence
Hypertension education (face-to-face with pharmacist) discontinuation of or less intense intervention3; 348 (344)Medication adherenceRCT
Medium
ConsistentDirectImpreciseVariable outcomes, some stat sig differences favoring intervention
Low
1; 56 (53)Medication persistenceRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectImpreciseNo difference between groups refilling meds on time
Insufficient
2; 292 (268)SBPRCT
Medium
ConsistentDirectPrecise−6.4 or −8.9 mm Hg mean SBP difference (stat sig G1 vs. G2) in two studies
Moderate
2; 292 (268)DBPRCT
Medium
ConsistentDirectImprecise−1.1 or −4.4 mm Hg mean DBP difference (G1 vs. G2) in two trials
Insufficient
1, 133 (NR)Quality of lifeRCT
Medium
UnknownIndirectImpreciseNo statistically significant differences for sexual dysfunction, dizziness and headaches
Insufficient
1; 133 (130)Patient satisfactionRCT
Medium
UnknownIndirectPreciseStat sig improvement in four of five questions
Low
1; 133 (124)Health care utilization: hospital visitsRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectPrecise0.08 fewer hospital visits in intervention group
Low
1; 133 (124)Health care utilization: contacts with other health care providersRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectPrecise0.41 fewer visits in intervention group
Low
1; 133 (124)Health care utilization: ER visitsRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectImpreciseInsufficient

Abbreviations: DBP = diastolic blood pressure; ER = emergency room; G = group; Hosp = hospital; mm Hg = millimeter mercury; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SBP = systolic blood pressure; stat sig = statistically significant; vs. = versus.

From: Results

Cover of Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science (Vol. 4: Medication Adherence Interventions: Comparative Effectiveness)
Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science (Vol. 4: Medication Adherence Interventions: Comparative Effectiveness).
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 208.4.
Viswanathan M, Golin CE, Jones CD, et al.

PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.