Table 2Inclusion/exclusion criteria

CategoryInclusion CriteriaExclusion Criteria
Population
  • Adults prescribed self-administered medication for secondary or tertiary prevention of chronic diseases
  • Children under age 18 (no adults in the study or outcome of interest not stratified by child/adult)
  • Patients administered medications in hospitals or in offices
  • Patients undergoing primary prevention
  • Patients taking over-the-counter medicines not prescribed by a provider
  • Patients with infectious conditions (e.g., HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, pelvic inflammatory disease)
  • Patients with mental illness involving psychosis, mania, or bipolar disorder
  • Patients on medication to treat substance abuse
Geography
  • United States
  • Outside United States
Time period
  • 1994 to present
  • Pre-1994
Length of followup
  • No limit
Settings
  • Outpatient primary and specialty care settings
  • Community-based settings
  • Home-based settings
  • Institutional settings (e.g., inpatient care, nursing homes, prisons)
Interventions
  • Any intervention for included clinical conditions intended to improve adherence with prescribed, self-administered medications
  • Interventions intended to improve compliance with primary prevention measures (e.g., screening, diet, exercise, lifestyle changes)
Outcomes
  • Medication adherence
  • Biomarkers, mortality, morbidity, quality of life, patient satisfaction, health care utilization (and associated costs), quality of care for studies with a statistically significant improvement in medication adherence
  • Adverse events
  • All other outcomes when interventions did not yield a statistically significant improvement in medication adherence
Publication language
  • English
  • All other languages
Admissible evidence for Key Question 1 on patient-level, provider-level, or systems-level interventions (study design and other criteria)
  • Original research; eligible study designs include:
  • Randomized controlled trials
  • Systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses
  • Nonrandomized controlled trials
  • Observational study designs
  • Case series
  • Case reports
  • Nonsystematic reviews
  • Editorials
  • Letters to the editor
  • Articles rated as having high risk of bias
  • Studies with historical, rather than concurrent, control groups
  • N<40
Admissible evidence for policy-level interventions (study design and other criteria)
  • Original research; eligible study designs include:
  • Randomized controlled trials
  • Systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses
  • Nonrandomized controlled trials
  • Cohort studies
  • Case-control studies
  • Time series
  • Before-after studies
  • Cross-sectional studies
  • Case series
  • Case reports
  • Nonsystematic reviews
  • Editorials
  • Letters to the editor
  • Articles rated as having high risk of bias
  • N<40

From: Methods

Cover of Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science (Vol. 4: Medication Adherence Interventions: Comparative Effectiveness)
Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science (Vol. 4: Medication Adherence Interventions: Comparative Effectiveness).
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 208.4.
Viswanathan M, Golin CE, Jones CD, et al.

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