Figure 2 depicts the logical interconnection of Key Questions within the context of PICO (patient populations, interventions, comparators, and outcomes of interest). In general, the figure illustrates how alternative diagnostic tests and test-directed treatments may result in intermediate outcomes, such as changes in iron status, hemoglobin, and ESA dosing, and other clinical and patient centered outcomes, such as mortality, morbidity, and quality of life. Adverse events may occur at any point, related to testing or to test-directed treatment. Influencing factors may affect both test performance as well as have an impact on intermediate and patient-centered outcomes.

Figure 2Analytic framework

CKD=chronic kidney disease; ESA=erythropoiesis-stimulating agents; Hb=hemoglobin level

From: Introduction

Cover of Biomarkers for Assessing and Managing Iron Deficiency Anemia in Late-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease
Biomarkers for Assessing and Managing Iron Deficiency Anemia in Late-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 83.
Chung M, Moorthy D, Hadar N, et al.

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