Appendix F. Table 3Summary of baseline characteristics for citrate studies

CharacteristicMean (range)
Unless Otherwise Noted**
Trials Reporting
Total number of patients evaluated559 (48 to 150)7
Study withdrawals, % of patients15 (0 to 36)7
Study withdrawals due to adverse events, % of patients4 (0 to 10)7
Age of subjects, years47 (42 to 55)5b,d,e,f,g
Gender, male, % of patients63 (44 to 78)6b,c,d,e,f,g
Race/ethnicity, white, % of patientsNR-
Stone type, calcium oxalate stones, % of patients (n/N)100* (431/431)5 a,b,d,e,f of 5 report stone type
Multiple past stones, % of patients (n/N)74 (321/431)4a,d,e,f of 5 report stone history
Single past stone, % of patients (n/N)26 (110/431)1b of 5 report stone history
Residual stones at baseline, % of patients61 (38 to 100)3b,c,d
Hypercalciuria at baseline, % of patients24 (0 to 44)5a,b,e,f,g
Hypocitraturia at baseline, % of patients22 (0 to 69)5a,b,e,f,g
Hyperuricosuria at baseline, % of patients7 (0 to 18)4a,b,f,g
Hyperoxaluria at baseline, % of patients6 (0 to 18)3a,f,g
Mixed at baseline, % of patients12 (0 to 16)2a,f
No metabolic disorder at baseline, % of patients49 (29 to 100)2a,f
Studies evaluating potassium (K) citrate, % of patients (n/N)57 (317/559)3a,b,f
Studies evaluating sodium/K citrate, % of patients (n/N)32 (178/559)2c,e
Studies evaluating magnesium/K citrate, % of patients (n/N)11 (64/559)1d
Studies conducted in the US, % of patients (n/N)11 (64/559)1d
Studies conducted in Europe, % of patients (n/N)66 (367/559)4 a,b,e,f
Studies conducted in Other, % of patients (n/N)23 (128/559)2c,g
Mean study duration (months)26 (12 to 37)7

One trial (Barcelo21) reported either calcium oxalate or a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones


Data reported in this table is from trials comparing citrate vs. placebo/control as well as trials comparing citrate + second active therapy vs. control.

Abbreviation: NR = not reported


Fernandez-Rodriguez 2006;9


Soygur 2002;17


Premgamone 2001;18


Ettinger 1997;19


Hofbauer 1994;20


Barcelo 199321;


Lojanapiwat, 201116

From: Appendix F, Baseline Characteristics Summary Tables

Cover of Recurrent Nephrolithiasis in Adults
Recurrent Nephrolithiasis in Adults: Comparative Effectiveness of Preventive Medical Strategies [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 61.
Fink HA, Wilt TJ, Eidman KE, et al.

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