Behaviour change techniqueEffective
n = 13a
n = 26b
Not clear
n = 4c
n = 43d
1Provide information on consequences of behaviour in general67114
2Provide information on consequences of behaviour to the individual5611
3Provide information about others' approval11
4Provide normative information about others' behaviour44
5Goal setting (behaviour)48214
6Goal setting (outcome)112
7Action planning3115
8Barrier identification/problem solving57113
9Set graded tasks213
10Prompt review of behavioural goals55111
11Prompt review of outcome goals112
12Provide rewards contingent on effort or progress towards behaviour213
13Provide rewards contingent on successful behaviour22
15Prompting generalisation of a target behaviour11
16Prompt self-monitoring of behaviour4812
17Prompt self-monitoring of behavioural outcome134
18Prompting focus on past success11
19Provide feedback on performance76114
20Provide information on where and when to perform the behaviour123
21Provide instruction on how to perform the behaviour47112
22Model/demonstrate the behaviour156
23Teach to use prompts/cues3317
24Environmental restructuring11
25Agree behavioural contract0
26Prompt practice0
27Use of follow up prompts11
28Facilitate social comparison123
29Plan social support/social change3710
30Prompt identification as role model/position advocate11
31Prompt anticipated regret0
32Fear arousal336
33Prompt self-talk0
34Prompt use of imagery0
35Relapse prevention/coping planning11
36Stress management0
37Emotional control training11
38Motivational interviewing112
39Time management0
40General communication skills training0
41Stimulate anticipation of future rewards0
42General planning112

Effective = statistical significance, in the intended direction, comparing final follow-up time-point between intervention and control groups (change from baseline not assessed).


Includes those studies in which statistically significant effect was found in the opposite direction to that intended.


Four studies42,47,55,81 did not provide a measure of variation (such as SD), and could not therefore be assessed for statistical significance.


One study63 did not specify any details about the intervention and therefore no behaviour change techniques could be entered.


Tailoring should have been used in all studies, as it is a requirement for inclusion in the review.

From: Appendix 8, Behaviour change techniques and effectiveness

Cover of Adaptive E-Learning to Improve Dietary Behaviour: A Systematic Review and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Adaptive E-Learning to Improve Dietary Behaviour: A Systematic Review and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.
Health Technology Assessment, No. 15.37.
Harris J, Felix L, Miners A, et al.
Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library; 2011 Oct.
© 2011, Crown Copyright.

Included under terms of UK Non-commercial Government License.

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