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A total of 4,524 abstracts were identified by the searches; of these, 704 full-text articles were reviewed, and 51 articles met inclusion criteria (Appendix B5, see Appendix B6 for a list of excluded full-text articles). Included articles provided data from nine RCTs of postmenopausal women comparing the effects of estrogen, either in combination with progestin or alone, against placebo for the prevention of chronic conditions. These include the WHI estrogen plus progestin trial,,– WHI estrogen only trial,,,,– Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS),– Women’s Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA),– HERS,– Women’s International Study of Long Duration Oestrogen After Menopause (WISDOM), Oestrogen in the Prevention of Reinfarction Trial (ESPRIT), Estrogen Memory Study (EMS), and Ultra-Low-Dose Transdermal Estrogen Assessment (ULTRA)– (Table 2). An additional article with new results from WHI that was published after the literature search was also included. Trial designs are described in Figures 2–, and outcome measures in Table 3.

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