Table 4.5Conditions with an increased prevalence of ASD

Coexisting conditionsQuality assessmentSummary of findings
StudiesDesignLimitationsInconsistencyIndirectnessQualityASDNon-ASDsPrevalence (range, %)Unadj RR (range)
Intellectual disability58;61;64;654Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low34122088–177–17
Fragile X4850,1014Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low9512930–6037 – 130
Tuberous sclerosis52;53;59;974Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low726636–7948–322
Neonatal encephalopathy / epileptic encephalopathy / infantile spasms5456;932Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedLow253464–144–14
Cerebral palsy601Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low1910715–1515–15
Down’s syndrome51;62;98;99;1025Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low918296–155–15
Muscular dystrophy63;100;1043Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low385283–373–50
Neurofibromatosis571Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low3714–44–4
Fetal alcohol syndrome941Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low66171–11–1

Uncon obs: Uncontrolled observational (see Methods, Section 2.6.2 for detail); RR: Relative risk; Unadj: unadjusted

From: 4, Following referral

Cover of Autism
Autism: Recognition, Referral and Diagnosis of Children and Young People on the Autism Spectrum.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 128.
National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2011 Sep.
Copyright © 2011, National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health.

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