Home > Search Results


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow obstruction. The airflow obstruction is usually progressive, not fully reversible and does not change markedly over several months. The disease is predominantly caused by smoking.

Managing stable COPD

COPD is a heterogeneous disease that affects different patients in different ways. Some patients may be more troubled by breathlessness, others may develop ankle swelling and others may be experiencing frequent hospital admissions. The management of an individual patient's disease should be guided by the symptoms and disability that they experience. At different times in the natural history of their disease different features may predominate and their management will change to reflect this. COPD also has effects outside the lung for example on peripheral muscles and may lead to mood or cognitive changes which should also be assessed.

Recent Activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...