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National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care [Internet]. London: Royal College of Physicians (UK); 2010 Jun. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 101.)

4Glossary of terms

ACBTActive Cycle of Breathing Technique
ACCPAmerican College of Chest Physicians
ACE inhibitorAngiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitor
ADLActivities of Daily Living
AdsAdvanced Directives
Adverse eventUsually in relation to treatment and sometimes known as side-effects. Adverse events are any event that is not to the benefit of the person.
Allied health professionalsHealthcare professionals, other than doctors and nurses, directly involved in the provision of healthcare. (Also known as professions allied to medicine or PAMs.)
Anticholinergic drugsAnticholinergic drugs are also referred to as muscarinic antagonists e.g. short-acting muscarinic antagonist (SAMA) in the update guideline
Appraisal of evidenceFormal assessment of the quality of research evidence and its relevance to the clinical question or guideline under consideration, according to predetermined criteria.
ARDSAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
ARFAcute Respiratory Failure
ARRAdjusted risk ratio
ASA Scoring SystemAmerican Society of Anaesthesiologists
ATBCAlpha-Tocopherol and Beta-Carotene Supplementation
ATSAmerican Thoracic Society
AUCArea under the curve
BMIBody Mass Index
BORGTool for measuring dyspnoea or the state of being short of breath
BTSBritish Thoracic Society
Case-control study (CCT)A study that starts with the identification of a group of individuals sharing the same characteristics and a suitable comparison (control) group. All participants are then assessed with respect to things that happened to them in the past.
CENEuropean Committee for Standardization
CES-DCentre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale
CIConfidence Interval
CLDChronic Lung Disease
Clinical auditA systematic process for setting and monitoring standards of clinical care.
Clinical effectivenessHow well a drug, treatment or package of care works to produce good outcomes for patients?
ClinicianA health care professional providing patient care, e.g. doctor, nurse, physiotherapist.
CMCClinically Meaningful Change
CNSClinical Nurse Specialist
Cochrane LibraryThe Cochrane Library consists of a regularly updated collection of evidence-based medicine databases including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Library is available on CD-ROM and the Internet.
Cochrane reviewReviews of randomised controlled trials prepared by the Cochrane Collaboration.
Cohort studyA cohort study takes a group of patients, follows them forward in time and measures their outcome (e.g. disease or mortality rates). Patient subgroups are identified from the information collected, and these groups are compared with respect to outcome.
ConcordanceConcordance is a concept reflecting agreement between clinicians and patient on the best course of managing a disease, and adherence to that course until alternatives are agreed on and adopted.
COPDChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
COPMCanadian Occupational Performance Measure
Cost-effectivenessComparative analysis of the costs and health benefits of a treatment or care pathway.
CRGConsensus Reference Group
CRQ / CRDQChronic Respiratory Diseases Questionnaire
CT scanComputed Tomography
CXRChest X-Ray
DcoDiffusing Capacity of Carbon Dioxide
DDDDefined Daily Dosage
Diagnostic studyAny research study aimed at evaluating the utility of a diagnostic procedure.
DLCOCarbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity
DPIDry Powdered Inhaler
DPTCDisabled Person's Tax Credit
ECCSEuropean Coal & Steel Community
ERSEuropean Respiratory Society
Evidence tableA table summarising the results of a collection of studies which, taken together, represent the evidence supporting a particular recommendation or series of recommendations in a guideline.
Evidence-basedThe process of systematically finding, appraising, and using research findings as the basis for clinical decisions.
Experimental studyA research study designed to test if a treatment or intervention has an effect on the course or outcome of a condition or disease.
FETForced Expiratory Time
FEV1Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second
FFMFat Free Mass Index
FFMPIBWFat-Free Mass as a Percentage of Ideal Body Weight
FVCForced Vital Capacity
GDGGuidelines Development Group
GOLDGlobal Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Grade of recommendationA code (e.g. A, B, C) linked to a guideline recommendation, indicating the strength of the evidence supporting that recommendation.
HADSHospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
HAM-DHamilton Depression Rating Scale
Health technologyHealth technologies include medicines, medical devices, diagnostic techniques, surgical procedures, health promotion and other therapeutic interventions.
Health Technology Appraisal (HTA)A focused review of evidence around a newly emerging health technology, produced by NICE.
Hierarchy of evidenceAn established hierarchy of study types, based on the degree of certainty that can be attributed to the conclusions of a well-conducted study. Well-conducted randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are at the top of this hierarchy. (Several large statistically significant RCTs which are in agreement represent stronger evidence than say one small RCT.) Well-conducted studies of patients' views and experiences would appear at a lower level in the hierarchy of evidence.
HRHazard Ratio
HRQLHealth Related Quality of Life
IBWIdeal Body Weight
ICSInhaled corticosteroid
ICUIntensive Care Unit
ILIInfluenza Like Illness
IPPVIntermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation
IQRInter Quartile range
IRRIncident Rate Ratio
ITTIntention to Treat Analysis
ITUIntensive Care Unit
KPaKilopascal – A unit of pressure
LABALong-acting beta2 agonist
LAMALong-acting muscarinic antagonist
LCADLLondon Chest Activity of Daily Living scale
Level of evidenceA code (e.g. 1a, 1b) linked to an individual study, indicating where it fits into the hierarchy of evidence and how well it has adhered to recognised research principles.
Literature reviewA process of collecting, reading and assessing the quality of published (and unpublished) articles on a given topic.
LTOTLong Term Oxygen Therapy
LVRSLung Volume Reduction Surgery
Meta-analysisA statistical technique for combining (pooling) the results of a number of studies that address the same question to produce a summary result.
MIDMinimally important difference
MRADLManchester Respiratory Activities of Daily Living
MRCMedical Research Council
MRIMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Muscarinic antagonist drugsMuscarinic antagonists e.g. long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) are also referred to as Anticholinergic drugs in the original guideline.
MVMechanical Ventilation
NCC-CCThe National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions. Set up in 2000 to undertake commissions from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence to develop clinical guidelines for the National Health Service
NCEPODNational Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Deaths
NICENational Institute for Clinical Excellence
NIVNon Invasive Ventilation
NNTNumber Needed to Treat
Non-experimental studyA study based on participants selected on the basis of their availability, with no attempt having been made to avoid problems of bias.
NRTNicotine Replacement Therapy
NSFNational Service Framework
OROdds Ratio
Palliative careCare aimed at alleviating symptoms, pain and distress, and hence improving quality of life, rather than at curing or slowing progression of a disease or condition. It is often associated with, but is actually not limited to, the end of life
PaCO2Arterial Carbon Dioxide Tension
PEFPeak Expiratory Flow
PemaxMaximal Expiratory Pressure
PEPPositive Expiratory Pressure
PIBWPercent Ideal Body Weight
PICOPopulation, intervention, comparison, outcome
PimaxMaximum Inspiratory Pressure
PlaceboA pill, medicine, or other treatment that has no physiological effect and is used as a dummy treatment.
pMDIPatient Administered Metered Dose Inhalers
PpaPulmonary Artery Pressure
PrevalenceThe proportion of a population of people who are experiencing a condition or disease at a given time.
Prospective studyA study in which people are entered into the research and then followed up over a period of time with future events recorded as they happen.
P-valueP values indicate whether an effect can be regarded as statistically significant or not. By convention, where the value of P is below 0.05 the result is seen as statistically significant. Where the value of P is 0.001 or less, the result is seen as highly statistically significant.
Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY)A measure of health outcome
Quasi experimental studyThis is a study in which the treatment comparison groups are not assigned by randomisation.
Randomised controlled trial (RCT)A trial in which people are randomly assigned to two (or more) groups: one (the experimental group) receiving the treatment that is being tested, and the other (the comparison or control group) receiving an alternative treatment, a placebo (dummy treatment) or no treatment. The two groups are followed up to compare differences in outcomes to see how effective the experimental treatment was.
RCPRoyal College of Physicians
RDRisk Difference
RRRisk Ratio
RVResidual Volume
SABAShort-acting beta2 agonist
SAMAShort-acting muscarinic antagonist
SaO2Oxygen saturation – The % of oxygen present in the haemoglobin present in arterial blood
SEKSwedish Krona unit of monetary currency
SGRQSt George's Respiratory Questionnaire
SIGNScottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network
Six MD / 6MWTSix minute distance or six minute walking test – 6MD / 6MWT
SMDStandard Mean Difference
StakeholderAny national organisation, including patient and carers' groups, healthcare professionals and commercial companies with an interest in the guideline under development.
Systematic reviewResearch that summarises the evidence on a clearly formulated question using systematic and explicit methods to identify, select and appraise relevant primary studies, and to extract, collate and report their findings. By following this process it becomes a proper piece of research. It may or may not use statistical meta-analysis.
TAGTechnology Appraisal Guidance
TDITransition Dyspnoea Index
TLCTotal Lung Capacity
TLCOTransfer Factor for Carbon Monoxide
TNF-αTumour Necrosis Factor – alpha
Trial of treatmentA planned period during which a patient receives a treatment to find out if it will be of benefit to them as individuals.
TSFTriceps Skin Fold
VASVisual Analogue Scale
VCVital Capacity
VMTVentilatory Muscle Training
VO2Oxygen Uptake
WMDWeight Mean Difference
Copyright © 2010, National Clinical Guideline Centre - Acute and Chronic Conditions.

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publisher at the UK address printed on this page. The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore for general use. The rights of National Clinical Guideline Centre to be identified as Author of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

Cover of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care [Internet].
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 101.
National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).


NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence)

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