Figure 5 is a forest plot type of diagram depicting the overall incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) from probiotic primary prevention versus placebo trials. The left column lists the names of the authors and the years of the publications for the studies for risk factors and the studies of incidence or prevalence of chronic diseases. Information on total CDAD evental under either treatment or placebo is also provided. The right column is a plot of the measure of effect with 95 percent confidence limits. The right column shows the relative risk for developing CDAD. Relative risk is presented by a square incorporating confidence intervals represented by horizontal lines. A vertical line representing no effect or zero differences in the scores is also plotted. If the confidence intervals for individual studies do not overlap with this line, it demonstrates differences in relative risk of probiotic prevention vs. placebo. Figure 5 shows that the pooled risk ratio of all six studies combined favors probiotic treatment.

Figure 5Overall incidence of CDI from probiotic primary prevention trials

CI = confidence interval; M-H = Mantel-Haenszel test

From: Results

Cover of Effectiveness of Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection
Effectiveness of Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 31.
Butler M, Bliss D, Drekonja D, et al.

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