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Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE (UK). Food Allergy in Children and Young People: Diagnosis and Assessment of Food Allergy in Children and Young People in Primary Care and Community Settings. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK); 2011 Feb. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 116.)

7References, glossary and abbreviations

7.1 References

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  • Kalach N, Soulaines P, de BD, et al. A pilot study of the usefulness and safety of a ready-to-use atopy patch test (Diallertest) versus a comparator (Finn Chamber) during cow's milk allergy in children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2005;116:1321–6. [PubMed: 16337466]
  • Knight AK, Shreffler WG, Sampson HA, et al. Skin prick test to egg white provides additional diagnostic utility to serum egg white-specific IgE antibody concentration in children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2006;117:842–7. [PubMed: 16630943]
  • Kucukosmanoglu E, Yazi D, Yesil O, et al. Prevalence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to cow's milk in infants based on skin prick test and questionnaire. Allergologia et Immunopathologia. 2008;36:254–8. [PubMed: 19080796]
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  • Leung D&SM. Consultation and referral guidelines citing the evidence: How the allergist-immunologist can help. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology. 2006;117:S495–S523. [PubMed: 16553071]
  • Lever R, MacDonald C, Waugh P, et al. Randomised controlled trial of advice on an egg exclusion diet in young children with atopic eczema and sensitivity to eggs. Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 1998;9:13–9. [PubMed: 9560837]
  • Mehl A, Rolinck-Werninghaus C, Staden U, et al. The atopy patch test in the diagnostic workup of suspected food-related symptoms in children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2006;118:923–9. [PubMed: 17030247]
  • Mikkelsen A, Lissner L, Borres MP. Milk allergy school: nutritional therapy in group for parents of children with cow's milk allergy/intolerance in Primary Health Care. Pediatric Allergy & Immunology. 2005;16:86–90. [PubMed: 15693918]
  • Moneret-Vautrin DA, Sainte-Laudy J, Kanny G, et al. Human basophil activation measured by CD63 expression and LTC4 release in IgE-mediated food allergy. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. 1999;82:33–40. [PubMed: 9988204]
  • Monti G, Muratore MC, Peltran A, et al. High incidence of adverse reactions to egg challenge on first known exposure in young atopic dermatitis children: predictive value of skin prick test and radioallergosorbent test to egg proteins. Clinical & Experimental Allergy. 2002;32:1515–9. [PubMed: 12372134]
  • Nielsen RG, Bindslev-Jensen C, Kruse-Andersen S, et al. Severe gastroesophageal reflux disease and cow milk hypersensitivity in infants and children: disease association and evaluation of a new challenge procedure. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2004;39:383–91. [PubMed: 15448429]
  • Nielsen RG, Fenger C, Bindslev-Jensen C, et al. Eosinophilia in the upper gastrointestinal tract is not a characteristic feature in cow's milk sensitive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Measurement by two methodologies. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2006;59:89–94. [PMC free article: PMC1860270] [PubMed: 16394287]
  • Niggemann B, Reibel S, Wahn U. The atopy patch test (APT) - A useful tool for the diagnosis of food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2000;55:281–5. [PubMed: 10753020]
  • Niggemann B, Ziegert M, Reibel S. Importance of chamber size for the outcome of atopy patch testing in children with atopic dermatitis and food allergy. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology. 2002;110:515–6. [PubMed: 12209104]
  • Orhan F, Karakas T, Cakir M, et al. Prevalence of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2009;39:1027–35. [PubMed: 19400894]
  • Osterballe M, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The diagnostic accuracy of the atopy patch test in diagnosing hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in unselected children with and without atopic dermatitis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2004;51:556–62. [PubMed: 15389190]
  • Rancé F, Abbal M, Lauwers-Cancès V. Improved screening for peanut allergy by the combined use of skin prick tests and specific IgE assays. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2002;109:1027–33. [PubMed: 12063536]
  • Robinson M, Smart J. Allergy testing and referral in children. Australian Family Physician. 2008;37:210–4. [PubMed: 18398515]
  • Roehr CC, Edenharter G, Reimann S, et al. Food allergy and non-allergic food hypersensitivity in children and adolescents. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 2004;34:1534–41. [PubMed: 15479267]
  • Roehr CC, Reibel S, Ziegert M, et al. Atopy patch tests, together with determination of specific IgE levels, reduce the need for oral food challenges in children with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2001;107:548–53. [PubMed: 11240959]
  • Saarinen KM, Suomalainen H, Savilahti E. Diagnostic value of skin-prick and patch tests and serum eosinophil cationic protein and cow's milk-specific IgE in infants with cow's milk allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:423–9. [PubMed: 11260154]
  • Sampson HA. Predictive values of food-specific IgE in food allergy. Revue Francaise d'Allergologie et d'Immunologie Clinique. 1998;38:914–20.
  • Simeone D, Miele E, Boccia G, et al. Prevalence of atopy in children with chronic constipation. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2008;93:1044–7. [PubMed: 18562455]
  • Skolnick HS, Conover-Walker MK, Koerner CB, et al. The natural history of peanut allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2001;107:367–74. [PubMed: 11174206]
  • Vandenplas Y, Brueton M, Dupont C, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of cow's milk protein allergy in infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2007;92:902–8. [PMC free article: PMC2083222] [PubMed: 17895338]
  • Verini M, Di PS, Spagnuolo C, et al. Age-related allergic sensitization in atopic dermatitis: Role of atopy patch test. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 2007;33:336–40.
  • Verstege A, Mehl A, Rolinck-Werninghaus C, et al. The predictive value of the skin prick test weal size for the outcome of oral food challenges. Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2005;35:1220–6. [PubMed: 16164451]
  • Vierrucci A, Novembre E, de MM, et al. Reliability of tests for specific IgE to food in atopic dermatitis. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Supplement. 1989;44:90–6. [PubMed: 2817316]
  • von BA, Koletzko S, Grübl A, et al. The effect of hydrolyzed cow's milk formula for allergy prevention in the first year of life: the German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study, a randomized double-blind trial. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2003;111:533–40. [PubMed: 12642834]
  • Weber TK, Speridiao PG, Sdepanian VL, et al. The performance of parents of children receiving cow's milk free diets at identification of commercial food products with and without cow's milk. Jornal de Pediatria. 2007;83:459–64. [PubMed: 17940690]

7.2 Glossary

Anaphylaxis

A severe, life-threatening, generalised or systemic hypersensitivity reaction, characterised by rapidly developing life-threatening airway, breathing and/or circulation problems, usually associated with skin and mucosal changes.

Angioedema

Swelling, similar to hives, except that the swelling is beneath the skin rather than on the surface.

Co-allergen

An allergen commonly found to be present in association with another.

Dysphagia

Difficulties with swallowing.

Eosinophilic oesophagitis

An inflammatory condition of the oesophagus, usually presenting with difficulty in swallowing or as gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants.

Food allergy

An adverse immune response to a food.

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

A chronic digestive disease that occurs when the contents of the stomach, including acid, flows back (refluxes) into the oesophagus (gullet).

IgE-mediated reaction

An allergic reaction which is acute and frequently has rapid onset.

Laryngeal stridor

A harsh inspiratory noise due to swelling of the larynx, suggestive of upper airway obstruction.

Non-IgE-mediated reaction

These reactions are generally characterised by delayed and non-acute reactions.

Pruritus

Itchy skin.

Systemic allergic reaction

An allergic reaction involving parts of the body distant to the actual site of allergen contact.

Urticaria

Raised, red, itchy welts (weals or swellings) of various sizes that seem to appear and disappear on the skin.

7.3 Abbreviations

CI

Confidence interval

DBPCFC

Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge

GDG

Guideline Development Group

GRADE

Grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation

ICER

Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio

OR

Odds ratio

QALY

Quality-adjusted life year

7.4. Appendices

Appendices 14 in separate files

Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

All rights reserved. This material may be freely reproduced for educational and not-for-profit purposes. No reproduction by or for commercial organisations, or for commercial purposes, is allowed without the express written permission of NICE.

Cover of Food Allergy in Children and Young People
Food Allergy in Children and Young People: Diagnosis and Assessment of Food Allergy in Children and Young People in Primary Care and Community Settings.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 116.
Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE (UK).

NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence)

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