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National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK). Hypertension in Pregnancy: The Management of Hypertensive Disorders During Pregnancy. London: RCOG Press; 2010 Aug. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 107.)

13References, abbreviations and glossary

13.1 References

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13.2 Abbreviations

ACE

angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACOG

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

ALT

alanine aminotansferase

ANC

antenatal care

APCR

activated protein C resistance

ARB

angiotensin receptor blocker

ARDS

adult respiratory distress syndrome

AST

aspartate aminotransferase

ASTECS

the Antenatal Steroid for Term Elective Caesarean Section

b.i.d.

twice daily

BMI

body mass index

BPD

bronchopulmonary dysplasia

BPP

biophysical profile

CH

chronic hypertension

CHIPS

Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study

CI

confidence interval

CINAHL

Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature

CS

caesarean section

CTG

cardiotocography

dl

decilitre

EL

evidence level

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

g

gram

GA

gestational age

GDG

Guideline Development Group

GNI

gross national income

GP

general practitioner

GRIT

Growth Restriction Intervention Trial

HDU

high-dependency unit

HDZ

hydralazine

HES

hydroxy-ethylstarch

Hg

mercury

HTA

Health Technology Assessment

HYPITAT

Hypertension and Pre-eclampsia Intervention Trial

ICER

incremental cost-effectiveness ratio

ICU

intensive care unit

IQR

interquartile range

IU

international unit

IUGR

intrauterine growth restriction

IVF

in vitro fertilisation

LDH

lactate dehydrogenase

LMWH

low-molecular-weight heparin

LR

likelihood ratio

MHRA

Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

MD

mean difference

MDI

Mental Development Index

MgSO4

Magnesium sulphate

NCC-WCH

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health

NEC

necrotising enterocolitis

NHS

National Health Service

NHS EED

NHS Economic Evaluation Database

NICE

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

NICU

neonatal intensive care unit

NPV

negative predictive value

OR

odds ratio

PCWP

pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

PDI

Psychomotor Development Index

PPV

positive predictive value

QUADAS

quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy in systematic review

QALY

quality-adjusted life year

RCT

randomised controlled trial

RI

resistance index

ROC

receiver operating characteristic

RPE

rating of perceived exertion

RR

relative risk

SCBU

special care baby unit

SD

standard deviation

SGA

small for gestational age

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

SPC

summary of product characteristics

UK

United Kingdom

USA

United States of America

WMD

weighted mean difference

13.3 Glossary

Absent end-diastolic velocities

Found during Doppler evaluation of umbilical artery and implying placental disease

ACE inhibitors

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors – an antihypertensive

Acetylsalicylic acid

Aspirin

Alanine aminotansferase (ALT)

A liver enzyme raised in presence of liver damage

Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI)

A method of amniotic fluid measurement by adding the biggest pools in each of the 4 quarters of the uterus

Albuminuria

Albumin is a type of protein in the blood which appears in urine in the presence of renal damage

Antenatal day unit

A unit established to undertake a variety of pregnancy assessments and so reduce the need for admission to hospital

Anticardiolipins

Antibodies which are formed against the cellular component cardiolipin

Antioxidants

Vitamins C and E are regarded as potent anti-oxidants

Antiphospholipid syndrome

Condition where have anticardiolipin antibodies and history of blood clots, miscarriage or poor pregnancy outcomes

Antiplatelet agents

Drugs that change the way platelets work

Antithrombin deficiency

One of the thrombophilias (see later), and one of the most severe types

Apgar scores

A way of assessing the baby at or shortly after birth by looking at heart rate, breathing, colour, muscle tone, reaction. It is marked out of 10

ARBs

Angiotensin receptor blocking agents – antihypertensives

Atenolol

A beta-blocker antihypertensive

Autoimmune disease

A disease in which the body raises antibodies against itself

Automated urinalysis

A method of testing for protein in the urine using an automated reagent- strip reading device

Beta-blocker

See atenolol

Bilirubin

Excretion product from the liver – in excess leads to jaundice

Biophysical profile (BPP)

A method of fetal assessment which includes fetal movement, fetal breathing fetal muscle tone, amniotic fluid volume and fetal cardiotocography

Body mass index

Measure of body build estimated from the individuals height and weight

Bupivacaine

A local anaesthetic used in regional anaesthesia

Calcium-channel blockers

Types of antihypertensives

Cardiotocograph (CTG)

A continuous recording of the fetal heart rate

Chronic hypertension

Hypertension that already exists – it can be primary (no obvious cause) or secondary to an underlying condition, such as renal disease

Clean catch specimen

A method of collecting urine to reduce contamination

Clonus

A muscle condition associated with hyper-reflexia and found in severe pre- eclampsia

Coagulation

Concerned with blood clotting

Coagulopathy

Where the blood clotting is abnormal; blood does not clot as well

Co-morbidities

Situation in which a number of different conditions co-exist

Congenital malformation

An abnormality of the baby present at birth

Converting enzyme DD

A rare genetic disorder associated with absent converting enzyme and increased tendency to thrombosis

Convulsions

Fits, seizures

Corticosteroids

Hormones produced by the adrenal gland and used to help mature a baby’s lungs

Creatinine

Chemical excreted from the kidney that is used to assess how the kidney is working.

Crystalloid

A water soluble substance, i.e. salt

Dalteparin

A type of anticoagulant injection used to prevent blood clots

Day care evaluation

See antenatal care unit

Decelerations

Slowing of the fetal heart rate

Dinoprostone

A prostaglandin

Dipyridamole

An antiplatelet agent

Dipstick

An impregnated stick for testing urine

Diuretics

Drugs which encourage the kidneys to make urine, sometimes called ‘water tablets’

Doppler velocimetry

A method of assessing both uterine and umbilical blood velocities, which helps work out if placenta working well

Ductus Arteriosus

The blood vessel located between the pulmonary artery and the aorta which is open in fetal life but which closes soon after birth

Eclampsia/eclamptic

A convulsive condition associated with pre-eclampsia

Egger test

A statistical test to see if there is bias in results

Electrolytes

Constituents of the blood which include sodium, potassium and chloride

Embryo-fetal adverse outcome

Loss or damage of either an embryo (usually as miscarriage) or as a fetus (usually as stillbirth, abnormality or growth restriction)

Enalapril

ACE inhibitor – a blood pressure lowering drug

Ephedrine

Adrenaline

Epidural

A method of pain relief involving placing a plastic tube in the back and giving drugs through it to stop pain

Epigastric pain

Pain in the upper central part of the abdomen

Esmolol

Beta-blocker antihypertensive

Established pre-eclampsia

Definite pre-eclampsia

Factor V Leiden

See thrombophilias

Factor II 20210A variant

Ditto

Fetal Biometry

Measurement of the fetus by ultrasound usually to include head, abdomen and femur length

Fetal growth restriction/IUGR

A condition in which the fetus fails to meet its growth potential; a small baby who is not growing

Fentanyl

A morphine-based drug for pain relief

Focal neurological deficit

Clinical evidence of localised nerve damage usually involving the brain

Fetal distress

A condition of the fetus usually arising from a lack in oxygen, and identified by the presence of an abnormal CTG

Foley catheter

A type of bladder catheter

Full blood count

Usually haemoglobin which measures degree of anaemia, white cell count indicating infection and platelet count which is involved in clotting

FVL homozygous

See thrombophilias

Genotype/specific genotype

The genetic makeup of an individual

Gestational hypertension

New hypertension that starts after 20 weeks of pregnancy and where there is no proteinuria

Haemoglobin

Found in red blood cells it carries oxygen. Measures anaemia

Haematuria

Blood in the urine

Haematological evaluation

Tests of the blood

Haemodynamic response

Term used to describe the heart and blood vessel response usually to treatment

Haemolysis

Breakdown of red blood cells

HELLP syndrome

Haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count; a type of severe pre-eclampsia

Heterozygous

State of different genes at the same locus on the chromosome

Hydralazine

A smooth muscle relaxant antihypertensive usually only used where severely high blood pressure

Hyperbilirubinaemia

Excessive bilirubin in the blood

Hyperglycaemic

Excessive glucose in the blood

Hyperhomocysteinaemia

See thrombophilias

Hyperkalaemia

Excessive potassium in the blood

Hyperlipidaemia

Excessive lipids in the blood

Hyperreflexia

Increased reflexes for example knee jerk

Hypertension

High blood pressure

Hypertension (mild, moderate, severe)

See introduction for definitions used

Hypotension

Low blood pressure

Infusion pump

A pump used to help fluids into a patient usually via a vein

Intracranial pressure

Pressure within the skull

Intubation

Technique whereby a tube is placed in the patient windpipe to aid breathing or for anaesthetic purposes

Ischaemic heart disease

Usually term used to describe coronary heart disease (heart attack or angina)

Labetalol

A blood pressure treatment that has beta- and alpha-blocker actions

Lactic dehydrogenase

Enzyme released by tissue damage

Linoleic acid

Type of fatty acid

Low birthweight

A term used to define babies weighing less than 2.5 kg

Lupus anticoagulants

Type of auto-antibodies that increase the risk of blood clots

Lytic cocktail

A mixture of pethidine, chlorpromazine and promethazine used to prevent fits in pre-eclampsia/eclampsia

Mechanical ventilation

Assisted ventilation

Meriperidine

Opioid drug for pain relief. Better known as Demerol

Methyldopa

Centrally acting drug that lowers blood pressure

Microalbumin

Very small amounts of the protein albumin in the urine. It is used as a test of kidney function.

Multi-gravid

More than 1 pregnancy

Multiparous

More than 1 pregnancy resulting in a stillbirth after 24 weeks or a live birth

Multiple pregnancy

Pregnancy with more than one fetus

MTHFR homozygous

See thrombophilia

Naloxone

A drug which reverses the respiratory depressant effects of morphine-based drugs

Neonate

A baby between 7 and 28 days of life

Nitric oxide agents/donors/precursors

Drugs that cause blood vessels to dilate

Non-reassuring fetal heart rate

A classification of the fetal heart rate that means possible fetal distress. It can sometimes mean abnormal.

Normotensive

Normal blood pressure

Nulliparous/nulliparity

First pregnancy

Obesity

Overweight defined by BMI or by weight

Oedema

Waterlogging of the tissue; swelling

Offer birth

Offer elective early birth through induction of labour or by elective caesarean section if indicated

Oligohydramnios

Reduced amounts of amniotic fluid around the fetus

Oliguria

Reduced urine production. Can be defined as about 500 ml per day or < 20 ml per hour for 2 consecutive hours.

Opioid

Morphine-based drugs

Oxytocin augmentation

Use of the drug oxytocin to stimulate labour that has already started

Palpitations

Irregular heart beat felt by the patient as flutters

Parenteral

Route of administration – usually via the vein or muscle

Patent Ductus Ateriosus

See ductus arteriosus

Perinatal

Usually defined as a period from 24 weeks’ gestation to 7 days after birth

pH scale

A logarithmic scale used to assess acidity

Placental abruption

Separation of the placenta before the baby is born

Plasma

The fluid, non-cellular part of the blood

Platelets

Small cellular fragments responsible for blood clotting

Ponderal index

An index of fat content usually in babies

Positive roll-over test

An archaic test of risk of pre-eclampsia

Postpartum haemorrhage

Blood loss from the genital tract after birth of > 500 mls

Pre-eclampsia

New hypertension after 20 weeks of pregnancy with significant proteinuria (more than 300 mg in a 24-hour urine collection or more than 30mg/mmol in a spot urinary protein : creatinine ratio sample)

Prematurity

Relates to a fetus/baby born before 37 weeks’ gestation

Preterm birth/delivery

A birth occurring before 37 weeks’ gestation

Pregnancy-induced hypertension

See gestational hypertension. The term is sometimes used to mean both gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia

Primiparous/primiparity/primigravida

First pregnancy

Prognosis

Likely eventual outcome

Promethazine

Antihistamine type drug used for sedation/antiemetic

Protein C deficiency

See thrombophilia

Protein S deficiency

See thrombophilia

Proteinuria

Protein in the urine – see albuminuria

Prothrombin

A protein associated with blood clotting

Pulmonary oedema
Respiratory distress syndrome

A condition of the newborn when the lungs are immature because they are not producing enough of a substance called surfactant

Retrolental fibroplasia

An eye condition associated with prematurity

Secondary care setting

Hospital based care

Seizure

Fit

Serum

Fluid which exudes from clotted plasma

Severe hypertension

Diastolic blood pressure 110 mmHg or greater, systolic blood pressure 160 mmHg or greater.

Severe pre-eclampsia

Severe pre-eclampsia is pre-eclampsia with severe hypertension and/or with symptoms, and/or biochemical and/or haematological impairment.

Single Deepest Vertical Pool (SVDP)

A measure of amniotic fluid where the largest individual pool of fluid in recorded

Significant proteinuria

> 300 mg/24 hours in a 24-hour urine collection or >30mg/mmol in a spot urinary protein : creatinine ratio sample

Systemic lupus erythematosis

A chronic inflammatory condition that can involve joints, kidneys, heart lungs and brain.

Small for gestational age

Usually defined as being below a certain birthweight for weeks of pregnancy. Can be written as less than 5th or 10th.

Spontaneous vaginal birth

Birth unaided by instruments

Spot protein: creatinine ratio

A one off test for urine protein excretion

Stillbirth

A baby born dead after 24 weeks gestation

Thrombocytopaenia

A reduced number of platelets in the blood

Thromboembolism

A blood clot in the circulation

Thrombophilia

The thrombophilias are a family of conditions, some genetic others acquired which are associated with an increased chance for the individual to form clots in their circulation

Tramadol

A morphine-like analgesic

Transaminases

Liver enzymes which are elevated when there is cellular damage in the liver

Umbilical artery Doppler scan

A technique to estimate blood velocity in the umbilical artery

Uric acid

A blood analyte which can be increased if the kidneys are not working well enough

Visual scotomata

A condition in which there are blind areas within the individual’s visual fields

Xylocaine

Local anaesthetic

Health economics terms

Cost–consequence analysis

A form of economic evaluation where the costs and consequences of two or more interventions are compared, and the consequences are reported separately from costs.

Cost-effectiveness analysis

A form of economic evaluation in which consequences of different interventions are measured using a single outcome, usually in ‘natural’ units (for example, life-years gained, deaths avoided, heart attacks avoided, cases detected). Alternative interventions are then compared in terms of cost per unit of effectiveness.

Cost-minimisation analysis

A form of economic evaluation that compares the costs of alternative interventions that have equal effects.

‘Cost of illness’ study

A study that measures the economic burden of a disease or diseases and estimates the maximum amount that could potentially be saved or gained if a disease was eradicated.

Cost–utility analysis

A form of cost-effectiveness analysis in which the units of effectiveness are quality-adjusted life years (QALYs).

Decision(-analytic) model (and/or technique)

A model of how decisions are or should be made. This could be one of several models or techniques used to help people to make better decisions (for example, when considering the trade-off between costs, benefits and harms of diagnostic tests or interventions).

Decision tree

A method for helping people to make better decisions in situations of uncertainty. It illustrates the decision as a succession of possible actions and outcomes. It consists of the probabilities, costs and health consequences associated with each option. The overall effectiveness or cost effectiveness of different actions can then be compared.

Discounting

Costs and perhaps benefits incurred today have a higher value than costs and benefits occurring in the future. Discounting health benefits reflects individual preference for benefits to be experienced in the present rather than the future. Discounting costs reflects individual preference for costs to be experienced in the future rather than the present.

Dominate (in cost-effectiveness analysis)

A term used in health economics when a treatment option is both more clinically effective and less costly than an alternative option. This treatment is said to 'dominate' the less effective and more costly option.

Economic evaluation

Comparative analysis of alternative health strategies (interventions or programmes) in terms of both their costs and their consequences.

Equity

Fair distribution of resources or benefits.

Health-related quality of life

A combination of a person’s physical, mental and social wellbeing; not merely the absence of disease.

Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)

The difference in the mean costs in the population of interest divided by the differences in the mean outcomes in the population of interest.

Markov modelling

A decision-analytic technique that characterises the prognosis of a cohort of patients by assigning them to a fixed number of health states and then models transitions among health states.

Model input

Information required for economic modelling. For clinical guidelines, this may include information about prognosis, adverse effects, quality of life, resource use or costs.

Net benefit estimate

An estimate of the amount of money remaining after all payments made are subtracted from all payments received. This is a source of information used in the economic evidence profile for a clinical guideline.

Opportunity cost

The opportunity cost of investing in a healthcare intervention is the other healthcare programmes that are displaced by its introduction. This may be best measured by the health benefits that could have been achieved had the money been spent on the next best alternative healthcare intervention.

Quality-adjusted life year (QALY)

An index of survival that is adjusted to account for the patient’s quality of life during this time. QALYs have the advantage of incorporating changes in both quantity (longevity/mortality) and quality (morbidity, psychological, functional, social and other factors) of life. Used to measure benefits in cost–utility analysis.

Sensitivity analysis

A means of representing uncertainty in the results of economic evaluations.

One-way sensitivity analysis (univariate analysis)

Each parameter is varied individually in order to isolate the consequences of each parameter on the results of the study.

Probabilistic sensitivity analysis

Probability distributions are assigned to the uncertain parameters and are incorporated into evaluation models based on decision analytical techniques (for example, Monte Carlo simulation).

Copyright © 2011, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK [www.cla.co.uk]. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publisher at the UK address printed on this page.

The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore for general use.

Cover of Hypertension in Pregnancy
Hypertension in Pregnancy: The Management of Hypertensive Disorders During Pregnancy.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 107.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2010 Aug.

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