Table 33Number of studies included by comparison and definition of treatment resistance (tier) for KQ 2

ComparisonTierMDD-OnlyMDD and Bipolar Disorder
rTMS vs. shamTier 1: ≥ 2 treatment failures21
rTMS vs. shamTier2: ≥ 1 treatment failure2 additional1 additional
rTMS vs. shamTier 3: Probable01 additional
ECT vs. rTMSTier 3: Probable1 additional2 additional
CBT vs. usual careTier 3: Probable1 additional0

CBT = cognitive behavioral therapy; ECT = electroconvulsive therapy; MDD = major depressive disorder; rTMS = repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; vs. = versus.

From: Results

Cover of Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Adults
Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Adults [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 33.
Gaynes BN, Lux LJ, Lloyd SW, et al.

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