Table 36Summary study characteristics of cognitive behavioural therapies

CBT versus antidepressantsCBT versus comparatorCBT versus rational emotive behavioural therapyCBT versus behavioural activationCBT versus interpersonal therapy (IPT)CBT versus short-term psychodynamic psychotherapyCBT (primary care) versus GP care
No. trials (total participants)18 RCTs (1982)6 RCTs (549)1 RCT (180)3 RCTs (216)4 RCTs (502)2 RCTs (383)3 RCTs (202)
Study IDs
  1. Hautzinger (in-pats)
  1. DIMIDJIAN 2006
  1. DIMIDJIAN 2006
N/% female
  1. 175/63
  2. Unextractable
  3. 31/58
  4. 113/66
  5. 141/59
  6. 159/66
  7. 168/70
  8. 113/63
  9. 113/63
  10. 51/71
  11. 445/65
  12. 29/73
  13. 70/69
  14. 267/100
  15. 52/74
  16. 37/70
  17. 32/67
  18. 67/67
  1. 45/100
  2. 141/59
  3. 159/66
  4. 168/70
  5. 48/67
  6. 23/64
  1. 113/66
  1. 159/66
  2. 23/77
  3. 110/72
1.

168/70

2.

96/61

3–4.

70/69

  1. 60/92
  2. 61/52
  1. 96/61
  2. 91/75
  3. 32/67
Mean age
1.

42

2.

43

3.

40

4.

37

5–6.

40

7.

35

8–9.

40

10.

39

11.

43

12.

76

12.

No information

13.

33

14.

29

15.

41

16.

39

17.

67

18.

67

1.

39

2–3.

40

4.

35

5.

40

6.

28

  1. 37
  1. 40
  2. 68
  3. 30
  1. 35
  2. 37
  3. 35
  4. No information
  1. 62
  2. 41
  1. 37
  2. 32
  3. 41
Diagnosis
1.

100% major depressive episode

2.

100% MDD

3.

100% episode of depression

4–7.

100% MDD

8–9.

80% MDD, 20% dysthymia

10–18.

100% MDD

1.

91% depressive episode, 9% dysthymia

2–5.

100% MDD

6.

100% major or intermittent depression, or subthreshold depressive symptoms

  1. 100% MDD
1–3.

100% MDD

1.

100% MDD

2.

46% mood disorder, 20% anxiety disorder and 34% comorbid diagnosis

3–4.

100% MDD

1.

46% mood disorder, 20% anxiety disorder and 34 comorbid diagnoses

2–3.

100% MDD

Comparator
1.

SSRIs

2.

Amitriptyline/clomipramine

3.

Antidepressants of GP’s choice

4.

Fluoxetine (40–60 mg/day)

5.

Paroxetine (38 mg/day)

6.

Paroxetine

7.

Imipramine (200–300 mg/day)

8–9.

Amitriptyline (150 mg/day)

10.

Phenelzine (0.85 mg/kg)

11.

Nefazodone (300–600 mg/day)

12.

Desipramine (90 mg/day)

13.

Antidepressants (no details)

14.

Paroxetine (10–50 mg)

15.

Nortiptyline (25 mg)

16.

Desipramine (150–300mg)

17.

TAU

18.

Desipramine (90 mg/day)

1.

Waitlist

2–3.

Placebo

4.

Placebo + clinical management

5.

Placebo

6.

Waitlist

  1. Anti-depressants
1–3.

Behavioural activation

1–4.

IPT

1–2.

Short-term psycho-dynamic psychotherapy

1–2.

GP care

3.

GP care, usual treatment

Length of treatment
1.

16–20 weeks

2.

Maximum of 20 weeks

3.

16 weeks

4.

14 weeks

5–7.

16 weeks

8–9.

8 weeks

10.

10 weeks

11.

12 weeks

12.

18 weeks

13.

16 weeks

14.

8 weeks

15.

12 weeks

16.

16 weeks

17.

6 weeks

18.

8–12 weeks

1.

15 weeks

2–4.

16 weeks

5.

10 weeks

6.

6 weeks

  1. 14 weeks
  1. 16 weeks
  2. 12 weeks
  3. 20 sessions
1–2.

16 weeks

3.

Up to 16 weeks

4.

16 weeks

  1. 16 weeks
  2. 8 or 16 weeks
  1. 20 weeks
  2. 16 weeks
  3. 6 weeks
Follow-up
1–2.

Not reported

3.

24 months

4.

6 months

5–6.

Not reported

7.

18 months

8–9.

12 months

10–11.

Not reported

12.

6 months

13–16.

Not reported

17.

12 months

18.

No follow-up

1.

12 months

2–3.

Not reported

4.

18 months

5.

Not reported

6.

2 months

  1. 6 months
  1. Not reported
  2. 12 months
  3. 6 months
1.

18 months

2–4.

Not reported

  1. 12 months
  2. Not reported
  1. 5 months
  2. Not reported
  3. 12 months

From: 8, HIGH-INTENSITY PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS

Cover of Depression
Depression: The Treatment and Management of Depression in Adults (Updated Edition).
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 90.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).
Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society; 2010.
Copyright © The British Psychological Society & The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2010.

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