Which factors affect the relationship between neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia and kernicterus or other adverse outcomes (neurodevelopmental, auditory)?

ReferenceReason for exclusion
Bertini G, Dani C, Tronchin M et al. Is breastfeeding really favoring early neonatal jaundice? Pediatrics 2001; 107:(3)E41.No analysis for confounding variables
Beutner D, Foerst A, Lang-Roth R et al. Risk factors for auditory neuropathy/auditory synaptopathy. ORL 2007; 69:(4)239–44.No adjustment for confounding variables
Bhutani VK and Johnson LH. Jaundice technologies: prediction of hyperbilirubinemia in term and near-term newborns. Journal of Perinatology 2001; 21 Suppl 1:S76-S82.Overview
Bhutani VK. Combining clinical risk factors with serum bilirubin levels to predict hyperbilirubinemia in newborns. Journal of Pediatrics 2005; 147:(1)123–4.Synopsis
Blackmon LR, Fanaroff AA, and Raju TNK. Research on prevention of bilirubin-induced brain injury and kernicterus: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development conference executive summary. Pediatrics 2004; 114:(1)229–33.Overview of jaundice research
Brites D, Fernandes A, Falcao AS et al. Biological risks for neurological abnormalities associated with hyperbilirubinemia. J Perinatol 0 AD; 29:(S1)S8-S13.Overview - Background
Cronin CM, Brown DR, and hdab-Barmada M. Risk factors associated with kernicterus in the newborn infant: importance of benzyl alcohol exposure. American Journal of Perinatology 1991; 8:(2)80–5.Benzyl alcohol as a risk factor for kernicterus
De Vries LS, Lary S, Whitelaw AG et al. Relationship of serum bilirubin levels and hearing impairment in newborn infants. Early Human Development 1987; 15:(5)269–77.Outcome not of interest to this guideline
Ding G, Zhang S, Yao D et al. An epidemiological survey on neonatal jaundice in China. Chinese Medical Journal 2001; 114:(4)344–7.No adjustment for confounding variables
Frishberg Y, Zelicovic I, Merlob P et al. Hyperbilirubnemia and influencing factors in term infants. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 1989; 25:(1)28–31.Confounders not controlled for
Gagnon AJ, Waghorn K, Jones MA et al. Indicators nurses employ in deciding to test for hyperbilirubinemia. JOGNN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 2001; 30:(6)626–33.Background
Gartner LM and Arias IM. Studies of prolonged neonatal jaundice in the breast-fed infant. Journal of Pediatrics 1966; 68:(1)54–66.No adjustment for confounders
Geiger AM, Petitti DB, and Yao JF. Rehospitalisation for neonatal jaundice: risk factors and outcomes. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2001; 15:(4)352–8.Risk factors for jaundice readmission – confounders not controlled for
Gourley GR. Another risk factor for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2005; 40:(3)388–9.Synospis
Grupp-Phelan J, Taylor JA, Liu LL et al. Early newborn hospital discharge and readmission for mild and severe jaundice. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1999; 153:(12)1283–8.Effect of early discharge on jaundice readmission rates
Guo X, Pu X, An T et al. Characteristics of brainstem auditory evoked potential of neonates with mild or moderate hyperbilirubinemia. Neural Regeneration Research 2007; 2:(11)660–4.No comparison group
Hall RT, Simon S, and Smith MT. Readmission of breastfed infants in the first 2 weeks of life. Journal of Perinatology 2000; 20:(7)432–7.Risk factors for readmission of breastfed babies
Harris MC, Bernbaum JC, Polin JR et al. Developmental follow-up of breastfed term and near-term infants with marked hyperbilirubinemia. Pediatrics 2001; 107:(5)1075–80.Developmental follow-up of babies with bilirubin > 451 micromol/litre
Huang MJ, Kua KE, Teng HC et al. Risk factors for severe hyperbilirubinemia in neonates. Pediatric Research 2004; 56:(5)682–9.Only breastfeeding and genetic risk factors considered
Iranpour R, Akbar MR, and Haghshenas I. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Neonates. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2003; 70:(11)855–7.G6PD deficiency as a risk factor for jaundice
Johnson L. Hyperbilirubinemia in the term infant: When to worry, when to treat. New York State Journal of Medicine 1991; 91:(11)483–9.Overview
Kaplan M, Bromiker R, Schimmel MS et al. Evaluation of discharge management in the prediction of hyperbilirubinemia: the Jerusalem experience. Journal of Pediatrics 2007; 150:(4)412–7.Effect of discharge management on readmission rates
Kaplan M, Herschel M, Hammerman C et al. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in African American males: the importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Journal of Pediatrics 2006; 149:(1)83–8.Study restricted to African-American males babies
Madlon-Kay DJ. The clinical significance of ABO blood group incompatibility. Archives of Family Medicine 1993; 2:(3)285–7.ABO incompatibility as a risk factor for jaundice
Maisels MJ and Kring E. Length of stay, jaundice, and hospital readmission. Pediatrics 1998; 101:(6)995–8.Risk factors for readmission for jaundice – confounders not controlled for
Nakamura H. Assessing the risk of kernicterus. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 1987; 54:(5)625–31.Unbound bilirubin as a risk factor for kernicterus
Ogun B, Serbetcioglu B, Duman N et al. Long-term outcome of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia: subjective and objective audiological measures. Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences 2003; 28:(6)507–13.Long-term sequelae of hyperbilirubinaemia
Olusanya BO, Akande AA, Emokpae A et al. Infants with severe neonatal jaundice in Lagos, Nigeria: Incidence, correlates and hearing screening outcomes. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2009; 14:(3)301–10.Effect of severe neonatal jaundice on hearing outcomes
Paul IM, Lehman EB, Hollenbeak CS et al. Preventable newborn readmissions since passage of the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act. Pediatrics 2006; 118:(6)2349–58.Predictors of readmission after hospital discharge
Paul IM, Phillips TA, Widome MD et al. Cost-effectiveness of postnatal home nursing visits for prevention of hospital care for jaundice and dehydration. Pediatrics 2004; 114:(4)1015–22.Not relevant to this quideline
Phuapradit W, Chaturachinda K, and Auntlamai S. Risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 1993; 76:(8)424–8.No regression analysis
Sales de Almeida F, Pialarissi PR, Monte AA et al. Otoacoustic emissions and ABR: Study in hyperbilirubinemic newborns. Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia 2002; 68:(6)851–7.Outcome not of interest to this guideline
Sarici SU, Serdar MA, Korkmaz A et al. Incidence, course, and prediction of hyperbilirubinemia in near-term and term newborns. Pediatrics 2004; 113:(4)775–80.Not adjustment for confounding variables
Setia S, Villaveces A, Dhillon P et al. Neonatal jaundice in Asian, white, and mixed-race infants. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2002; 156:(3)276–9.Ethnicity (at least one Asian parent) as a risk factor for jaundice
Shah VA and Cheo LY. Identifying risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia and early discharge for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient newborns in Singapore. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore 2007; 36:(12)1003–9.G6PD deficient babies only
Stiehm ER and Ryan J. Breast-milk jaundice. Report of eight cases and effect of breast feeding on incidence and severity of unexplained hyperbilirubinaemia. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1965; 109:212–6.Case-studies
Thoma J, Gerull G, and Mrowinski D. A long-term study of hearing in children following neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 1986; 243:(2)133.Non-comparative study
Tudehope D, Bayley G, Munro D et al. Breast feeding practices and severe hyperbilirubinaemia. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 1991; 27:(4)240–4.Link between breastfeeding and early onset jaundice
van de Bor M, Ens-Dokkum M, Schreuder AM et al. Hyperbilirubinemia in low birth weight infants and outcome at 5 years of age. Pediatrics 1992; 89:(3)359–64.Outcome, at 5 year, of low-birthweight babies with hyperbilirubinamia
van de Bor M, van Zeben-van der Aa TM, Verloove-Vanhorick SP et al. Hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age: Results of a national collaborative survey. Pediatrics 1989; 83:(6)915–20.Long term sequelae of hyperbilirubinaemia in preterm babies
Vohr BR. New approaches to assessing the risks of hyperbilirubinemia. Clinics in Perinatology 1990; 17:(2)293–306.Overview
Watchko JF. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia -- what are the risks? New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 354:(18)1947–9.Overview
Yaish HM, Niazi GA, Al S et al. Increased incidence of hyperbilirubinaemia in ‘unchallenged’ glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in term Saudi newborns. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 1991; 11:(3)259–66.No adjustment for confounding variables
Young-Lewis LE. Factors contributing to the readmission of previously healthy low-risk neonates for hyperbilirubinemia. (CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY) **1996; PH.D 146.PHd thesis

From: Appendix J, Excluded studies

Cover of Neonatal Jaundice
Neonatal Jaundice.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 98.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2010 May.
Copyright © 2010, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

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