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Future Research

With the exception of rates of cough, the hypothesis that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor(s) (ACEIs), angiotensin II receptor blocker(s)/antagonist(s) (ARBs), and direct renin inhibitors have clinically meaningful differences in long-term outcomes in individuals with essential hypertension is not strongly supported by the available evidence. Given the importance of these issues, it is notable how few large, long-term, head-to-head studies have been published.

Results

Our searches of the literature identified a total of 2,090 citations. Table 3 details the number of citations identified from each source.

Executive Summary

Almost 75 million American adults—approximately one-third—have hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age such that more than half of people 55 to 74 years old and approximately three-fourths of those age 75 years and older are affected. In addition to being the primary attributable risk factor for death throughout the world, hypertension results in substantial morbidity because of its impact on numerous target organs, including the brain, eyes, heart, arteries, and kidneys.

Introduction

Almost 75 million American adults—approximately one-third—have hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age such that more than half of people 55 to 74 years old and approximately three-fourths of those age 75 years and older are affected. In addition to being the primary attributable risk factor for death throughout the world, hypertension results in substantial morbidity because of its impact on numerous target organs, including the brain, eyes, heart, arteries, and kidneys.

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