Table 7Adverse events in trials of long-acting compared with short-acting opioids

Study Year
(Quality rating)
OpioidNauseaVomitingConstipationDrowsinessDizzinessConfusionWithdrawals
Caldwell 199934
(POOR)
Long-acting oxycodone15% (5/34)6% (2/34)71% (24/34)53% (18/34)12% (4/34)NR9% (3/34)
Short-acting oxycodone + acetaminophen38% (14/37)11% (4/37)54% (20/37)70% (26/37)24% (9/37)NR14% (5/37)
Hale 199936
(POOR)
Long-acting oxycodone15% (7/47)2% (1/47)38% (18/47)11% (5/47)13% (6/47)NR4% (2/47)
Immediate-release oxycodone26% (12/47)0% (0/47)36% (17/47)11% (5/47)9% (4/47)NR2% (1/47)
Salzman 199939
(POOR)
Long-acting oxycodone50% (15/30)20% (6/30)30% (9/30)27% (8/30)30% (9/30)3% (1/30)20% (6/30)
Short-acting oxycodone33% (9/27)4% (1/27)37% (10/27)37% (10/27)22% (6/27)0% (0/27)7% (2/27)
Hale 199733
(POOR)
Long-acting codeine31% (16/52)10% (5/52)19% (10/52)10% (5/52)17% (9/52)NR25% (13/52)
Short-acting codeine18% (9/51)2% (1/51)16% (8/51)4% (2/51)4% (2/51)NR8% (4/51)
Gostick 198935
(POOR)
Long-acting dihydrocodeineNRNR37.7% (23/61)NRNRNRNR
Short-acting dihydrocodeineNRNR34.4% (21/61)NRNRNRNR
Jamison 199837
(FAIR)
Long-acting morphine + short-acting oxycodone31%NR30%39%6%0%9% (1/11)
Short-acting oxycodone14%NR18%22%19%1.4%15% (2/13)
Lloyd 199238
(POOR)
Long-acting dihydrocodeineUnable to determineUnable to determineUnable to determineUnable to determineNRNR40% (17/43)
Dextropropoxyphene + paracetamolUnable to determineUnable to determineUnable to determineUnable to determineNRNR9% (4/43)

Abbreviation: NR, not reported.

From: Results

Cover of Drug Class Review: Long-Acting Opioid Analgesics
Drug Class Review: Long-Acting Opioid Analgesics: Final Update 6 Report [Internet].
Carson S, Thakurta S, Low A, et al.
Portland (OR): Oregon Health & Science University; 2011 Jul.
Copyright © 2011 by Oregon Health & Science University.

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