Randomised controlled trial (RCT)

A study to test a specific drug or other treatment in which people are randomly assigned to two (or more) groups, with one (the experimental group) receiving the treatment that is being tested and the other (the comparison or control group) receiving an alternative treatment, a placebo (dummy treatment) or no treatment. The two groups are followed up to compare differences in outcomes to see how effective the experimental treatment was. (Through randomisation, the groups should be similar in all aspects apart from the treatment they receive during the study.)