Jung et al., 2006

Study DescriptionInterventionInclusion/Exclusion
Criteria/Population
Baseline MeasuresOutcomes
Author:
Jung et al., 2006
Country:
South Korea
Practice setting:
Academic
Intervention setting:
Clinic
Enrollment period:
NR
Funding:
Korea Research Foundation Grant
Author industry relationship disclosures:
NR
Design:
Prospective case series
Intervention:
SIT (based on the virtual reality tangible interaction system, with three components: coordination ability measurement, social skill training, and sensory integration); 10 sessions, length NR
Assessments:
VCAA (a measuring program for visuomotor coordination ability, levels controlled by the therapist, breaking virtual balloons with a real stick, reaction accuracy, movement of the stick, and average reaction time), SST (social skills training) reaction time, measured at each of 10 sessions
Groups:
G1: SIT intervention
G2: healthy controls
Provider:
Therapist
Measure of treatment fidelity reported:
No
Co-interventions held stable during treatment:
NR
Concomitant therapies:
NR
N at enrollment:
G1: 12
G2: 20
N at follow-up:
G1: 11
G2: 20
Inclusion criteria:
G1:
  • Ages 5–6 years
  • Met DSM-IV criteria for autism
  • Recruited from out-patient unit at Children’s Hospital in Seoul
G2:
  • Unrelated healthy children
  • Recruited from a kindergarten belonging to a university in Seoul
Exclusion criteria:
  • See inclusion criteria
Age, range (years):
G1: 6
G2: 5–6
Mental age, mean IQ:
G1: 64
G2: NR
Gender, n (%):
Male:
G1: 10 (83.3)
G2: NR
Female:
G1: 2 (16.6)
G2: NR
Race/ethnicity:
NR
SES:
Maternal education: NR
Household income: NR
Diagnostic approach:
Referral
Diagnostic tool/method:
DSM-IV
Diagnostic category, n (%):
Autism:
G1: 12 (100)
PDD-NOS:
G1: 0
Aspergers:
G1: 0
Sensory:
VCAA reaction time, mean:
G1: NR*
VCAA reaction accuracy, mean:
G1: NR*
VCAA stick movement, mean:
G1: NR*
Social Skills:
SST reaction time, stopping balloon, mean:
G1: NR*
SST reaction time, moving balloon, mean:
G1: NR*
SST reaction time, reading mind, mean:
G1: NR
Sensory:
VCAA reaction time, mean:
G1: NR*
G2: NR*
G1/BL: P = NS
G1/G2: P < 0.01 (healthy children had lower reaction times)
VCAA reaction accuracy, mean:
G1: NR*
G2: NR*
G1/BL: P = NS
G1/G2: P = NS
VCAA average reaction accuracy by sound stimulus, range:
G1: 51.9–60.2
VCAA stick movement, mean:
G1: NR*
G2: NR*
G1/BL: P = NS
G1/G2: P < 0.01 (healthy children moved the stick more)
Social Skills:
SST reaction time, stopping balloon, mean ± SD:
G1: 21.1 ± 10.9
G2: 17.6 ± 3.1
G1/BL: P < 0.05 (reaction time decreased)
G1/G2: P = NS
SST reaction time, moving balloon, mean ± SD:
G1: 15.8 ± 5.1
G2: 13.8 ± 3.1
G1/BL: P = 0.08 (reaction time decreased)
G1/G2: P = NS
Other characteristics:
SMS index, mean:
G1: 73
G2: NR
SST reaction time, reading mind, mean ± SD:
G1: 19.3 ± 9.7
G2: 17.3 ± 4.8
G1/BL: P = NS
G1/G2: P = NS
Harms:
NR
Modifiers:
Boredom; authors report increased preference for unrepeated stimuli such as running as sessions progressed

Comments:

*

Data only illustrated graphically

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables

Cover of Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 26.
Warren Z, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Stone W, et al.

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