Tjus et al., 2001

Study DescriptionInterventionInclusion/Exclusion
Criteria/Population
Baseline MeasuresOutcomes
Author:
Tjus et al., 2001
Country:
Sweden
Practice setting:
Academic
Intervention setting:
School
Enrollment period:
NR
Funding:
Swedish Council of Social Research, Queen Silvia’s Jubilee Fund for Research on Children and Handicaps
Author industry relationship disclosures:
NR
Design:
Prospective case series
Intervention:
Swedish version of the Alpha program (a multimedia program for increasing literacy skills and language learning through voice, animation, video, and sign language feedback); 25.6 ± 7.5 sessions lasting 32.0 ± 12.6 minutes over 16.9 ± 5.7 weeks
Assessments:
Videotaped sessions of children and their teachers evaluated at start and end of training to assess 15 variables of verbal and non-verbal behavior; observations coded by one of the authors. All interviews and observations conducted by a psychologist who was not blind to group assignment.
Groups:
G1: autism
Provider:
Four teachers
Measure of treatment fidelity reported:
No
Co-interventions held stable during treatment:
NR
Concomitant therapies: NR
N at enrollment:
G1: 11
N at follow-up:
G1: 11
Inclusion criteria:
  • Confirmed diagnosis of autism according to DSM-III-R
Exclusion criteria:
  • See inclusion criteria
Age, months ± SD:
G1: 112 ± 28
Mental age (CPM), months ± SD:
G1: 81 ± 25
Gender, n:
Male: 9
Female: 2
Race/ethnicity:
NR
SES:
NR
Diagnostic approach:
Referral
Diagnostic tool/method:
DSM-III-R
Diagnostic category, n (%):
Autism: 11 (100)
Other characteristics:
RDLS language age, months ± SD:
57 ± 22
CARS score, median (range):
42 (21.5–57)
Social skills:
Enjoyment, median frequency (range):
G1: 4 (0–15)
Communication/language:
Verbal expressions, median frequency (range):
G1: 29 (4–44)
Problem behavior: Ignores, median frequency (range):
G1: 1 (0–10)
Off task, median frequency (range):
G1: 2 (0–26)
Protests, median frequency (range):
G1: 0 (0–10)
Adaptive behavior:
Complies, median frequency (range):
G1: 9 (4–21)
Seeks help, median frequency (range):
G1: 0 (0–4)
Social skills:
Enjoyment, median frequency (range):
G1: 10 (0–20),
G1/BL: P < 0.05
Communication/language:
Verbal expressions, median frequency (range):
G1: 37 (4–49)
G1/BL: P < 0.02
Problem behavior:
Ignores, median frequency (range):
G1: 1 (0–7)
G1/BL: P = NS
Off task, median frequency (range):
G1: 6 (2–18)
G1/BL: P = NS
Protests, median frequency (range):
G1: 0 (0–2)
G1/BL: P = NS
Adaptive behavior:
Complies, median frequency (range):
G1: 7 (3–20)
G1/BL: P = NS
Seeks help, median frequency (range):
G1: 2 (0–9)
G1/BL: P < 0.05
Harms:
NR
Modifiers:
Teacher recasts correlated with pre- and post-treatment verbal expressions (P < 0.05)

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables

Cover of Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 26.
Warren Z, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Stone W, et al.

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