Escalona et al., 2002

Study DescriptionInterventionInclusion/Exclusion
Criteria/Population
Baseline MeasuresOutcomes
Author:
Escalona et al., 2002
Country:
US
Practice setting:
Academic
Intervention setting:
Clinic
Enrollment period:
NR
Funding:
NIH, Johnson & Johnson
Author industry relationship disclosures:
NR
Design:
RCT
Intervention:
Imitation vs. contingently responsive
Four phases, each 3 minutes long:
  • Phase 1: still face
  • Phase 2: unfamiliar adult imitative or contingently responsive to behaviors of child
  • Phase 3: still face
  • Phase 4: spontaneous play interaction
Assessments:
PEP-R, 3-minute videotaped sessions
Groups:
G1: imitation
G2: contingently responsive
Provider:
NR
Measure of treatment fidelity reported:
No
Co-interventions held stable during treatment:
NR
Concomitant therapies:
NR
N at enrollment:
G1: 10
G2: 10
N at follow-up:
G1: 10
G2: 10
Inclusion criteria:
  • Diagnosed with autism
  • Nonverbal behavior (unspecified)
Exclusion criteria:
  • See inclusion criteria
Age, years (range):
Total: NR (3–7)
Female: 4.8 (NR)
Male: 5.5 (NR)
Mental age:
PEP-R cognitive performance, mean developmental level:
G1: 19
G2: 17
G1/G2: P = NS
Gender, n :
Male: 12
Female: 8
Race/ethnicity, %:
White: 41
Hispanic: 27
Black: 23
Other ethnic group: 9
SES:
Maternal education: NR
Household income: NR
Hollingshead Index: 2.7
Diagnostic approach:
Referral
Diagnostic tool/method:
DSM-IV (“children diagnosed with autism by the age of 3 by the school’s experienced clinical psychologist”)
Diagnostic category, n (%):
Autism: 20 (100)
Other characteristics:
NR
Overall ratings:
CARS score, mean:
G1: 38
G2: 37
G1/G2: P = NS
Social skills:
Time spent looking at adult, %:
G1: 7.9
G2: 2.6
Time spent more than 5 feet from adult, %:
G1: 91.8
G2: 94.6
Time touching adult with a smooth, light touch (“socially positive way”), %:
G1: 0.1
G2: 0
Communication/language:
Time spent in silence, %:
G1: 85.3
G2: 84.7
Repetitive behavior:
Time spend showing motor sterotypies, %:
G1: 0.9
G2: 0.6
Motor skills:
Time spent in motor activity (running/walking/jumping), %:
G1: 6.2
G2: 4.4
PEP-R cognitive verbal score, mean developmental level:
G1: 17
G2: 14
G1/G2: P = NS
Social skills:
Time spent looking at adult, phase 3, %:
G1: 6.0
G2: 5.1
G1/BL: P = NS
G2/BL: P < 0.05
G1/G2: P = NS
Time spent more than 5 feet from adult, phase 3, %:
G1: 69.6
G2: 68.6
G1/BL: P < 0.01
G2/BL: P < 0.01
G1/G2: P = NS
Time touching adult with a smooth, light touch (“socially positive way”), phase 3, %:
G1: 0.9
G2: 0.2
G1/BL: P < 0.05
G2/BL: P = NS
G1/G2: P = NS
Communication/language:
Time spent in silence, phase 3, %:
G1: 81.2
G2: 77.9
G1/BL: P = NS
G2/BL: P < 0.05
G1/G2: P = NS
Repetitive behavior:
Time spend showing motor sterotypies, phase 3, %:
G1: 0.9
G2: 1.1
G1/BL: P = NS
G2/BL: P < 0.05
G1/G2: P = NS
Motor skills:
Time spent in motor activity (running/walking/jumping), phase 3, %:
G1: 2.1
G2: 4.3
G1/BL: P = NS
G2/BL: P = NS
G1/G2: P < 0.01
Harms:
NR
Modifiers:
NR

Comments:

*

Entries in baseline column are for phase 1.

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables

Cover of Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 26.
Warren Z, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Stone W, et al.

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