Relevant questions: Interventions for carers

Chapter9
Topic GroupTG4
Sub-section leadBW
Search strategyDatabases: AMED, BNI, CINAHL, COCHRANE, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, Age Info, Age Line, ASSIA, Care Data, HMIC, PAIS International, SIGLE, Social Services Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, SSCI

New search: All RCTs since existing reviews
Existing reviews
  • Updated
Brodaty et al, 2003; Sorenson et al, 2002,
  • Not updated
Cooke et al, 2001, Pusey & Richards, 2001, Acton & Kang, 2001, Acton et al, 2002, Shultz et al, 2002, Peacock et al, 2003, Slattum & Johnson, 2004, Zaret et al (US) from 1990’s
Question specific search filterSearch: DementiaInterventions for Carers
Interface: OVIDDatabases: AMED, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PSYCINFO
Filters: RCT / OSDate Range: All literature to date [16.09.05]
Results:
Database:Without Filter:With Filter:Dropped Duplicates on OVID:
AMED2043430
BNI196106
CINAHL2649660163
EMBASE3506944317
MEDLINE316884515
PSYCINFO2932383255
Combined Sets:126552876786
Unique records:2090 [RCT 1336/ OS 754]
The search strategy for searching the above named databases is detailed as follows:
#Search History
1exp alzheimer disease/ or exp alzheimer vaccines/ or exp alzheimers disease/
2exp aphasia primary progressive/ or exp primary progressive aphasia/
3exp binswanger encephalopathy/
4exp cadasil/
5exp corticobasal degeneration/
6exp delirium dementia amnestic cognitive disorders/
7exp dementia multi infarct/
8exp dementia presenile/
9exp dementia senile/
10exp diffuse lewy body disease/ or exp lewy body disease/ or exp lewy body/
11exp frontotemporal dementia/
12exp kluver bucy syndrome/
13exp “mixed depression and dementia”/
14exp multiinfarct dementia/
15exp pick disease of the brain/ or exp pick presenile dementia/ or exp presenile dementia/
16exp senile dementia/
17exp vascular dementia/
18alzheim$.mp.
19binswanger$.mp.
20cadasil.mp.
21cerad.tw.
22dement$.mp.
23(ftld or ftd$).tw.
24((fronto?temporal or cortico?basal or fronto temporal or cortico basal or frontal lobe) adj5 (degenerat$4 or dysfunction$)).tw.
25(kluver adj5 (bucy or busy)).mp.
26((lew$2 adj5 bod$3) or dlbd).mp.
27(lobar adj5 atroph$3 adj5 (brain or cerebr$2)).tw.
28(mesulam adj5 syndrome$).tw.
29(pick$2 adj5 (disease$1 or complex)).mp.
30posterior cortic$ atroph$.tw.
31((primary or progressive) adj5 aphasi$).tw.
32sdat.tw.
33sivd.tw.
34((subcortic$3 or sub?cortic$3) adj5 (encephalopath$3 or leukoencephalopath$3)).tw.
35(mesulam m or mesulam m m or mesulam mm).au.
36(dement$ or alzheim).jw.
37or/1–36
38caregiver/ or caregivers/
39(care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$))).mp.
40(((care or caring) adj5 (alzheimer$ or dementia$ or dlbd or lewy body disease or family or families or father$ or friend$ or husband$ or layperson$ or mother$ or nurs$ or people or person$ or professional$ or sibling$ or social worker$ or relative$ or spous$ or staff$ or vad or volunteer$ or wife)) or ((provision or provid$) adj5 care)).tw.
41or/38–40
42exp cognitive therapy/ or exp cognitive behavior therapy/ or exp cognitive techniques/
43exp psychotherapy rational emotive/ or exp rational emotive behavior therapy/
44exp individualized instruction/
45((cognit$ and behav$) or (cognit$ and (intervention$ or therap$ or training or treat$)) or (desensiti$ and psycholog$) or (implosive adj5 therap$) or cbt).tw.
46(attribution$ or reattribution).tw.
47exp self care/ or exp self help techniques/ or exp self care skills/
48(self adj5 (instruct$ or management)).tw.
49(ret or (rational and emotive$)).tw.
50exp “bibliotherapy (iowa nic)”/ or exp bibliotherapy/
51(bibliotherap$ or (book$1 adj3 therap$)).tw.
52or/42–51
53exp patient education/ or explode psychoeducation/
54psychoeducat$.mp. or (patient.mp. and ((education or teaching or instruction or information or knowledge).mp. or exp knowledge/)) or (educational and (program$ or intervention$)).mp.
55or/53–54
56exp counseling/ or “counseling (IOWA)”/ or “counseling service (SABA HHCC)”/
57counsel$.mp.
58((client cent$ or nondirective or non directive) adj therap$).tw.
59(guidance adj5 (care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$)) or (((care or caring) adj5 (family or families or father$ or friend$ or husband$ or layperson$ or mother$ or nurs$ or people or person$ or professional$ or sibling$ or social worker$ or relative$ or spous$ or staff$ or vad or volunteer$ or wife)) or ((provision or provid$) adj5 care)))).tw.
60or/56–59
61exp self-help groups/ or support group/ or support groups/
62social support/ or exp support, psychosocial/
63(((selfhelp or self help or social or support$ or therap$) adj5 (club$ or group$ or meeting$)) or 12 step$ or twelve step$ or (support$ adj2 (social or psychosocial$))).tw.
64or/61–63
65respite care/
66respite.tw.
67or/65–66
68relaxation/ or exp relaxation techniques/ or exp relaxation therapy/ or relaxation training/ or “simple relaxation therapy (iowa nic)”/
69relax$.mp.
70or/68–69
71mental stress/ or exp stress/ or stress management/ or exp stress, psychological/
72(burnout or burn out or skill$ or stress$ or strain$1 or (skill adj (build$ or development or management)) or ((staff or professional) adj development)).mp.
73((care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$))) adj skill$).tw.
74or/71–73
75exp sleep disorder/ or exp sleep disorders/
76(dyssomnia$ or insomnia$ or parasomnia$ or (sleep$ adj3 (disorder$ or disturbance$ or dysfunction$ or problem$)) or (sub?wakefullness adj syndrome$) or ((long or short) adj sleeper syndrome)).tw.
77or/75–76
78or/52,55,60,64,67,70,74,77
79exp employment/ and (advice or advis$ or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$).tw.
80occupational guidance/
81((employment$ or employee$ or job$ or career$ or occupation$) adj5 (advis$ or advice or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$)).tw.
82or/79–81
83social welfare/ or welfare/ or exp “welfare services (government)”/
84(((benefit$ or welfare) adj (advice or advis$ or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$)) or (social adj (support or welfare))).tw.
85or/83–84
86exp financial management/ or exp financial support/ or finance/
87exp income/ or investments/ or pension/ or retirement/
88exp employee benefits/ or “employee assistance programs”/ or occupational health services/
89(financ$ adj5 (advice or advis$ or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$)).tw.
90or/86–89
91((discriminat$ or equal opportunit$ or equality or equity or ethnolog$ or feminism or gender or human rights or injustice$ or justice$ or moral or morality or prejudice$ or sexism or sexist) and (career$ or educat$ or employ$ or ethnic$ or free time or government or health care policy or healthcare policy or health policy or hobby or hobbies or holiday$ or interview$ or job$ or leisure$ or minority group$ or national health program$ or organi?ational or personnel or race or racial or racism or recreation$ or relaxation or (sex adj (factor$ or issue$)) or unemploy$ or vacation$ or work$)).mp.
92caregiver/lj or caregivers/lj or law/ or laws/
93(attorney$ or ((civil or employee) adj rights) or jurisprudence or lawyer$ or law suit or legal$ or medicolegal or wills).mp.
94or/92–93
95or/82,85,90–91,94
96exp clinical trials/ or exp clinical trial/ or exp controlled clinical trials/
97exp crossover procedure/ or exp cross over studies/ or exp crossover design/
98exp double blind procedure/ or exp double blind method/ or exp double blind studies/ or exp single blind procedure/ or exp single blind method/ or exp single blind studies/
99exp random allocation/ or exp randomization/ or exp random assignment/ or exp random sample/ or exp random sampling/
100exp randomized controlled trials/ or exp randomized controlled trial/
101(clinical adj2 trial$).tw.
102(cross?over or cross over).tw.
103(((single$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj5 (blind$ or mask$ or dummy)) or (singleblind$ or doubleblind$ or trebleblind$)).tw.
104(placebo$ or random$).mp.
105(clinical trial$ or random$).pt. or (random$ or clinical control trial).sd.
106(clinical trial or double blind design or single blind design).fc.
107animals/ not (animals/ and human$.mp.)
108animal$/ not (animal$/ and human$/)
109(animal not (animal and human)).po.
110(or/96–106) not (or/107–109)
111case study/
112abstract report/ or letter/
113case report.tw.
114letter.pt.
115historical article.pt.
116review of reported cases.pt.
117review, multicase.pt.
118110 not (or/111–117)
119clinical study/ or cohort analysis/ or correlational studies/ or cross sectional studies/ or epidemiologic studies/ or family study/ or longitudinal study/ or nonconcurrent prospective studies/ or prospective studies/ or prospective study/ or retrospective study/
120exp case control studies/ or exp case control studies/ or exp cohort studies/
121(cohort adj (study or studies)).mp.
122((cohort or cross sectional or epidemiologic$ or follow?up or follow up or observational) adj (study or studies)).tw.
123(case control or cohort analy$ or cross sectional or longitudinal or retrospective).tw.
124or/119–123
125and/37,41,78,118
126and/37,41,95,124
127((decreas$ or intervention$ or reduc$ or therap$ or treat$) and burden).mp. and 41 and 37
128burden$.it,tm. and (decreas$ or intervention$ or reduc$ or therap$ or treat$).tw. and 37 and 41
129125 or ((or/127–128) and 118)
130126 or ((or/127–128) and 124)
131((care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$))) adj2 intervention$).tw.
13237 and (131 or ((care or caring) adj2 intervention$).tw.)
133(132 and 118) not 129
134(132 and 124) not 130
135audiovisual aids/ or audiovisual equipment/ or audiovisuals/ or educational audiovisual aids/
136book/ or books/
137caregiver/ed or caregivers/ed or family/ed
138comprehension/
139counseling/ or educational counseling/ or patient counseling/
140education program/ or educational programs/
141education/
142health education/
143health promotion/
144information/
145knowledge attitudes, practice/
146manual communication/ or manuals/
147pamphlets/
148patient education/ or client education/
149patient guidance/
150patient information/
151exp psychoeducation/
152teaching/
153telephone/ or telephone systems/
154exp video recording/ or exp videorecording/ or exp videotapes/
155consumer$ health inform$.tw.
156(doctor patient$ communic$ or patient$ doctor communic$).tw.
157((educational adj1 method$) or (educational and (program$ or intervention$))).tw.
158(nurse$ patient$ communic$ or patient nurse communic$).tw.
159(professional$ patient$ communic$ or patient$ professional$ communic$).tw.
160(psychoeducat$ or psycho educat$).tw.
161((written or printed or oral) adj1 information).tw.
162((care giver$ or care giver$ or caregiver$ or carer$ or care manager$ or care worker$ or client$ or consumer$ or family or families or patient$ or inpatient$ or outpatient$ or service user$) adj5 (comprehen$ or counsel$ or education or information or knowledge or support or teach$ or understand$ or advice or book$ or leaflet$ or manual$ or pack$ or tape$ or telephone$ or video$ or material$ or intervention$ or program$ or meeting or resource$ or session or strateg$ or work shop$ or workshop$ or visit$)).tw.
163or/135–162
164and/37,118,163
165exp education/ or exp teaching/
166(book$ or comprehen$ or educat$ or information or knowledge or leaflet$ or manual$ or meeting$ or pack$ or resource$ or session$ or strateg$ or support$ or tape$ or teach$ or telephone or understand$ or video$ or work shop$ or workshop$).tw.
167or/165–166
168(and/37,41,118,167) not 164
169or/129,133,168
170or/130,134
171remove duplicates from 169
172remove duplicates from 170
#Search History
1exp alzheimer disease/ or exp alzheimer vaccines/ or exp alzheimers disease/
2exp aphasia primary progressive/ or exp primary progressive aphasia/
3exp binswanger encephalopathy/
4exp cadasil/
5exp corticobasal degeneration/
6exp delirium dementia amnestic cognitive disorders/
7exp dementia multi infarct/
8exp dementia presenile/
9exp dementia senile/
10exp diffuse lewy body disease/ or exp lewy body disease/ or exp lewy body/
11exp frontotemporal dementia/
12exp kluver bucy syndrome/
13exp “mixed depression and dementia”/
14exp multiinfarct dementia/
15exp pick disease of the brain/ or exp pick presenile dementia/ or exp presenile dementia/
16exp senile dementia/
17exp vascular dementia/
18alzheim$.mp.
19binswanger$.mp.
20cadasil.mp.
21cerad.tw.
22dement$.mp.
23(ftld or ftd$).tw.
24((fronto?temporal or cortico?basal or fronto temporal or cortico basal or frontal lobe) adj5 (degenerat$4 or dysfunction$)).tw.
25(kluver adj5 (bucy or busy)).mp.
26((lew$2 adj5 bod$3) or dlbd).mp.
27(lobar adj5 atroph$3 adj5 (brain or cerebr$2)).tw.
28(mesulam adj5 syndrome$).tw.
29(pick$2 adj5 (disease$1 or complex)).mp.
30posterior cortic$ atroph$.tw.
31((primary or progressive) adj5 aphasi$).tw.
32sdat.tw.
33sivd.tw.
34((subcortic$3 or sub?cortic$3) adj5 (encephalopath$3 or leukoencephalopath$3)).tw.
35(mesulam m or mesulam m m or mesulam mm).au.
36(dement$ or alzheim).jw.
37or/1–36
38caregiver/ or caregivers/
39(care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$))).mp.
40(((care or caring) adj5 (alzheimer$ or dementia$ or dlbd or lewy body disease or family or families or father$ or friend$ or husband$ or layperson$ or mother$ or nurs$ or people or person$ or professional$ or sibling$ or social worker$ or relative$ or spous$ or staff$ or vad or volunteer$ or wife)) or ((provision or provid$) adj5 care)).tw.
41or/38–40
42exp cognitive therapy/ or exp cognitive behavior therapy/ or exp cognitive techniques/
43exp psychotherapy rational emotive/ or exp rational emotive behavior therapy/
44exp individualized instruction/
45((cognit$ and behav$) or (cognit$ and (intervention$ or therap$ or training or treat$)) or (desensiti$ and psycholog$) or (implosive adj5 therap$) or cbt).tw.
46(attribution$ or reattribution).tw.
47exp self care/ or exp self help techniques/ or exp self care skills/
48(self adj5 (instruct$ or management)).tw.
49(ret or (rational and emotive$)).tw.
50exp “bibliotherapy (iowa nic)”/ or exp bibliotherapy/
51(bibliotherap$ or (book$1 adj3 therap$)).tw.
52or/42–51
53exp patient education/ or explode psychoeducation/
54psychoeducat$.mp. or (patient.mp. and ((education or teaching or instruction or information or knowledge).mp. or exp knowledge/)) or (educational and (program$ or intervention$)).mp.
55or/53–54
56exp counseling/ or “counseling (IOWA)”/ or “counseling service (SABA HHCC)”/
57counsel$.mp.
58((client cent$ or nondirective or non directive) adj therap$).tw.
59(guidance adj5 (care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$)) or (((care or caring) adj5 (family or families or father$ or friend$ or husband$ or layperson$ or mother$ or nurs$ or people or person$ or professional$ or sibling$ or social worker$ or relative$ or spous$ or staff$ or vad or volunteer$ or wife)) or ((provision or provid$) adj5 care)))).tw.
60or/56–59
61exp self-help groups/ or support group/ or support groups/
62social support/ or exp support, psychosocial/
63(((selfhelp or self help or social or support$ or therap$) adj5 (club$ or group$ or meeting$)) or 12 step$ or twelve step$ or (support$ adj2 (social or psychosocial$))).tw.
64or/61–63
65respite care/
66respite.tw.
67or/65–66
68relaxation/ or exp relaxation techniques/ or exp relaxation therapy/ or relaxation training/ or "simple relaxation therapy (iowa nic)"/
69relax$.mp.
70or/68–69
71mental stress/ or exp stress/ or stress management/ or exp stress, psychological/
72(burnout or burn out or skill$ or stress$ or strain$1 or (skill adj (build$ or development or management)) or ((staff or professional) adj development)).mp.
73((care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$))) adj skill$).tw.
74or/71–73
75exp sleep disorder/ or exp sleep disorders/
76(dyssomnia$ or insomnia$ or parasomnia$ or (sleep$ adj3 (disorder$ or disturbance$ or dysfunction$ or problem$)) or (sub?wakefullness adj syndrome$) or ((long or short) adj sleeper syndrome)).tw.
77or/75–76
78or/52,55,60,64,67,70,74,77
79exp employment/ and (advice or advis$ or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$).tw.
80occupational guidance/
81((employment$ or employee$ or job$ or career$ or occupation$) adj5 (advis$ or advice or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$)).tw.
82or/79–81
83social welfare/ or welfare/ or exp "welfare services (government)"/
84(((benefit$ or welfare) adj (advice or advis$ or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$)) or (social adj (support or welfare))).tw.
85or/83–84
86exp financial management/ or exp financial support/ or finance/
87exp income/ or investments/ or pension/ or retirement/
88exp employee benefits/ or "employee assistance programs"/ or occupational health services/
89(financ$ adj5 (advice or advis$ or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$)).tw.
90or/86–89
91((discriminat$ or equal opportunit$ or equality or equity or feminism or gender or human rights or injustice$ or justice$ or moral or morality or prejudice$ or sexism or sexist) and (career$ or educat$ or employ$ or ethnic$ or ethnolog$ or free time or government or health care policy or healthcare policy or health policy or hobby or hobbies or holiday$ or interview$ or job$ or leisure$ or minority group$ or national health program$ or organi?ational or personnel or race or racial or racism or recreation$ or relaxation or (sex adj (factor$ or issue$)) or unemploy$ or vacation$ or work$)).mp.
92caregiver/lj or caregivers/lj or law/ or laws/
93(attorney$ or ((civil or employee) adj rights) or jurisprudence or lawyer$ or law suit or legal$ or medicolegal or wills).mp.
94or/92–93
95or/82,85,90–91,94
96exp clinical trials/ or exp clinical trial/ or exp controlled clinical trials/
97exp crossover procedure/ or exp cross over studies/ or exp crossover design/
98exp double blind procedure/ or exp double blind method/ or exp double blind studies/ or exp single blind procedure/ or exp single blind method/ or exp single blind studies/
99exp random allocation/ or exp randomization/ or exp random assignment/ or exp random sample/ or exp random sampling/
100exp randomized controlled trials/ or exp randomized controlled trial/
101(clinical adj2 trial$).tw.
102(cross?over or cross over).tw.
103(((single$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj5 (blind$ or mask$ or dummy)) or (singleblind$ or doubleblind$ or trebleblind$)).tw.
104(placebo$ or random$).mp.
105(clinical trial$ or random$).pt. or (random$ or clinical control trial).sd.
106(clinical trial or double blind design or single blind design).fc.
107animals/ not (animals/ and human$.mp.)
108animal$/ not (animal$/ and human$/)
109(animal not (animal and human)).po.
110(or/96–106) not (or/107–109)
111case study/
112abstract report/ or letter/
113case report.tw.
114letter.pt.
115historical article.pt.
116review of reported cases.pt.
117review, multicase.pt.
118110 not (or/111–117)
119clinical study/ or cohort analysis/ or correlational studies/ or cross sectional studies/ or epidemiologic studies/ or family study/ or longitudinal study/ or nonconcurrent prospective studies/ or prospective studies/ or prospective study/ or retrospective study/
120exp case control studies/ or exp case control studies/ or exp cohort studies/
121(cohort adj (study or studies)).mp.
122((cohort or cross sectional or epidemiologic$ or follow?up or follow up or observational) adj (study or studies)).tw.
123(case control or cohort analy$ or cross sectional or longitudinal or retrospective).tw.
124or/119–123
125and/37,41,78,118
126and/37,41,95,124
127((decreas$ or intervention$ or reduc$ or therap$ or treat$) and burden).mp. and 41 and 37
128burden$.it,tm. and (decreas$ or intervention$ or reduc$ or therap$ or treat$).tw. and 37 and 41
129125 or ((or/127–128) and 118)
130126 or ((or/127–128) and 124)
131((care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$))) adj2 intervention$).tw.
13237 and (131 or ((care or caring) adj2 intervention$).tw.)
133(132 and 118) not 129
134(132 and 124) not 130
135audiovisual aids/ or audiovisual equipment/ or audiovisuals/ or educational audiovisual aids/
136book/ or books/
137caregiver/ed or caregivers/ed or family/ed
138comprehension/
139counseling/ or educational counseling/ or patient counseling/
140education program/ or educational programs/
141education/
142health education/
143health promotion/
144information/
145knowledge attitudes, practice/
146manual communication/ or manuals/
147pamphlets/
148patient education/ or client education/
149patient guidance/
150patient information/
151exp psychoeducation/
152teaching/
153telephone/ or telephone systems/
154exp video recording/ or exp videorecording/ or exp videotapes/
155consumer$ health inform$.tw.
156(doctor patient$ communic$ or patient$ doctor communic$).tw.
157((educational adj1 method$) or (educational and (program$ or intervention$))).tw.
158(nurse$ patient$ communic$ or patient nurse communic$).tw.
159(professional$ patient$ communic$ or patient$ professional$ communic$).tw.
160(psychoeducat$ or psycho educat$).tw.
161((written or printed or oral) adj1 information).tw.
162((care giver$ or care giver$ or caregiver$ or carer$ or care manager$ or care worker$ or client$ or consumer$ or family or families or patient$ or inpatient$ or outpatient$ or service user$) adj5 (comprehen$ or counsel$ or education or information or knowledge or support or teach$ or understand$ or advice or book$ or leaflet$ or manual$ or pack$ or tape$ or telephone$ or video$ or material$ or intervention$ or program$ or meeting or resource$ or session or strateg$ or work shop$ or workshop$ or visit$)).tw.
163or/135–162
164and/37,118,163
165exp education/ or exp teaching/
166(book$ or comprehen$ or educat$ or information or knowledge or leaflet$ or manual$ or meeting$ or pack$ or resource$ or session$ or strateg$ or support$ or tape$ or teach$ or telephone or understand$ or video$ or work shop$ or workshop$).tw.
167or/165–166
168(and/37,41,118,167) not 164
169or/129,133,168
170or/130,134
171remove duplicates from 169
172remove duplicates from 170
Search: Dementia – Interventionsn for Carers
Interface: Cochrane WileyDatabase: CENTRAL.
Limits: NoneDate Information Added: All literature to date [16.09.05]
# Records: 297
The search strategy for searching the above named database is detailed as follows:
ID#Search
Dementia stem
#1 MeSH descriptor Alzheimer Disease, this term only in MeSH products
#2 MeSH descriptor Aphasia, Primary Progressive, this term only in MeSH products
#3 MeSH descriptor Dementia, Vascular explode all trees in MeSH products
#4 MeSH descriptor Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders, this term only in MeSH products
#5 MeSH descriptor Lewy Body Disease, this term only in MeSH products
#6 MeSH descriptor Kluver-Bucy Syndrome, this term only in MeSH products
#7 MeSH descriptor Pick Disease of the Brain, this term only in MeSH products
#8 alzheim* in Record Title or alzheim* in Abstract or alzheim* in Keywords in all products
#9 binswanger* in Record Title or binswanger* in Abstract or binswanger* in Keywords in all products
#10 cadasil in Record Title or cadasil in Abstract or cadasil in Keywords in all products
#11 cerad in Record Title or cerad in Abstract or cerad in Keywords in all products
#12 dement* in Record Title or dement* in Abstract or dement* in Keywords in all products
#13 ftld or ftd* in Record Title or ftld or ftd* in Abstract in all products
#14 (fronto?temporal or cortico?basal or fronto temporal or cortico basal or frontal lobe) in Record Title or (fronto?temporal or cortico?basal or fronto temporal or cortico basal or frontal lobe) in Abstract in all products
#15 kluver near (bucy or busy) in Record Title or kluver near (bucy or busy) in Abstract in all products
#16 (lew* near bod*) or dlbd in Record Title or (lew* near bod*) or dlbd in Abstract or (lew* near bod*) or dlbd in Keywords in all products
#17 lobar near atroph* near (brain or cerebr*) in Record Title or lobar near atroph* near (brain or cerebr*) in Abstract in all products
#18 mesulam near syndrome* in Record Title or mesulam near syndrome* in Abstract in all products
#19 pick* near (disease* or complex) in Record Title or pick* near (disease* or complex) in Abstract or pick* near (disease* or complex) in Keywords in all products
#20posterior cortic* atroph* in Record Title or posterior cortic* atroph* in Abstract in all products
#21 (primary or progressive) near aphasi* in Record Title or (primary or progressive) near aphasi* in Abstract in all products
#22 sdat in Record Title or sdat in Abstract in all products
#23 sivd in Record Title or sivd in Abstract in all products
#24 (subcortic* or sub?cortic*) near (encephalopath* or leukoencephalopath*) in Record Title or (subcortic* or sub?cortic*) near (encephalopath* or leukoencephalopath*) in Abstract in all products
#25 mesulam m in Author in all products
#26 dement* or alzheim* in Source in all products
#27 (#1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10)
#28 (#11 OR #12 OR #13 OR #14 OR #15 OR #16 OR #17 OR #18 OR #19 OR #20)
#29 (#21 OR #22 OR #23 OR #24 OR #25 OR #26)
#30 (#27 OR #28 OR #29)
Caregivers
#31 MeSH descriptor Caregivers explode all trees in MeSH products
#32 care?giver* or care giver* or carer* or care?manager* or care?worker* or (care near (manager* or worker*)) in Record Title or care?giver* or care giver* or carer* or care?manager* or care?worker* or (care near (manager* or worker*)) in Abstract or care?giver* or care giver* or carer* or care?manager* or care?worker* or (care near (manager* or worker*)) in Keywords in all products
#33 (care or caring) near (alzheimer* or dementia* or dlbd or lewy body disease or family or families or father* or friend* or husband* or layperson* or mother* or people or person* or sibling* or social worker* or relative* or spous* or vad or volunteer* or wife) in Record Title or (care or caring) near (alzheimer* or dementia* or dlbd or lewy body disease or family or families or father* or friend* or husband* or layperson* or mother* or nurs* or people or person* or sibling* or social worker* or relative* or spous* or vad or volunteer* or wife) in Abstract or (care or caring) near (alzheimer* or dementia* or dlbd or lewy body disease or family or families or father* or friend* or husband* or layperson* or mother* or people or person* or professional* or sibling* or social worker* or relative* or spous* or staff* or vad or volunteer* or wife) in Keywords in all products
#34 (provision or provid*) near care in Record Title or (provision or provid*) near care in Abstract in all products
#35 (care or caring) near intervention* in Record Title or (care or caring) near intervention* in Abstract in all products
#36 (#31 OR #32 OR #33 OR #34 OR #35)
Combined
#37 (#30 AND #36)
IDSearchHits
#1166HMeSH descriptor Alzheimer Disease, this term only in MeSH products1199
#2167HMeSH descriptor Aphasia, Primary Progressive, this term only in MeSH products2
#3168HMeSH descriptor Dementia, Vascular explode all trees in MeSH products183
#4169HMeSH descriptor Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders, this term only in MeSH products106
#5170HMeSH descriptor Lewy Body Disease, this term only in MeSH products18
#6171HMeSH descriptor Kluver-Bucy Syndrome, this term only in MeSH products0
#7172HMeSH descriptor Pick Disease of the Brain, this term only in MeSH products1
#8173Halzheim* in Record Title or alzheim* in Abstract or alzheim* in Keywords in all products2687
#9174Hbinswanger* in Record Title or binswanger* in Abstract or binswanger* in Keywords in all products1
#10175Hcadasil in Record Title or cadasil in Abstract or cadasil in Keywords in all products8
#11176Hcerad in Record Title or cerad in Abstract or cerad in Keywords in all products6
#12177Hdement* in Record Title or dement* in Abstract or dement* in Keywords in all products2767
#13178Hftld or ftd* in Record Title or ftld or ftd* in Abstract in all products14
#14179H(fronto?temporal or cortico?basal or fronto temporal or cortico basal or frontal lobe) in Record Title or (fronto?temporal or cortico?basal or fronto temporal or cortico basal or frontal lobe) in Abstract in all products235
#15180Hkluver near (bucy or busy) in Record Title or kluver near (bucy or busy) in Abstract in all products0
#16181H(lew* near bod*) or dlbd in Record Title or (lew* near bod*) or dlbd in Abstract or (lew* near bod*) or dlbd in Keywords in all products63
#17182Hlobar near atroph* near (brain or cerebr*) in Record Title or lobar near atroph* near (brain or cerebr*) in Abstract in all products0
#18183Hmesulam near syndrome* in Record Title or mesulam near syndrome* in Abstract in all products0
#19184Hpick* near (disease* or complex) in Record Title or pick* near (disease* or complex) in Abstract or pick* near (disease* or complex) in Keywords in all products5
#20185Hposterior cortic* atroph* in Record Title or posterior cortic* atroph* in Abstract in all products7
#21186H(primary or progressive) near aphasi* in Record Title or (primary or progressive) near aphasi* in Abstract in all products2
#22187Hsdat in Record Title or sdat in Abstract in all products42
#23188Hsivd in Record Title or sivd in Abstract in all products1
#24189H(subcortic* or sub?cortic*) near (encephalopath* or leukoencephalopath*) in Record Title or (subcortic* or sub?cortic*) near (encephalopath* or leukoencephalopath*) in Abstract in all products9
#25190Hmesulam m in Author in all products2
#26191Hdement* or alzheim* in Source in all products553
#27192H(#1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10)2893
#28193H(#11 OR #12 OR #13 OR #14 OR #15 OR #16 OR #17 OR #18 OR #19 OR #20)2998
#29194H(#21 OR #22 OR #23 OR #24 OR #25 OR #26)606
#30195H(#27 OR #28 OR #29)4795
#31196HMeSH descriptor Caregivers explode all trees in MeSH products458
#32197Hcare?giver* or care giver* or carer* or care?manager* or care?worker* or (care near (manager* or worker*)) in Record Title or care?giver* or care giver* or carer* or care?manager* or care?worker* or (care near (manager* or worker*)) in Abstract or care?giver* or care giver* or carer* or care?manager* or care?worker* or (care near (manager* or worker*)) in Keywords in all products642
#33198H(care or caring) near (alzheimer* or dementia* or dlbd or lewy body disease or family or families or father* or friend* or husband* or layperson* or mother* or people or person* or sibling* or social worker* or relative* or spous* or vad or volunteer* or wife) in Record Title or (care or caring) near (alzheimer* or dementia* or dlbd or lewy body disease or family or families or father* or friend* or husband* or layperson* or mother* or nurs* or people or person* or professional* or sibling* or social worker* or relative* or spous* or vad or volunteer* or wife) in Abstract or (care or caring) near (alzheimer* or dementia* or dlbd or lewy body disease or family or families or father* or friend* or husband* or layperson* or mother* or people or person* or sibling* or social worker* or relative* or spous* or staff* or vad or volunteer* or wife) in Keywords in all products2373
#34199H(provision or provid*) near care in Record Title or (provision or provid*) near care in Abstract in all products1453
#35200H(care or caring) near intervention* in Record Title or (care or caring) near intervention* in Abstract in all products1649
#36201H(#31 OR #32 OR #33 OR #34 OR #35)5474
#37202H(#30 AND #36)410
Amendments/updates to filter/search strategySearch: [Update] DementiaInterventions for Carers
Interface: OVIDDatabases: AMED, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PSYCINFO
Filters: RCT / OSDate Range: Literature from 01.01.05 to date [16.03.06]
Hits: RCT #221; OS #100
#Search History
1exp alzheimer disease/ or exp alzheimer vaccines/ or exp alzheimers disease/
2exp aphasia primary progressive/ or exp primary progressive aphasia/
3exp binswanger encephalopathy/
4exp cadasil/
5exp corticobasal degeneration/
6exp delirium dementia amnestic cognitive disorders/
7exp dementia multi infarct/
8exp dementia presenile/
9exp dementia senile/
10exp diffuse lewy body disease/ or exp lewy body disease/ or exp lewy body/
11exp frontotemporal dementia/
12exp kluver bucy syndrome/
13exp "mixed depression and dementia"/
14exp multiinfarct dementia/
15exp pick disease of the brain/ or exp pick presenile dementia/ or exp presenile dementia/
16exp senile dementia/
17exp vascular dementia/
18alzheim$.mp.
19binswanger$.mp.
20cadasil.mp.
21cerad.tw.
22dement$.mp.
23(ftld or ftd$).tw.
24((fronto?temporal or cortico?basal or fronto temporal or cortico basal or frontal lobe) adj5 (degenerat$4 or dysfunction$)).tw.
25(kluver adj5 (bucy or busy)).mp.
26((lew$2 adj5 bod$3) or dlbd).mp.
27(lobar adj5 atroph$3 adj5 (brain or cerebr$2)).tw.
28(mesulam adj5 syndrome$).tw.
29(pick$2 adj5 (disease$1 or complex)).mp.
30posterior cortic$ atroph$.tw.
31((primary or progressive) adj5 aphasi$).tw.
32sdat.tw.
33sivd.tw.
34((subcortic$3 or sub?cortic$3) adj5 (encephalopath$3 or leukoencephalopath$3)).tw.
35(mesulam m or mesulam m m or mesulam mm).au.
36(dement$ or alzheim).jw.
37or/1–36
38caregiver/ or caregivers/
39(care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$))).mp.
40(((care or caring) adj5 (alzheimer$ or dementia$ or dlbd or lewy body disease or family or families or father$ or friend$ or husband$ or layperson$ or mother$ or nurs$ or people or person$ or professional$ or sibling$ or social worker$ or relative$ or spous$ or staff$ or vad or volunteer$ or wife)) or ((provision or provid$) adj5 care)).tw.
41or/38–40
42exp cognitive therapy/ or exp cognitive behavior therapy/ or exp cognitive techniques/
43exp psychotherapy rational emotive/ or exp rational emotive behavior therapy/
44exp individualized instruction/
45((cognit$ and behav$) or (cognit$ and (intervention$ or therap$ or training or treat$)) or (desensiti$ and psycholog$) or (implosive adj5 therap$) or cbt).tw.
46(attribution$ or reattribution).tw.
47exp self care/ or exp self help techniques/ or exp self care skills/
48(self adj5 (instruct$ or management)).tw.
49(ret or (rational and emotive$)).tw.
50exp "bibliotherapy (iowa nic)"/ or exp bibliotherapy/
51(bibliotherap$ or (book$1 adj3 therap$)).tw.
52or/42–51
53exp patient education/ or explode psychoeducation/
54psychoeducat$.mp. or (patient.mp. and ((education or teaching or instruction or information or knowledge).mp. or exp knowledge/)) or (educational and (program$ or intervention$)).mp.
55or/53–54
56exp counseling/ or "counseling (IOWA)"/ or "counseling service (SABA HHCC)"/
57counsel$.mp.
58((client cent$ or nondirective or non directive) adj therap$).tw.
59(guidance adj5 (care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$)) or (((care or caring) adj5 (family or families or father$ or friend$ or husband$ or layperson$ or mother$ or nurs$ or people or person$ or professional$ or sibling$ or social worker$ or relative$ or spous$ or staff$ or vad or volunteer$ or wife)) or ((provision or provid$) adj5 care)))).tw.
60or/56–59
61exp self-help groups/ or support group/ or support groups/
62social support/ or exp support, psychosocial/
63(((selfhelp or self help or social or support$ or therap$) adj5 (club$ or group$ or meeting$)) or 12 step$ or twelve step$ or (support$ adj2 (social or psychosocial$))).tw.
64or/61–63
65respite care/
66respite$.mp.
67or/65–66
68relaxation/ or exp relaxation techniques/ or exp relaxation therapy/ or relaxation training/ or "simple relaxation therapy (iowa nic)"/
69relax$.mp.
70or/68–69
71mental stress/ or exp stress/ or stress management/ or exp stress, psychological/
72(burnout or burn out or skill$ or stress$ or strain$1 or (skill adj (build$ or development or management)) or ((staff or professional) adj development)).mp.
73((care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$))) adj skill$).tw.
74or/71–73
75exp sleep disorder/ or exp sleep disorders/
76(dyssomnia$ or insomnia$ or parasomnia$ or (sleep$ adj3 (disorder$ or disturbance$ or dysfunction$ or problem$)) or (sub?wakefullness adj syndrome$) or ((long or short) adj sleeper syndrome)).tw.
77or/75–76
78or/52,55,60,64,67,70,74,77
79exp employment/ and (advice or advis$ or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$).tw.
80occupational guidance/
81((employment$ or employee$ or job$ or career$ or occupation$) adj5 (advis$ or advice or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$)).tw.
82or/79–81
83social welfare/ or welfare/ or exp "welfare services (government)"/
84(((benefit$ or welfare) adj (advice or advis$ or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$)) or (social adj (support or welfare))).tw.
85or/83–84
86exp financial management/ or exp financial support/ or finance/
87exp income/ or investments/ or pension/ or retirement/
88exp employee benefits/ or "employee assistance programs"/ or occupational health services/
89(financ$ adj5 (advice or advis$ or assist$ or guide or guidance or help$ or support$)).tw.
90or/86–89
91((discriminat$ or equal opportunit$ or equality or equity or ethnolog$ or feminism or gender or human rights or injustice$ or justice$ or moral or morality or prejudice$ or sexism or sexist) and (career$ or educat$ or employ$ or ethnic$ or free time or government or health care policy or healthcare policy or health policy or hobby or hobbies or holiday$ or interview$ or job$ or leisure$ or minority group$ or national health program$ or organi?ational or personnel or race or racial or racism or recreation$ or relaxation or (sex adj (factor$ or issue$)) or unemploy$ or vacation$ or work$)).mp.
92caregiver/lj or caregivers/lj or law/ or laws/
93(attorney$ or ((civil or employee) adj rights) or jurisprudence or lawyer$ or law suit or legal$ or medicolegal or wills).mp.
94or/92–93
95or/82,85,90–91,94
96exp clinical trials/ or exp clinical trial/ or exp controlled clinical trials/
97exp crossover procedure/ or exp cross over studies/ or exp crossover design/
98exp double blind procedure/ or exp double blind method/ or exp double blind studies/or exp single blind procedure/ or exp single blind method/ or exp single blind studies/
99exp random allocation/ or exp randomization/ or exp random assignment/ or exp random sample/ or exp random sampling/
100exp randomized controlled trials/ or exp randomized controlled trial/
101(clinical adj2 trial$).tw.
102(crossover or cross over).tw.
103(((single$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj5 (blind$ or mask$ or dummy)) or (singleblind$ or doubleblind$ or trebleblind$)).tw.
104(placebo$ or random$).mp.
105(clinical trial$ or random$).pt. or (random$ or clinical control trial).sd.
106(clinical trial or double blind design or single blind design).pt.
107animals/ not (animals/ and human$.mp.)
108animal$/ not (animal$/ and human$/)
109(animal not (animal and human)).po.
110(or/96–106) not (or/107–109)
111case study/
112abstract report/ or letter/
113case report.tw.
114letter.pt.
115historical article.pt.
116review of reported cases.pt.
117review, multicase.pt.
118110 not (or/111–117)
119clinical study/ or cohort analysis/ or correlational studies/ or cross sectional studies/ or epidemiologic studies/ or family study/ or longitudinal study/ or nonconcurrent prospective studies/ or prospective studies/ or prospective study/ or retrospective study/
120exp case control studies/ or exp case control studies/ or exp cohort studies/
121(cohort adj (study or studies)).mp.
122((cohort or cross sectional or epidemiologic$ or follow?up or follow up or observational) adj (study or studies)).tw.
123(case control or cohort analy$ or cross sectional or longitudinal or retrospective).tw. or case$.pt.
124or/119–123
125and/37,41,78,118
126and/37,41,95,124
127((decreas$ or intervention$ or reduc$ or therap$ or treat$) and burden).mp. and 41 and 37
128burden$.it,tm. and (decreas$ or intervention$ or reduc$ or therap$ or treat$).tw. and 37 and 41
129125 or ((or/127–128) and 118)
130126 or ((or/127–128) and 124)
131((care?giver$ or care giver$ or carer$ or care?manager$ or care?worker$ or (care adj (manager$ or worker$))) adj2 intervention$).tw.
13237 and (131 or ((care or caring) adj2 intervention$).tw.)
133(132 and 118) not 129
134(132 and 124) not 130
135audiovisual aids/ or audiovisual equipment/ or audiovisuals/ or educational audiovisual aids/
136book/ or books/
137caregiver/ed or caregivers/ed or family/ed
138comprehension/
139counseling/ or educational counseling/ or patient counseling/
140education program/ or educational programs/
141education/
142health education/
143health promotion/
144information/
145knowledge attitudes, practice/
146manual communication/ or manuals/
147pamphlets/
148patient education/ or client education/
149patient guidance/
150patient information/
151exp psychoeducation/
152teaching/
153telephone/ or telephone systems/
154exp video recording/ or exp videorecording/ or exp videotapes/
155consumer$ health inform$.tw.
156(doctor patient$ communic$ or patient$ doctor communic$).tw.
157((educational adj1 method$) or (educational and (program$ or intervention$))).tw.
158(nurse$ patient$ communic$ or patient nurse communic$).tw.
159(professional$ patient$ communic$ or patient$ professional$ communic$).tw.
160(psychoeducat$ or psycho educat$).tw.
161((written or printed or oral) adj1 information).tw.
162((care giver$ or care giver$ or caregiver$ or carer$ or care manager$ or care worker$ or client$ or consumer$ or family or families or patient$ or inpatient$ or outpatient$ or service user$) adj5 (comprehen$ or counsel$ or education or information or knowledge or support or teach$ or understand$ or advice or book$ or leaflet$ or manual$ or pack$ or tape$ or telephone$ or video$ or material$ or intervention$ or program$ or meeting or resource$ or session or strateg$ or work shop$ or workshop$ or visit$)).tw.
163or/135–162
164and/37,118,163
165exp education/ or exp teaching/
166(book$ or comprehen$ or educat$ or information or knowledge or leaflet$ or manual$ or meeting$ or pack$ or resource$ or session$ or strateg$ or support$ or tape$ or teach$ or telephone or understand$ or video$ or work shop$ or workshop$).tw.
167or/165–166
168(and/37,41,118,167) not 164
169or/129,133,168
170or/130,134
171169
172limit 171 to yr=“2005 – 2006”
173remove duplicates from 172
174170
175limit 174 to yr=“2005 – 2006”
176remove duplicates from 175
177from 173 keep 1–221
178from 173 keep 1–221
179from 176 keep 1–100
Inclusion/ exclusion criteria
Interventions specifically for carers:
  • Assessment (2004 Act – duty to inform)
  • Family/carer support – used to normalise experiences, give mutual support, & increase connections among the group members, with interactions unstructured & without specific content (Acton & Kang, 2001)
  • Education interventions – designed to provide standardised information about the disease process, disruptive behaviours, & caregiving (Acton & Kang, 2001)
  • Psychoeducational interventions – designed to provide standardized information on the disease process, disruptive behaviours, & carer skills, as well as supportive activities designed to use dialogue among group members to normalize experiences, give mutual support, & increase connections among the group members (Acton & Kang, 2001)
  • CBT
  • Counselling – designed to identify specific individual needs of the participants and to facilitate change by working intensively with carers to increase the understanding of problematic behaviours and their reactions to the carer experience. Differs from educational interventions because no standardised information given (Acton & Kang, 2001)
  • Multicomponent interventions (other than psychoeducation) – combines various strategies, e.g., sleep, support, stress management, and education intervention (Acton & Kang, 2001)
  • Employment/ financial/ welfare/ benefits advice
  • Legal advice
  • Carer equal opportunities (employment, education, leisure)
Cooke (2001) categorised interventions into: General education, general discussion, support group, social skills training, social support, social activities, cognitive problem solving, cognitive therapy, cognitive skills, practical care-giving skills, record keeping, relaxation, behaviour therapy, psychotherapy & counselling, respite, Miscellaneous.
Comparatorstandard care’, no support/ information
PopulationPeople with Alzheimer’s Disease/Vascular dementia/ dementia with Lewy bodies/ Parkinson’s
Disease plus dementia/ Frontotemporal dementia/ other dementias (subcortical, mixed dementias)

Carers of people with dementia
Outcomes

(see Outcomes document for definitions)
For the person with dementia:
-

Psychological wellbeing

-

Quality of life

-

Maintenance of independent living activities

-

Delayed admission

-

Neuropsychiatric symptoms

For the carer:
-

Psychological wellbeing

-

Carer burden

-

Social outcomes

-

Physiological measures

-

Carer knowledge

-

Carer equal opportunities (employment, education, leisure)

Outcomes reported in Sorensen 2002 review:

Caregiver burden
Assessed using the Zarit Burden Scale (Zarit, Reever, & Bach-Peterson, 1980; 21 studies), Montgomery and Borgatta’s Burden Scale (1989; 8 studies) and other scales (29 studies).
Self-rated depression
Most often measured with the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977; 8 studies), the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck & Steer, 1987;8 studies), the Depression Subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983; 7 studies), the Geriatric Depression Scale (Yesavage et al., 1983; 5 studies), and other measures (13 studies).
Subjective well-being
Assessed with a broad variety of measures, including the Affect Balance Scale (Bradburn, 1969; 6 studies), Life Satisfaction Scales (e.g., Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin, 1961; 4 studies), the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (Lawton, 1975; 4 studies), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988; 3 studies), the Profile of Mood States (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971; 2 studies), and other scales (8 studies).
Uplifts
Measured as sources of satisfaction from caregiving or satisfaction with caregiving (three studies).
Ability and knowledge
Dealt with the necessary tools to cope competently with the caregiver role. It was most often assessed by questionnaires on knowledge about
the care receiver’s illness and available services (16 studies), coping abilities (10 studies), and self-efficacy specifically in dealing with caregiving tasks (11 studies). (Self-efficacy was included here rather than under wellbeing because it was specific to care-related abilities.)
Care receiver outcomes
Assessed by the Memory and Behavior Problem Checklist (Teri et al., 1992; 17 studies), deficits in functional abilities (activities of daily living [ADL], instrumental ADL [IADL]; e.g., RPI Home Care
Classification Project, 1986; 8 studies), and others (9 studies).
Study designRCT, other quantitative and qualitative research (employment and legal advice probably covered in grey literature)
Publication statusPublished and unpublished (if criteria met)
Year of studyAny
Minimum sample sizeNo minimum
Study settingVaries

From: APPENDIX 13a, REVIEW PROTOCOLS

Cover of Dementia
Dementia: A NICE-SCIE Guideline on Supporting People With Dementia and Their Carers in Health and Social Care.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 42.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).
Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society; 2007.
Copyright © 2007, The British Psychological Society & The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Enquiries in this regard should be directed to the British Psychological Society.

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