Table 7.4Observational study of participants on the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California diabetes registry31


Level of evidence 2+

Cardiovascular complicationsThe relative risk associated with a 1% increase in HbA1c*
Composite of hospitalisation for heart failure or death with heart failure as the underlying cause1.08, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.12
A concentration of HbA1c more than or equal to 10% relative to HbA1c less than 7%, was associated with a 1.6 fold increased heart failure risk (for hospitalisation or death)

This model was adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education level, smoking, alcohol consumption, self-reported hypertension, obesity, cardioprotective medicine used at baseline, type of diabetes and treatment, duration of diabetes and incidence of MI during follow-up

From: 7, Glucose control levels

Cover of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes: National Clinical Guideline for Management in Primary and Secondary Care (Update).
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 66.
National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK).
Copyright © 2008, Royal College of Physicians of London.

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