10.7.2What is the prevalence of congenitally acquired infection in the UK?

StudyRef.PopulationInterventionOutcomesResultsCommentsStudy typeEL
Unlinked Anonymous Surveys Steering Group, 2002407426,474 pregnant women in England, plus 52,707 in Scotland, tested in 2001Survey used leftover blood from samples taken for routine clinical testsMother-to-child transmission of HIV-1Infected babies and births in HIV infected women in the UK: 49/561Estimates are based on the observed proportion of maternal infections diagnosed before delivery and assume that 2% of infants will acquire HIV even if maternal infection is diagnosed before deliveryCSS3
Unlinked Anonymous Surveys Steering Group, 2001408484,563 pregnant women in Scotland and England, tested in 2000Survey used leftover blood from samples taken for routine clinical testsMother-to-child transmission of HIV-1Infected babies and births in HIV infected women: 45/452Estimates are based on observed proportions of maternal infections diagnosed before delivery and assumed that about 2% of infants will acquire HIV even if maternal infection is diagnosed prior to deliveryCSS3
CDR Weekly, 26 April 2001412Paediatric surveillance dataNoneConfirmed cases of HIV infection in children by the end of January 2001 in the UK (excluding Scotland)1036 infected children, 68% probably acquired through mother-to-child transmission
1885 children born to HIV infected mothers reported by end of January 2001, 712 known to be infected, 716 known to be uninfected, 457 unresolved or unreported
By the end of 1999, 697 known to be infected, 259 indeterminate, and 659 not infected out of a total of 1615 children born to HIV infected mothers
In 2000, 270 babies were born to HIV infected mothers resulting in 15 HIV-positive babies, 57 not infected and 198 as yet undetermined
LS3
Conner et al., 1994409RCT with 477 HIV infected pregnant women enrolled from April 1991 to December 1993 (409 births leading to 415 live-born infants)Zidovudine vs. placeboEfficacy of zidovudine in reducing risk of vertical transmission measured by HIV infection status of child67.5% (95%CI 40.7 to 82.1) relative reduction in risk of HIV transmission (z = 4.03, p = 0.00006)
Proportion infected at 18 months in zidovudine group 8.3% (95% CI 3.9 to 12.8)
Proportion infected at 18 months in placebo group 25.5% (95% CI 18.4 to 32.5)
RCT1b

From: Evidence tables

Cover of Antenatal Care
Antenatal Care: Routine Care for the Healthy Pregnant Woman.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 62.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2008 Mar.
Copyright © 2008, National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health.

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