Table 6.3Prevalence of VUR

StudyStudy typePopulationAgeImaging tests and VUR prevalence
Scotland (1984)66
Case seriesHospital records of children referred to a paediatric surgical outpatient clinic (n = 572)< 13 years (7% > 2 years)Imaging test: MCUG
31% had VUR
Other countries
Taiwan (2004)64
Retrospective cohortHospital records of children admitted with first UTI (n = 114)1 month to 5 years (median age 6 months)Imaging tests: MCUG and US
29% of patients (31/114)
21% of kidneys (47/228)
Severe VUR in 12% of patients
USA (2003)76
Case seriesHospital records of children who underwent MCUG or radionuclide cystogram because of previous UTI (n = 9912)0–21 yearsImaging tests: MCUG or IRC
31% in girls
18%in boys
39% > 2 years
27% 2–6 years
20% 7–11 years
8% 12–21 years
Canada (2003)237
Case seriesGirls investigated for dysfunctional voiding and concomitant UTI by MCUG (n = 58)4–11 years (mean age 6.7 years)Imaging test: MCUG
33% had VUR
Kuwait (2003)238
Case seriesHospital records of children admitted for first febrile UTI (n = 174)< 12 years (72 children younger than 1 year, 66 children aged 1–5 years, 36 children older than 5 years)Imaging test: MCUG
24% in girls
18% in boys
25% < 1 year
18% 1–5 years
27% > 5 years
Hong Kong (2001)239
Case seriesHospital records of children who presented with documented UTI and underwent MCUG and DMSA (n = 93)< 5 yearsImaging test: MCUG
25% in girls
45% in boys
Finland (2000)52
Case series – population surveillance dataSurveillance records of children identified at hospitals or labs with bacteraemic UTI (n = 132)1 week to 9.5 years (median age 0.125 years)Imaging test: MCUG or IRC 30% of children had VUR
Finland (1999)240
CohortHospital records of children with positive urine samples who had IVU or ultrasound and MCUG (n = 184)62% younger than 2 years, 37% 2 years or older (range unknown)Imaging test: MCUG
38% had VUR
USA (1995)241
Case seriesHospital records of children investigated for first UTI (n = 309)Median 48 months in girls and 12 months in boys (range unknown)Imaging test: MCUG
29% in girls
30% in boys
Under 1 year: males 34%, females 46%
Children younger than 2 years: males 30%, females 44%
Children 2–4 years: males 32%, memales 32%
Children 5 years or older: males 29%, females 15%
Italy (1988)50
Case seriesHospital records of children with first symptomatic UTI (n = 225)0–14 years (28% younger than 12 months, 28% 1–4 years)Imaging test: MCUG Overall, 18% had VUR
17% in girls
21% in boys
30% 0–12 months
14% 1–4 years
13% 5–14 years
Sweden (1987)47
Case seriesHospital records of children with first symptomatic UTI (n = 1177)Children younger than 10 yearsImaging test: MCUG
34% in girls
33% in boys

From: 6, Long-term management

Cover of Urinary Tract Infection in Children
Urinary Tract Infection in Children: Diagnosis, Treatment and Long-term Management.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 54.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2007 Aug.
Copyright © 2007, National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health.

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