Home > Excluded studies - Intrapartum Care

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National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK). Intrapartum Care: Care of Healthy Women and Their Babies During Childbirth. London: RCOG Press; 2007 Sep. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 55.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Excluded studies

1. What are the outcomes (benefits and harms) and costs related to each birth setting?

2. What are the risk factors which should be included in assessment to determine the most appropriate place of birth for women during pregnancy and in labour?

Bibliographic informationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Hundley VA;Milne JM;Glazener CM;Mollison J;. Title: Satisfaction and the three C's: continuity, choice and control. Women's views from a randomised controlled trial of midwife-led care. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997 NovAlready included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Shields N;Turnbull D;Reid M;Holmes A;McGinley M;Smith LN;. Title: Satisfaction with midwife-managed care in different time periods: a randomised controlled trial of 1299 women. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1998 JunThis is an RCT comparing midwifery care and obstetric care. However, both forms of care took place in the same labour ward.
Authors: Turnbull D;Holmes A;Shields N;Cheyne H;Twaddle S;Gilmour WH;McGinley M;Reid M;Johnstone I;Geer I;McIlwaine G;Lunan CB;. Title: Randomised, controlled trial of efficacy of midwife-managed care. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1996 Jul 27This is an RCT comparing midwifery care and obstetric care. However, both forms of care took place in the same labour ward.
Authors: Waldenstrom U;Nilsson CA;. Title: MW vs OBA Randomized Controlled Study of Birth Center Care versus Standard Maternity Care: Effect's on Women's Health. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1997Already in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: MacVicar J;Dobbie G;Owen-Johnstone L;Jagger C;Hopkins M;Kennedy J;. Title: Simulated home delivery in hospital: a randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1993 AprAlready reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Tucker JS;Hall MH;Howie PW;Reid ME;Barbour RS;Florey CD;McIlwaine GM;. Title: Should obstetricians see women with normal pregnancies? A multicentre randomised controlled trial of routine antenatal care by general practitioners and midwives compared with shared care led by obstetricians. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1996 Mar 2Only about antenatal care.
Authors: Chapman MG;Jones M;Springs JE;. Title: The use of a birthroom: a randomised controlled trial comparing delivery with that in the labour ward. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986Already reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Harvey S;Jarrell J;Brant R;Stainton C;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of nurse-midwifery care. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1996Intervention was midwifery care, but both intervention and obstetric care took place in the same birth unit.
Authors: Klein M;Papageorgiou A;Westreich R;Spector-Dunsky L;Elkins V;Kramer MS;Gelfand MM;. Title: Care in a birth room versus a conventional setting: a controlled trial. Journal Name: Canadian Medical Association Journal. Year: 1984 Dec 15Already reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Westreich R;Spector-Dunsky L;Klein M;Papageorgiou A;Kramer M;Gelfand M;. Title: The influence of birth setting on the father's behavior toward his partner and infant. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1991 DecAlready reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Law YYH;Lam K;. Title: A randomized controlled trial comparing midwife-managed care and obstetrician-managed care for women assessed to be at low risk in the initial intrapartum period. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. Year: 1999 AprInterventions were care given by either midwife only or with obstetricians. Both interventions took place in labour ward.
Authors: Seguin L;Therrien R;Champagne F;Larouche D;. Title: The components of women's satisfaction with maternity care. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1989 SepThis is a cross-sectional study investigating factors affecting women's satisfaction in Canada. Rejected as there is already higher level of evidence.
Authors: Hundley VA;Cruickshank FM;Lang GD;Glazener CM;Milne JM;Turner M;Blyth D;Mollison J;Donaldson C;. Title: Midwife managed delivery unit: a randomized controlled comparison with consultant led care. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1994 Nov 26Already reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Berghs G;Spanjaards E;Driessen L;Doesburg W;Eskes T;. Title: Neonatal neurological outcome after low-risk pregnancies. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1995 OctThis is a cohort study investigating neonatal neurological outcome after low-risk pregnancies between midwifery care and obstetric care in The Netherlands. Rejected as there is already higher level of evidence.
Authors: Klein M;Lloyd I;Redman C;Bull M;Turnbull AC;. Title: A comparison of low-risk pregnant women booked for delivery in two systems of care: shared-care (consultant) and integrated general practice unit. II. Labour and delivery management and neonatal outcome. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1983 FebThis is a cohort study looking at labour, delivery management and neonatal outcome between GP unit and obstetric unit in the UK. Rejected as there is already another higher evidence.
Authors: Waldenstrom U;Nilsson CA;Winbladh B;. Title: The Stockholm birth centre trial: maternal and infant outcome. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997 AprAlready reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Bodner-Adler B;Bodner K;Kimberger O;Lozanov P;Husslein P;Mayerhofer K;. Title: Influence of the birth attendant on maternal and neonatal outcomes during normal vaginal delivery: a comparison between midwife and physician management. Journal Name: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift. Year: 2004 Jun 30This is a cohort study investigating maternal and neonatal outcomes between midwifery care and obstetric care in Austria. Rejected as there is already another higher level of evidence.
Authors: Harvey S;Rach D;Stainton MC;Jarrell J;Brant R;. Title: Evaluation of satisfaction with midwifery care. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 2002 DecWomen in both arms had their deliveries in a birthing centre.
Authors: Spurgeon P;Hicks C;Barwell F;. Title: Antenatal, delivery and postnatal comparisons of maternal satisfaction with two pilot Changing Childbirth schemes compared with a traditional model of care. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 2001 JunThis is a cross-sectional study investigating maternal satisfaction on the Changing Childbirth scheme. Rejected as there is higher level of evidence already.
Authors: Hundley VA;Cruickshank FM;Milne JM;Glazener CM;Lang GD;Turner M;Blyth D;Mollison J;. Title: Satisfaction and continuity of care: staff views of care in a midwife-managed delivery unit. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1995 DecAlready reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: van der Hulst LAM;. Title: Dutch midwives: relational care and birth location. Journal Name: Health and Social Care in the Community. Year: 1999 JulThis is a cross-sectional study investigating whether midwifery care is affected by birth settings in The Netherlands. Rejected as of weak design, and a not relevant question.
Authors: Wanderer MJ;Suyehira JG;. Title: Obstetrical care in a prepaid cooperative: a comparison between family practice residents, family physicians, and obstetricians. Journal Name: Journal of Family Practice. Year: 1980 OctThis is a cross-sectional study conducted in the USA investigating difference among family practice residents, family physicians and obstetricians. Not a relevant question.
Authors: Gottvall K;Waldenstrom U;. Title: Does birth center care during a woman's first pregnancy have any impact on her future reproduction? Journal Name: Birth. Year: 2002Already reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Ind T;. Title: The Stockholm Birth Centre Trial: maternal and infant outcome. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997 SepThe form of publication is a letter, and states only opinion.
Authors: Jackson DJ;Lang JM;Ecker J;Swartz WH;Heeren T;. Title: Impact of collaborative management and early admission in labor on method of delivery. Journal Name: JOGNN: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing. Year: 2003This is a cohort study investigating method of labour between midwifery care and obstetric care in the USA. Rejected as there is already higher evidence and different criteria.
Authors: Waldenstrom U;Nilsson C;. Title: Women's satisfaction with birth center care: a randomized, controlled study. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1993Already reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Waldenstrom U;Nilsson C;. Title: No effect of birth centre care on either duration or experience of breast feeding, but more complications: findings from a randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1994Already reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Waldenstrom U;. Title: Effects of birth centre care on fathers' satisfaction with care, experience of the birth and adaptation to fatherhood. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. Year: 1999Already reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Waldenstrom U;Nilsson CA;. Title: Experience of childbirth in birth center care. A randomized controlled study. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1994 AugAlready included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Tracy,S.K.; Sullivan,E.; Dahlen,H.; Black,D.; Wang,Y.A.; Tracy,M.B. Title: Does size matter? A population-based study of birth in lower volume maternity hospitals for low risk women. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2001This study compared outcomes of maternity hospitals with different sizes in Australia. This does not fit in the criteria of either alongside/standalone midwifery units or obstetric units.

6. What are the indications for the use of ventouse or forceps?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: . Title: Guidelines for operative vaginal birth. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2005this is a clinical practice guideline for operative vaginal birth by SCOG, not a systematic review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Epidural analgesia in association with duration of labor and mode of delivery: a quantitative review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005This is a study looking at duration of labour and mode of delivery for women under epidural analgesia
Authors: Gopalani S;Bennett K;Critchlow C;. Title: Factors predictive of failed operative vaginal delivery. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2004 Septhis is an observational study only looking at risk factors associated with failed operative vaginal delivery
Authors: Shennan AH;Smith R;Browne D;Edmonds DK;Morgan B;. Title: The elective use of oxytocin infusion during labour in nulliparous women using epidural analgesia. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1995This is an RCT, but not in secoand stage of labour
Authors: Pusey J;Hodge C;Wilkinson P;Johanson R;. Title: Maternal impressions of forceps or the Silc-cup. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991 MayAlready included in the systematic review, which we include
Authors: Sultan AH;Johanson RB;Carter JE;. Title: Occult anal sphincter trauma in a randomised study of forceps and ventouse delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1996conference paper, the same study was presented in a separate paper that we have included
Authors: Vacca A;. Title: A randomized prospective study comparing the new vacuum extractor policy with forceps delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1994 AprThis is a correspondance
Authors: Vacca A;Grant A;Wyatt G;Chalmers I;. Title: Portsmouth operative delivery trial: A comparison vacuum extraction and forceps delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1983Already in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Vacca A;Grant A;. Title: Portsmouth operative delivery trial. A randomised controlled trial to compare vacuum extraction with forceps delivery. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1983Already in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Williams MC;Knuppel RA;O'Brien WF;Weiss A;Kanarek KS;. Title: A randomized comparison of assisted vaginal delivery by obstetric forceps and polyethylene vacuum cup. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Johanson RB;Menon BKV;. Title: Selected Cochrane systematic reviews. Vacuum extraction versus forceps for assisted vaginal delivery. Journal Name: Birth. Year:Introduction paper for the systematic review we included
Authors: Boucher M;Nimrod CA;Tawagi GF;Meeker TA;Rennicks White RE;Varin J;. Title: Comparison of carbetocin and oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage following vaginal delivery:a double-blind randomized trial. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2004 MayNot relevant
Authors: bu-Omar AA;. Title: Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, safety and efficacy. Journal Name: Saudi Medical Journal. Year: 2001Not relevant
Authors: Bugalho A;Daniel A;Faundes A;Cunha M;. Title: Misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 AprNot relevant
Authors: Bullough CHW;. Title: Breast suckling or nipple stimulation: Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage?. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996Not relevant
Authors: Caliskan E;Meydanli MM;Dilbaz B;Aykan B;Sonmezer M;Haberal A;. Title: Is rectal misoprostol really effective in the treatment of third stage of labor? A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002Not relevant
Authors: Carroli G;Belizan JM;Grant A;Gonzalez L;Campodonico L;Bergel E;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein injection and retained placenta: evidence from a collaborative large randomised controlled trial. Grupo Argentino de Estudio de Placenta Retenida. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 FebNot relevant
Authors: Chandra S;Persad V;Young D;Baskett T;. Title: A preliminary study of cutaneous blood flow associated with postpartum use of oral misoprostol. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2004 DecNot relevant
Authors: Chong YS;Chua S;Shen L;Arulkumaran S;. Title: Does the route of administration of misoprostol make a difference? The uterotonic effect and side effects of misoprostol given by different routes after vaginal delivery. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 2004 Apr 15Not relevant
Authors: Bofill JA;Rust OA;Schorr SJ;Brown RC;Martin RW;Martin JN;Morrison JC;. Title: A randomized prospective trial of the obstetric forceps versus the M-cup vacuum extractor. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Bofill JA;Lencki SG;Barhan S;Ezenagu LC;. Title: Instrumental delivery of the fetal head at the time of elective repeat cesarean: A randomized pilot study. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 2000The population is to have CS, out of our remit
Authors: Bofill JA;Rust OA;Devidas M;Roberts WE;Morrison JC;Martin JN;. Title: Shoulder dystocia and operative vaginal delivery. Journal Name: The Journal of maternal-fetal medicine. Year: 1997Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Carmody F;Grant A;Mutch L;. Title: Follow up of babies delivered in a randomized controlled comparison of vacuum extraction and forceps delivery. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1986Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Dell DL;Sightler SE;Plauche WC;. Title: Soft cup vacuum extraction: A comparison of outlet delivery. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1985Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Drife JO;. Title: Choice and instrumental delivery.[see comment]. [Review] [38 refs]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1996 JulThis is a review paper already chekced with the systematic review we have included
Authors: Johanson R;Wilkinson P;Bastible A;Ryan S;Murphy H;O'Brien S;. Title: Health after childbirth: a comparison of normal and assisted vaginal delivery. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1993Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Johanson R;Wilkinson P;Bastible A;Ryan S;Murphy H;O'Brien S;. Title: Health after childbirth: a comparison of normal and assisted vaginal delivery. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1993 Sepalready included in the systematic review we included
Authors: Johanson R;Pusey J;Livera N;Jones P;. Title: North Staffordshire/Wigan assisted delivery trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1989 MayAlready included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Johanson RB;Rice C;Doyle M;Arthur J;Anyanwu L;Ibrahim J;Warwick A;Redman CWE;O'Brien PMS;. Title: A randomised prospective study comparing the new vacuum extractor policy with forceps delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1993Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Fraser WD;Marcoux S;Moutquin JM;Christen A;. Title: Effect of early amniotomy on the risk of dystocia in nulliparous women. The Canadian Early Amniotomy Study Group.[see comment]. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 1993 Apr 22Not relevant
Authors: Freeman RM;Macaulay AJ;Eve L;. Title: Randomised trial of self hypnosis for analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1986Not relevant
Authors: Garite TJ;Porto M;Carlson NJ;Rumney PJ;Reimbold PA;. Title: The influence of elective amniotomy on fetal heart rate patterns and the course of labor in term patients: A randomized study. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993Not relevant
Authors: Gonzalez-Gonzalez NL;Bencomo MV;Trujillo JL;Parache J;. Title: A comparative study of the intraamniotic pressure values generated with two nipple stimulation techniques and with oxytocin. Journal Name: Clinica e Investigacion en Ginecologia y Obstetricia. Year: 1993Not relevant
Authors: Goodfellow CF;Studd C;. Title: The reduction of forceps in primagravidae with epidural analgesia - A controlled trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Clinical Practice. Year: 1979in SR
Authors: Guerresi E;Gori G;Beccari A;. Title: Influence of spasmolytic treatment and amniotomy on delivery times: A factorial clinical trial. Journal Name: Clinical Therapeutics. Year: 1981Not relevant
Authors: Habiba M;. Title: Randomised trial of amniotomy in labour versus the intention to leave membranes intact until second stage. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1993 JanNot relevant
Authors: Hammar M;Bostrom K;Borgvall B;. Title: Comparison between the influence of methylergometrine and oxytocin on the incidence of retained placenta in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1990Not relevant
Authors: Hawkins RMF;. Title: A systematic meta-review of hypnosis as an empirically supported treatment for pain. Journal Name: Pain Reviews. Year: 2001Not relevant
Authors: Henderson J;. Title: Active management of labour and caesarean section rates. (Reviews the research evidence including randomized controlled trials). Journal Name: British Journal of Midwifery. Year: 147Not relevant
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Nikodem VC;de JM;Drakely A;. Title: Side-effects of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour - A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Journal Name: South African Medical Journal. Year: 2001Not relevant
Authors: Huber MG;Wildschut HI;Boer K;Kleiverda G;Hoek FJ;. Title: Umbilical vein administration of oxytocin for the management of retained placenta: is it effective?. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991 May
Authors: Kovavisarach E;Rojsangruang S;. Title: Effect of umbilical vein oxytocin injection on the third stage of labor: A randomized controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Year: 1998Not relevant
Authors: Phumdoung S;Good M;. Title: Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain. Journal Name: Pain Management Nursing. Year: 2003 JunNot relevant
Authors: Poeschmann RP;Doesburg WH;Eskes TKAB;. Title: A randomized comparison of oxytocin, sulprostone and placebo in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991Not relevant
Authors: Prendiville WJ;Harding JE;Elbourne DR;Stirrat GM;. Title: The Bristol third stage trial: active versus physiological management of third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1988 Nov 19Not relevant
Authors: Qiu H;Zhu H;Ouyang W;Wang Z;Sun H;. Title: Clinical effects and mechanism of chanlibao in accelerating second stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Tongji Medical University. Year: 1999Not relevant
Authors: Reddy VV;Carey JC;. Title: Effect of umbilical vein oxytocin on puerperal blood loss and length of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1989Not relevant
Authors: Rouse DJ;McCullough C;Wren AL;Owen J;Hauth JC;. Title: Active-phase labor arrest: a randomized trial of chorioamnion management. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1994 JunNot relevant
Authors: Saunders NJ;Spiby H;Gilbert L;Fraser RB;Hall JM;Mutton PM;Jackson A;Edmonds DK;. Title: Oxytocin infusion during second stage of labour in primiparous women using epidural analgesia: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1989 Dec 9Not relevant
Authors: Selinger M;MacKenzie I;Dunlop P;James D;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein oxytocin in the management of retained placenta. A double blind placebo controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986Not relevant
Authors: . Title: Guidelines for operative vaginal birth. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2005this is a clinical practice guideline for operative vaginal birth by SCOG, not a systematic review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Epidural analgesia in association with duration of labor and mode of delivery: a quantitative review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005This is a study looking at duration of labour and mode of delivery for women under epidural analgesia
Authors: Gopalani S;Bennett K;Critchlow C;. Title: Factors predictive of failed operative vaginal delivery. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2004 Septhis is an observational study only looking at risk factors associated with failed operative vaginal delivery
Authors: Shennan AH;Smith R;Browne D;Edmonds DK;Morgan B;. Title: The elective use of oxytocin infusion during labour in nulliparous women using epidural analgesia. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1995This is an RCT, but not in secoand stage of labour
Authors: Pusey J;Hodge C;Wilkinson P;Johanson R;. Title: Maternal impressions of forceps or the Silc-cup. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991 MayAlready included in the systematic review, which we include
Authors: Sultan AH;Johanson RB;Carter JE;. Title: Occult anal sphincter trauma in a randomised study of forceps and ventouse delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1996conference paper, the same study was presented in a separate paper that we have included
Authors: Vacca A;. Title: A randomized prospective study comparing the new vacuum extractor policy with forceps delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1994 AprThis is a correspondance
Authors: Vacca A;Grant A;Wyatt G;Chalmers I;. Title: Portsmouth operative delivery trial: A comparison vacuum extraction and forceps delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1983Already in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Vacca A;Grant A;. Title: Portsmouth operative delivery trial. A randomised controlled trial to compare vacuum extraction with forceps delivery. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1983Already in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Williams MC;Knuppel RA;O'Brien WF;Weiss A;Kanarek KS;. Title: A randomized comparison of assisted vaginal delivery by obstetric forceps and polyethylene vacuum cup. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Johanson RB;Menon BKV;. Title: Selected Cochrane systematic reviews. Vacuum extraction versus forceps for assisted vaginal delivery. Journal Name: Birth. Year:Introduction paper for the systematic review we included
Authors: Boucher M;Nimrod CA;Tawagi GF;Meeker TA;Rennicks White RE;Varin J;. Title: Comparison of carbetocin and oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage following vaginal delivery:a double-blind randomized trial. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2004 MayNot relevant
Authors: bu-Omar AA;. Title: Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, safety and efficacy. Journal Name: Saudi Medical Journal. Year: 2001Not relevant
Authors: Bugalho A;Daniel A;Faundes A;Cunha M;. Title: Misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 AprNot relevant
Authors: Bullough CHW;. Title: Breast suckling or nipple stimulation: Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage?. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996Not relevant
Authors: Caliskan E;Meydanli MM;Dilbaz B;Aykan B;Sonmezer M;Haberal A;. Title: Is rectal misoprostol really effective in the treatment of third stage of labor? A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002Not relevant
Authors: Carroli G;Belizan JM;Grant A;Gonzalez L;Campodonico L;Bergel E;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein injection and retained placenta: evidence from a collaborative large randomised controlled trial. Grupo Argentino de Estudio de Placenta Retenida. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 FebNot relevant
Authors: Chandra S;Persad V;Young D;Baskett T;. Title: A preliminary study of cutaneous blood flow associated with postpartum use of oral misoprostol. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2004 DecNot relevant
Authors: Chong YS;Chua S;Shen L;Arulkumaran S;. Title: Does the route of administration of misoprostol make a difference? The uterotonic effect and side effects of misoprostol given by different routes after vaginal delivery. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 2004 Apr 15Not relevant
Authors: Bofill JA;Rust OA;Schorr SJ;Brown RC;Martin RW;Martin JN;Morrison JC;. Title: A randomized prospective trial of the obstetric forceps versus the M- cup vacuum extractor. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Bofill JA;Lencki SG;Barhan S;Ezenagu LC;. Title: Instrumental delivery of the fetal head at the time of elective repeat cesarean: A randomized pilot study. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 2000The population is to have CS, out of our remit
Authors: Bofill JA;Rust OA;Devidas M;Roberts WE;Morrison JC;Martin JN;. Title: Shoulder dystocia and operative vaginal delivery. Journal Name: The Journal of maternal-fetal medicine. Year: 1997Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Carmody F;Grant A;Mutch L;. Title: Follow up of babies delivered in a randomized controlled comparison of vacuum extraction and forceps delivery. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1986Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Dell DL;Sightler SE;Plauche WC;. Title: Soft cup vacuum extraction: A comparison of outlet delivery. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1985Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Drife JO;. Title: Choice and instrumental delivery.[see comment]. [Review] [38 refs]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1996 JulThis is a review paper already chekced with the systematic review we have included
Authors: Johanson R;Wilkinson P;Bastible A;Ryan S;Murphy H;O'Brien S;. Title: Health after childbirth: a comparison of normal and assisted vaginal delivery. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1993Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Johanson R;Wilkinson P;Bastible A;Ryan S;Murphy H;O'Brien S;. Title: Health after childbirth: a comparison of normal and assisted vaginal delivery. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1993 Sepalready included in the systematic review we included
Authors: Johanson R;Pusey J;Livera N;Jones P;. Title: North Staffordshire/Wigan assisted delivery trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1989 MayAlready included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Johanson RB;Rice C;Doyle M;Arthur J;Anyanwu L;Ibrahim J;Warwick A;Redman CWE;O'Brien PMS;. Title: A randomised prospective study comparing the new vacuum extractor policy with forceps delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1993Already included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Fraser WD;Marcoux S;Moutquin JM;Christen A;. Title: Effect of early amniotomy on the risk of dystocia in nulliparous women. The Canadian Early Amniotomy Study Group.[see comment]. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 1993 Apr 22Not relevant
Authors: Freeman RM;Macaulay AJ;Eve L;. Title: Randomised trial of self hypnosis for analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1986Not relevant
Authors: Garite TJ;Porto M;Carlson NJ;Rumney PJ;Reimbold PA;. Title: The influence of elective amniotomy on fetal heart rate patterns and the course of labor in term patients: A randomized study. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993Not relevant
Authors: Gonzalez-Gonzalez NL;Bencomo MV;Trujillo JL;Parache J;. Title: A comparative study of the intraamniotic pressure values generated with two nipple stimulation techniques and with oxytocin. Journal Name: Clinica e Investigacion en Ginecologia y Obstetricia. Year: 1993Not relevant
Authors: Goodfellow CF;Studd C;. Title: The reduction of forceps in primagravidae with epidural analgesia - A controlled trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Clinical Practice. Year: 1979in SR
Authors: Guerresi E;Gori G;Beccari A;. Title: Influence of spasmolytic treatment and amniotomy on delivery times: A factorial clinical trial. Journal Name: Clinical Therapeutics. Year: 1981Not relevant
Authors: Habiba M;. Title: Randomised trial of amniotomy in labour versus the intention to leave membranes intact until second stage. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1993 JanNot relevant
Authors: Hammar M;Bostrom K;Borgvall B;. Title: Comparison between the influence of methylergometrine and oxytocin on the incidence of retained placenta in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1990Not relevant
Authors: Hawkins RMF;. Title: A systematic meta-review of hypnosis as an empirically supported treatment for pain. Journal Name: Pain Reviews. Year: 2001Not relevant
Authors: Henderson J;. Title: Active management of labour and caesarean section rates. (Reviews the research evidence including randomized controlled trials). Journal Name: British Journal of Midwifery. Year: 147Not relevant
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Nikodem VC;de JM;Drakely A;. Title: Side-effects of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour - A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Journal Name: South African Medical Journal. Year: 2001Not relevant
Authors: Huber MG;Wildschut HI;Boer K;Kleiverda G;Hoek FJ;. Title: Umbilical vein administration of oxytocin for the management of retained placenta: is it effective?. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991 May
Authors: Kovavisarach E;Rojsangruang S;. Title: Effect of umbilical vein oxytocin injection on the third stage of labor: A randomized controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Year: 1998Not relevant
Authors: Phumdoung S;Good M;. Title: Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain. Journal Name: Pain Management Nursing. Year: 2003 JunNot relevant
Authors: Poeschmann RP;Doesburg WH;Eskes TKAB;. Title: A randomized comparison of oxytocin, sulprostone and placebo in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991Not relevant
Authors: Prendiville WJ;Harding JE;Elbourne DR;Stirrat GM;. Title: The Bristol third stage trial: active versus physiological management of third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1988 Nov 19Not relevant
Authors: Qiu H;Zhu H;Ouyang W;Wang Z;Sun H;. Title: Clinical effects and mechanism of chanlibao in accelerating second stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Tongji Medical University. Year: 1999Not relevant
Authors: Reddy VV;Carey JC;. Title: Effect of umbilical vein oxytocin on puerperal blood loss and length of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1989Not relevant
Authors: Rouse DJ;McCullough C;Wren AL;Owen J;Hauth JC;. Title: Active-phase labor arrest: a randomized trial of chorioamnion management. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1994 JunNot relevant
Authors: Saunders NJ;Spiby H;Gilbert L;Fraser RB;Hall JM;Mutton PM;Jackson A;Edmonds DK;. Title: Oxytocin infusion during second stage of labour in primiparous women using epidural analgesia: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1989 Dec 9Not relevant
Authors: Selinger M;MacKenzie I;Dunlop P;James D;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein oxytocin in the management of retained placenta. A double blind placebo controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986Not relevant

7. Are there effective hygiene strategies for vaginal birth out of water to protect both women and babies, and healthcare professionals?

8. Are there effective hygiene strategies for vaginal birth in water to protect both women and babies, and healthcare professionals?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Bebbington MW;Treissman MJ;. Title: The use of a surgical assist device to reduce glove perforations in postdelivery vaginal repair: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 OctThis is an RCT to investigate the effetiveness of a surgical assisst device in postdelivery vaginal repair. Rejected as this is only relevant during surgical procedure, which is out of the Scope.
Authors: Carty MJ;Chatfield WR;McAllister TA;. Title: Antiseptic prophylaxis of bacteriuria following catheterisation in labour. Journal Name: Current Medical Research and Opinion. Year: 1974The article is on antiseptic prophylaxia following bladder catheter in labour
Authors: Eriksen NL;Sweeten KM;Blanco JD;. Title: Chlorhexidine vs. sterile vaginal wash during labor to prevent neonatal infection. Journal Name: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997Reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Facchinetti F;Piccinini F;Mordini B;Volpe A;. Title: Chlorhexidine vaginal flushings versus systemic ampicillin in the prevention of vertical transmission of neonatal group B streptococcus, at term. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. Year: 2002 FebGBS as outcome
Authors: Kronjager A;Weitzel H;Potel J;Schumann K;. Title: The microflora of the birth canal and the intra-uterine catheter systems after application of polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine for the subpartual disinfection of the vaginal mucosa. Journal Name: Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Perinatologie. Year: 1984This is a Cohort Study investigating microflora by application of polyvinylpirrolydone iodine. Not relevant question
Authors: Rouse DJ;Lincoln T;Cliver S;Lyon MD;Andrews WW;Hauth JC;. Title: Intrapartum chlorhexidine vaginal irrigation and chorioamnion and placental microbial colonization. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year:Reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Rouse DJ;Cliver S;Lincoln TL;Andrews WW;Hauth JC;. Title: Clinical trial of chlorhexidine vaginal irrigation to prevent peripartal infection in nulliparous women. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year:Reviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Rouse DJ;Hauth JC;Andrews WW;Mills BB;Maher JE;. Title: Chlorhexidine vaginal irrigation for the prevention of peripartal infection: a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997 MarReviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Rush J;Fiorino-Chiovitti R;Kaufman K;Mitchell A;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of a nursery ritual: wearing cover gowns to care for healthy newborns. Journal Name: Birth. Year:This is an RCT on Gowns to care for newborns, but in postnatal period.
Authors: Sakakura K;Iwata Y;Hayashi S;. Title: Study on the usefulness of povidone-iodine obstetric cream with special reference to the effect on the thyroid functions of mothers and the newborn. Journal Name: Postgraduate Medical Journal. Year: 1993This is a case-series to investigate thyroid fuctions of mothers and the newborns on povidone-iodine obstetric cream. Not relevant question
Authors: Stade B;Shah V;Ohlsson A;. Title: Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour to prevent early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection. [Review] [42 refs]. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2004GBS as outcome
Authors: Stray-Pedersen B;Bergan T;Hafstad A;Normann E;Grogaard J;Vangdal M;. Title: Vaginal disinfection with chlorhexidine during childbirth. Journal Name: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. Year: 1999 AugNot relevant
Authors: Sweeten KM;Eriksen NL;Blanco JD;. Title: Chlorhexidine versus sterile water vaginal wash during labor to prevent peripartum infection. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997 FebReviewed in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Taha TE;Biggar RJ;Broadhead RL;Mtimavalye LA;Justesen AB;Liomba GN;Chiphangwi JD;Miotti PG;. Title: Effect of cleansing the birth canal with antiseptic solution on maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in Malawi: clinical trial.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1997 Jul 26This is to investigate effect of cleansing the birth canal with antiseptic solution on mothers and newborns in Malawi. The context is different, so that not possible to apply to the UK population.
Authors: Adriaanse AH;Kollee LA;Muytjens HL;Nijhuis JG;de Haan AF;Eskes TK;. Title: Randomized study of vaginal chlorhexidine disinfection during labor to prevent vertical transmission of group B streptococci. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1995 AugGBS as outcome

11. Is there evidence that the timing of admission to maternity units, and of cervical dilatation, affects outcomes?

12. Is there evidence that midwife assessment at home affects outcomes?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Lauzon L;Hodnett E;. Title: Antenatal education for self-diagnosis of the onset of active labour at term. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2003 FebNot relevant
Authors: Gibbs RS;McNabb F;. Title: Randomized clinical trial of intrapartum clindamycin cream for reduction of group B streptococcal maternal and neonatal colonization. Journal Name: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996GBS as outcome
Authors: Kollee LA;Speyer I;van Kuijck MA;Koopman R;Dony JM;Bakker JH;Wintermans RG;. Title: Prevention of group B streptococci transmission during delivery by vaginal application of chlorhexidine gel. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1989 AprGBS as outcome
Authors: Chen HF;Chu KK;. Title: Double-blind nomogram of cervical dilatation in Chinese primigravidas. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1986This is not randomised controlled trial, where there are other RCTs exsiting

13. Is there evidence that the assessment of the following, on admission, and throughout labour and the immediate postnatal period, affect outcomes?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Clement S;. Title: Unwanted vaginal examinations. Journal Name: British Journal of Midwifery. Year: 1994Opinion paper
Authors: Abushaikha L;Oweis A;. Title: Labour pain experience and intensity: a Jordanian perspective. Journal Name: International Journal of Nursing Practice. Year: 2005 FebPostnatal assessment of pain
Authors: Ackerman WE;Andrews PJ;Juneja M;Cases-Cristobal V;Edmonds HP;Rigor BR;. Title: Sensory evoked facial muscle electromyography for the quantification of acute labor pain. Journal Name: Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association. Year: 1994 JanResearch focus, not clinical
Authors: Alexander JM;Sharma SK;McIntire DD;Wiley J;Leveno KJ;. Title: Intensity of labor pain and cesarean delivery. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2001Pain scales not real focus
Authors: Algom D;Lubel S;. Title: Psychophysics in the field: perception and memory for labor pain. Journal Name: Perception and Psychophysics. Year: 1994 FebTheory
Authors: Aya AG;Vialles N;Mangin R;Robert C;Ferrer JM;Ripart J;de La Coussaye JE;. Title: Chronobiology of labour pain perception: an observational study. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 2004 SepNot relevant to pain scales
Authors: Brown S;. Title: Characteristics of labour pain. Journal Name: Nursing Times. Year:Summary of study already included
Authors: Camann W;. Title: Visual analog scale scores for labor pain. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1999 JunLetter - opinion
Authors: Cohen SE;. Title: Statistical analysis of total labor pain using the visual analog scale and application to studies of analgesic effectiveness during childbirth.[comment]. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1999 MayLetter
Authors: Committee on Obstetric Practive ACoOaG;. Title: Pain relief during labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 FebUS legal perspective
Authors: Dexter F;Chestnut DH;. Title: Analysis of statistical tests to compare visual analog scale measurements among groups. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1995 AprStatistical/research focus
Authors: Dias MD;Coler MS;Garcia TR;. Title: Labor pain: a proposed nursing diagnosis. Journal Name: Classification of nursing diagnoses: proceedings of the twelfth conference, North American Nursing D. Year: -32676Commetary
Authors: Hall W;. Title: A comparison of pain rating scales. Journal Name: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Year: 1982Not research-based
Authors: Jimenez SLM;. Title: Pain and comfort. Assessment: the key to effective pain management. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Education. Year:Commentary
Authors: King TL;McCool WF;. Title: The definition and assessment of pain. Journal Name: Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. Year: 2004Commentary
Authors: Kuczkowski KM;. Title: Labor pain and labor analgesia [1]. Journal Name: Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. Year: 2004Letter
Authors: Lowe NK;Walker SN;MacCallum RC;. Title: Confirming the theoretical structure of the McGill Pain Questionnaire in acute clinical pain. Journal Name: Pain. Year: 1991Scale construction
Authors: Lowe NK;. Title: The congruence between in-labor and postpartum self-report of parturition pain as measured by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Journal Name: Chart. Year: 1986 NovResearch focus, not clinical
Authors: Lowe NC;. Title: A psychometric analysis of self-report of labor pain. Journal Name: Dissertation Abstracts International. Year: -32676Postatal assessment
Authors: Ludington E;Dexter F;. Title: Statistical analysis of total labor pain using the visual analog scale and application to studies of analgesic effectiveness during childbirth.. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1998 SepCommentary
Authors: Newton JR;Reading AE;. Title: An analysis of the intensity and quality of gynecological pain. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1980Not labour pain
Authors: Pesce G;. Title: Measurement of reported pain of childbirth: A comparison between Australian and Italian subjects. Journal Name: Pain. Year: 1987? Not administed during labour. Poor quality study.
Authors: Rajan L;. Title: Perceptions of pain and pain relief in labour: the gulf between experience and observation. (14 refs). Journal Name: Midwifery. Year:Not relevant re pain scales
Authors: Reading AE;. Title: A comparison of pain rating scales. Journal Name: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Year: 1980Postnatal assessment of perineal pain
Authors: Reading AE;. Title: A comparison of the McGill Pain Questionnaire in chronic and acute pain. Journal Name: Pain. Year: 1982 JunScale conmstruction
Authors: Reynolds F;. Title: Pain relief in labour. [Review] [36 refs]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1993 NovCommentary
Authors: Waldenstrom U;Bergman V;Vasell G;. Title: The complexity of labor pain: Experiences of 278 women. Journal Name: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996Postnatal assessment
Authors: Wuitchik M;Bakal D;Lipshitz J;. Title: Relationships between pain, cognitive activity and epidural analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Pain. Year: 1990 MayDoes not answer clinical question
Authors: Yerby M;. Title: Managing pain in labour. Part 1: Perceptions of pain. Journal Name: Modern Midwife. Year: 1996 MarCommentary

14. Do the following methods of fetal monitoring affect outcomes?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Alfirevic Z;Walkinshaw SA;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of simple compared with complex antenatal fetal monitoring after 42 weeks of gestation. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1995after 42 weeks
Authors: Alfirevic Z;Neilson JP;. Title: Biophysical profile for fetal assessment in high risk pregnancies. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005high risk preg
Authors: Amer-Wahlin I;Hellsten C;Noren H;Hagberg H;Herbst A;Kjellmer I;Lilja H;Lindoff C;Mansson M;Martensson L;Olofsson P;Sundstrom A;Marsal K;. Title: Cardiotocography only versus cardiotocography plus ST analysis of fetal electrocardiogram for intrapartum fetal monitoring: a Swedish randomised controlled trial.[see comment]. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 2001 Aug 18in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Amer-Wahlin I;Ingemarsson I;Marsal K;Herbst A;. Title: Fetal heart rate patterns and ECG ST segment changes preceding metabolic acidaemia at birth. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2005in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Amer-Wahlin I;Kallen K;Herbst A;Rydhstroem H;Sundstrom A;Marsal K;. Title: Implementation of new medical techniques: Experience from the Swedish randomized controlled trial on fetal ECG during labor. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. Year: 2005in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Banta HD;Thacker SB;. Title: Electronic fetal monitoring: Lessons from a formative case of health technology assessment. Journal Name: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. Year: 2002only a review
Authors: Bernardes J;Costa-Pereira A;. Title: A multicentre comparative study of 17 experts and an intelligent computer system for managing labour using the cardiotocogram. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1996 Mayletter
Authors: Birnie E;Monincx WM;Zondervan HA;Bossuyt PM;Bonsel GJ;. Title: Cost-minimization analysis of domiciliary antenatal fetal monitoring in high-risk pregnancies. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997 Junhigh-risk pregnancy
Authors: Bozoki Z;. Title: Chaos theory and power spectrum analysis in computerized cardiotocography. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1997 Febnot a relevant question
Authors: Bracero LA;Morgan S;Byrne DW;. Title: Comparison of visual and computerized interpretation of nonstress test results in a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999 Novantepartum
Authors: Camann W;Trunfio GV;Kluger R;Steinbrook RA;. Title: Automated ST- segment analysis during cesarean delivery: effects of ECG filtering modality. Journal Name: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. Year: 1996 Novnot relevant question
Authors: Cheyne H;Dunlop A;Shields N;Mathers AM;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of admission electronic fetal monitoring in normal labour. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 2003 Sepin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Chittacharoen A;Chaitum A;Suthutvoravut S;Herabutya Y;. Title: Fetal acoustic stimulation for early intrapartum assessment of fetal well-being. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2000 Junnot a relevant question
Authors: Crozier K;Sinclair M;. Title: Birth technology: electronic fetal monitoring. Journal Name: RCM Midwives Journal. Year: 1999 Mayonly a review
Authors: Dawes GS;Rosevear SK;Pello LC;Moulden M;Redman CWG;. Title: Computerized analysis of episodic changes in fetal heart rate variation in early labor. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Day E;Maddern L;Wood C;. Title: Auscultation of foetal heart rate: an assessment of its error and significance. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1968 Nov 16observational study
Authors: Devane D;Lalor JG;Daly S;McGuire W;. Title: Cardiotocography versus intermittent auscultation of fetal heart on admission to labour ward for assessment of fetal wellbeing. Journal Name: . Year: 2005protocol
Authors: Ellison PH;Foster M;Sheridan-Pereira M;MacDonald D;. Title: Electronic fetal heart monitoring, auscultation, and neonatal outcome. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991 Mayin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Hagberg H;mer-Wahlin I;Hellsten C;Noren H;Herbst A;Lilja H;Lindoff C;Olofsson P;Marsal K;. Title: Intrapartum fetal monitoring: cardiotocography versus cardiotocography plus fetal ECG ST waveform analysis. A swedish randomized controlled trial [abstract]. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2001abstract
Authors: Haverkamp AD;Orleans M;Langendoerfer S;McFee J;Murphy J;Thompson HE;. Title: A controlled trial of the differential effects of intrapartum fetal monitoring. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1979 Jun 15in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Herbst A;Ingemarsson I;. Title: Intermittent versus continuous electronic monitoring in labour: a randomised study. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1994 Augin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Hill-Smith I;. Title: Professional and patient perspectives of NICE guidelines to abandon maternal monitoring of fetal movements.[see comment]. [Review] [39 refs]. Journal Name: British Journal of General Practice. Year: 2004 Novonly a review
Authors: Hornbuckle J;Vail A;Abrams KR;Thornton JG;. Title: Bayesian interpretation of trials: the example of intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2000not a relevant question
Authors: Impey L;Reynolds M;MacQuillan K;Gates S;Murphy J;Sheil O;. Title: Admission cardiotocography: a randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 2003 Feb 8SR
Authors: Kelso IM;Parsons RJ;Lawrence GF;Arora SS;Edmonds DK;Cooke ID;. Title: An assessment of continuous fetal heart rate monitoring in labor. A randomized trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1978 Jul 1in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Killien MG;Shy K;. Title: A randomized trial of electronic fetal monitoring in preterm labor: mothers' views. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1989 Marpreterm labour
Authors: Kruse J;. Title: Long-term reactions of women to electronic fetal monitoring during labor. Journal Name: Journal of Family Practice. Year: 1984not relevant
Authors: Kwee A;Graziosi GC;Schagen van Leeuwen JH;van Venrooy FV;Bennink D;Mol BW;Cohlen BJ;Visser GH;. Title: The effect of immersion on haemodynamic and fetal measures in uncomplicated pregnancies of nulliparous women. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2000 Maywater birth
Authors: ldy III GA;. Title: Intrapartum assessment of the fetus: Historical and evidence-based practice. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. Year: 2005only a review
Authors: Leveno KJ;Cunningham FG;Nelson S;Roark M;Williams ML;Guzick D;Dowling S;Rosenfeld CR;Buckley A;. Title: A prospective comparison of selective and universal electronic fetal monitoring in 34,995 pregnancies. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 1986 Sep 4in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Luzietti R;Erkkola R;Hasbargen U;Mattson LA;Thoulon JM;Rosen KG;. Title: European Community Multicentre Trial 'Fetal ECG Analysis During Labour': the P-R interval. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1997in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Luzietti R;Erkkola R;Hasbargen U;Mattsson LA;Thoulon JM;Rosen KG;. Title: European Community Multi-Center Trial 'Fetal ECG Analysis During Labor': ST plus CTG analysis. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1999in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: MacDonald D;Grant A;Sheridan-Pereira M;Boylan P;Chalmers I;. Title: The Dublin randomized controlled trial of intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1985 Jul 1in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Maesel A;Sladkevicius P;Valentin L;Marsal K;. Title: Effect of vibroacoustic stimulation on blood circulation in the middle cerebral and umbilical arteries in healthy term fetuses. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal Investigation. Year: 1994in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Mahomed K;Nyoni R;Mlambo T;Jacobus E;Kasule J;. Title: Intrapartum foetal heart rate monitoring--continuous electronic versus intermittent Doppler--a randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: Central African Journal of Medicine. Year: 1992 Decin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Mangesi L;Hofmeyr GJ;. Title: Fetal movement counting for assessment of fetal well-being. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2004protocol
Authors: Marden D;McDuffie RS;Allen R;Abitz D;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of a new fetal acoustic stimulation test for fetal well-being. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997 Junin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Mires G;Williams F;Howie P;. Title: Randomised controlled trial of cardiotocography versus Doppler auscultation of fetal heart at admission in labour in low risk obstetric population. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 2001 Jun 16in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Neldam S;Osler M;Hansen PK;Nim J;Smith SF;Hertel J;. Title: Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring in a combined low- and high-risk population: a controlled clinical trial. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1986 Octnot an RCT
Authors: Noren H;mer-Wahlin I;Hagberg H;Herbst A;Kjellmer I;Marsal K;Olofsson P;Rosen KG;. Title: Fetal electrocardiography in labor and neonatal outcome: data from the Swedish randomized controlled trial on intrapartum fetal monitoring.[see comment]. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003 Janin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Olofsson P;. Title: Current status of intrapartum fetal monitoring: cardiotocography versus cardiotocography + ST analysis of the fetal ECG. [Review] [21 refs]. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 2003 Sep 22in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Parsons RJ;. Title: Controlled randomized trial of fetal heart rate monitoring. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1983 Jancorrespondence
Authors: Pattison N;McCowan L;. Title: Cardiotocography for antepartum fetal assessment. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005antepartum
Authors: Petrovic O;Skunca E;Matejcic N;. Title: A simplified fetal biophysical profile. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1998 Aprnot a relevant question
Authors: Prentice A;Lind T;. Title: Fetal heart rate monitoring during labour--too frequent intervention, too little benefit?.. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1987 Dec 12observational
Authors: Reed NN;Sahota DS;Mohajer MP;Van WW;James DK;Symonds EM;. Title: Plymouth randomized control trial of cardiotocogram only versus ST waveform plus cardiotocogram for intrapartum monitoring in 2400 cases. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1994 Sepletter
Authors: Rosen KG;mer-Wahlin I;Luzietti R;Noren H;. Title: Fetal ECG waveform analysis. [Review] [42 refs]. Journal Name: Best Practice and Research in Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2004 Junonly a review
Authors: Ross MG;Devoe LD;Rosen KG;. Title: ST-segment analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram improves fetal heart rate tracing interpretation and clinical decision making. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. Year: 2004 Marin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Sandmire HF;. Title: A randomized trial of intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring versus intermittent auscultation. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993 Novletter
Authors: Saracoglu F;Gol K;Sahin I;Turkkani B;Oztopcu C;. Title: The predictive value of fetal acoustic stimulation. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1999 Marobservational study
Authors: Schiff E;Lipitz S;Sivan E;Barkai G;Mashiach S;. Title: Acoustic stimulation as a diagnostic test: comparison with oxytocin challenge test. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1992not a relevant question
Authors: Shariati MA;Dripps JH;Shariati H;Boddy K;. Title: Linear time series analysis of long term fetal heart rate variability patterns. Journal Name: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation. Year: 1993not relevant question
Authors: Shy KK;Luthy DA;Bennett FC;Whitfield M;Larson EB;van Belle G;Hughes JP;Wilson JA;Stenchever MA;. Title: Effects of electronic fetal-heart-rate monitoring, as compared with periodic auscultation, on the neurologic development of premature infants. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 1990 Mar 1in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Strachan BK;van Wijngaarden WJ;Sahota D;Chang A;James DK;. Title: Cardiotocography only versus cardiotocography plus PR-interval analysis in intrapartum surveillance: a randomised, multicentre trial. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 2000in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Tan KH;Sabapathy A;. Title: Fetal manipulation for facilitating tests of fetal wellbeing. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005antepartum
Authors: Tan KH;Smyth R;. Title: Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation for facilitation of tests of fetal wellbeing. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005antepartum
Authors: Tan KH;Sabapathy A;. Title: Maternal glucose administration for facilitating tests of fetal wellbeing. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library (Oxford) ** 2005;(4): (ID #CD003397). Year:antepartum
Authors: Thacker SB;Stroup D;Chang M;. Title: Continuous electronic heart rate monitoring for fetal assessment during labor. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library (Oxford) ** 2005;(4): (ID #CD000063). Year:updated
Authors: Thacker SB;Stroup DF;Peterson HB;. Title: Efficacy and safety of intrapartum electronic fetal monitoring: an update. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1995 Octonly a review
Authors: Thompson MS;. Title: Decision-analytic determination of study size. The case of electronic fetal monitoring. Journal Name: Medical Decision Making. Year: 1981not a relevant question
Authors: Vintzileos AM;Antsaklis AJ;Varvarigos I;Karaiskakis P;Gazis I;Pappas C;Sofatiszis I;Montgomery JT;. Title: A prospective randomized trial of intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring vs intermittent auscultation. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993conference paper
Authors: Vintzileos AM;Antsaklis A;Varvarigos I;Papas C;Sofatzis I;Montgomery JT;. Title: A randomized trial of intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring versus intermittent auscultation. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993 Junin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Vintzileos AM;Nochimson DJ;Guzman ER;Knuppel RA;Lake M;Schifrin BS;. Title: Intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring versus intermittent auscultation: a meta-analysis. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1995 Janin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Westgate J;Harris M;Curnow JSH;Greene KR;. Title: Plymouth randomized trial of CTG vs ST waveform analysis plus CTG for intrapartum monitoring: 2400 cases. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1992conference paper
Authors: Westgate J;Harris M;Curnow JS;Greene KR;. Title: Plymouth randomized trial of cardiotocogram only versus ST waveform plus cardiotocogram for intrapartum monitoring in 2400 cases. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993 Novin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Westgate J;Harris M;Curnow JS;Greene KR;. Title: Randomised trial of cardiotocography alone or with ST waveform analysis for intrapartum monitoring. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1992 Jul 25in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Wood C;Renou P;Oats J;Farrell E;Beischer N;Anderson I;. Title: A controlled trial of fetal heart rate monitoring in a low-risk obstetric population. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1981 Nov 1in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Zimmer EZ;Talmon R;Makler-Shiran E;Jakobi P;. Title: Effect of vibroacoustic stimulation on fetal meconium passage in labor. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1996 Febonly a review
Authors: Zimmer EZ;Divon MY;. Title: Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation. [Review] [61 refs]. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993 Maronly a review
Authors: Aarnoudse JG;Cornel M;Smits TM;. Title: Oxygen tension in the fetal scalp during labour. Journal Name: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Year: 1985not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Acien P;Salvatierra V;Navarrete L;. Title: Fetal heart rate deceleration index-- its relation with fetal pH, Apgar score and dips or decelerations. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1979no relationship reported on pH and Apgar
Authors: Ahmed B;Ghaffari Z;Abukhalil MZ;. Title: The relationship between intrapartum amniotic fluid index, fetal distress and fetal acidemia. Journal Name: Saudi Medical Journal. Year: 2004not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Akhtar MS;. Title: Maternal-fetal e.c.g. conduction with intrapartum fetal death; confirmation by fetal blood sampling. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Beard RW;Morris ED;Clayton SG;. Title: Foetal blood sampling in clinical obstetrics. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. Year: 1966 Augdata unable to be extracted
Authors: Beard RW;Morris ED;Clayton SG;. Title: pH of foetal capillary blood as an indicator of the condition of the foetus. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. Year: 1967 Decin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Beguin F;Yeh SY;Forsythe A;Hon EH;. Title: A study of fetal heart rate deceleration areas. II. Correlation between deceleration areas and fetal pH during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1975 Marnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Benacerraf BR;Barss VA;Saltzman DH;Greene MF;Penso CA;Frigoletto FD;. Title: Acute fetal distress associated with percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1987 Maynot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Benacerraf BR;Barss VA;Saltzman DH;Greene MF;Penso CA;Frigoletto FD;. Title: Fetal abnormalities: diagnosis or treatment with percutaneous umbilical blood sampling under continuous US guidance. Journal Name: Radiology. Year: 1988 Jannot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Bergmans MG;Van Geijn HP;Weber T;Nickelsen C;Schmidt S;van den Berg PP;. Title: Fetal transcutaneous PCO2 measurements during labour. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1993 Sepnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Boenisch H;Saling E;. Title: The reliability of pH-values in fetal blood samples - A study of the second stage. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1976no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Bonds DR;Cheek TG;Crosby LO;Gutsche BB;. Title: Term human fetal umbilical vein oxygen content, placental weight, and maternal blood pressure. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1987not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Bowes WA;. Title: Intrapartum fetal surveillance and fetal scalp blood sampling. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1986 Augcorrespondence
Authors: Brandt H;Rabe B;Stude I;Fischer WM;. Title: Validity of nomograms relating the tensions of respiratory gases and pH in fetal blood. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1980no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Bretscher J;Saling E;. Title: pH values in the human fetus during labor. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1967 Apr 1not relavant outcomes reported
Authors: Butterwegge M;. Title: Fetal pulse oximetry and non-reassuring heart rate. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1997 Marnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Carbonne B;Audibert F;Segard L;Sebban E;Cabrol D;Papiernik E;. Title: Fetal pulse oximetry: correlation between changes in oxygen saturation and neonatal outcome. Preliminary report on 39 cases. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1994 Novoximetry
Authors: Chamberlain G;. Title: Checking for fetal wellbeing-II: Tests in late pregnancy (29–40 weeks). Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1991not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Chatterjee MS;. Title: Biochemical monitoring of intrapartum fetus. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1988this is a review
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Authors: Daffos F;Capella-Pavlovsky M;Forestier F;. Title: A new procedure for fetal blood sampling in utero: preliminary results of fifty-three cases. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1983 Aug 15not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: De La Rama FE Jr;Merkatz IR;. Title: Evaluation of fetal scalp pH with a proposed new clinical assessment of the neonate. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1970 May 1in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: De la FP;Garcia JM;Ordas J;Elvira JI;. Title: Continuous recording of fetal pH during labor. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Douglas K;. Title: Blood gas corner 22. Fetal scalp blood sample values: Is immediate delivery indicated?. Journal Name: RC. Year: 1989this is a brief review
Authors: Dunn PA;Weiner S;Ludomirski A;. Title: Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. Journal Name: JOGNN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing. Year: 1988 Sepnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: East CE;Dunster KR;Colditz PB;Nath CE;Earl JW;. Title: Fetal oxygen saturation monitoring in labour: An analysis of 118 cases. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: East CE;Dunster KR;Colditz PB;. Title: Fetal oxygen saturation and uterine contractions during labor. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1998oximetry
Authors: East CE;Chan FY;Colditz PB;. Title: Fetal pulse oximetry for fetal assessment in labour. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library (Oxford) ** 2005;(4): (ID #CD004075). Year:oximetry
Authors: East CE;Colditz PB;Dunster KR;Soo KK;. Title: Human fetal intrapartum oxygen saturation monitoring: Agreement between readings from two sensors on the same fetus. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Edrich T;Rall G;Knitza R;. Title: Fetal pulse oximetry: influence of tissue blood content and hemoglobin concentration in a new in-vitro model. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1997 Marnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Eguiluz A;Lopez BA;McPherson K;. Title: The use of intrapartum fetal blood lactate measurements for the early diagnosis of fetal distress. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1983no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Fernandez A;Martinez M;. Title: Fetal pulse oximetry. Intrapartum foetal hypoxia evaluation. Comparative study with invasive techniques concerning foetal welfare. Journal Name: Anales del sistema sanitario de Navarra. Year: 2004oximetry
Authors: Flynn AM;Kelly J;. Title: The continuous measurement of tissue pH in the human fetus during labour using a new application technique. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1980not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Galloway RK;. Title: Clinical experience with fetal blood pH measurement in fetal distress. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. Year: 1970 Julin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Gardosi JO;Schram CM;Symonds EM;. Title: Adaptation of pulse oximetry for fetal monitoring during labour.[see comment]. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1991 May 25not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Giffei JM;Saling E;. Title: First experience with continuous pH measurements on fetus during delivery. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Gorenberg DM;Pattillo C;Hendi P;Rumney PJ;Garite TJ;. Title: Fetal pulse oximetry: correlation between oxygen desaturation, duration, and frequency and neonatal outcomes. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003 Juloximetry
Authors: Grandjean H;Centa M;Giroux M;Rorive C;Kobuch W;Pontonnier G;. Title: Transcutaneous carbon dioxide measurements in the fetus during labor. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1987not relevant
Authors: Hasenburg A;Bauerle M;Waterman D;Wurstlein R;Moberg K;Kleiber S;Grab D;Kieback DG;. Title: European experience with a novel noninvasive sensor for intra- amniotic or extra-amniotic evaluation of fetal oxygen saturation. Journal Name: Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation. Year: 2003 Sepnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Henner H;Ehrsam A;Haller U;. Title: Continuous tissue pH measurement on the fetus during delivery. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Hochberg HM;. Title: Multicenter clinical trials of fetal pH monitoring in the U.S.A. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Hochberg HM;. Title: New instrument developments for fetal pH monitoring. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Hon EH;Khazin AF;Paul RH;. Title: Biochemical studies of the fetus. II. Fetal pH and apgar scores. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1969 Febin the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Hon EH;Khazin AF;. Title: Biochemical studies of the fetus. I. The fetal pH- measuring system. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1969 Febno relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Huch A;Huch R;Schneider H;Rooth G;. Title: Continuous transcutaneous monitoring of fetal oxygen tension during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1977not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Huch A;Huch R;Schneider H;. Title: Fetal transcutaneous PO2--current knowledge. Journal Name: Birth Defects: Original Article Series. Year: 1979not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Huch A;Huch R;. Title: Physiological insights based on fetal tcPO2 monitoring. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1981not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Huch A;. Title: Transcutaneous blood gas monitoring. Journal Name: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Year: 1995not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Humblet J;van GF;. Title: Clinical experience with fetal continuous monitoring by pH electrode. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Irvine LM;Shaw RW;. Title: Fetal blood sampling and caesarean section for fetal distress; results of a pilot study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1989no relevant outcome reported
Authors: Izumi A;Minakami H;Sato I;. Title: Accuracy and utility of a new reflectance pulse oximeter for fetal monitoring during labor. Journal Name: Journal of Clinical Monitoring. Year: 1997oximetry
Authors: Izumi A;Minakami H;Sato I;. Title: Fetal heart rate decelerations precede a decrease in fetal oxygen content. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1997not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Janecek P;Bossart H;. Title: Clinical aspects of continuous tissular pH measurements of the newborn and the fetus. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Johanson RB;Rice C;Shokr A;Doyle M;Chenoy R;O'Brien PM;. Title: ST- waveform analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram could reduce fetal blood sampling.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1992 Febnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Johnson N;Lilford RJ;. Title: Continuous intrapartum measurement of fetal oxygen saturation. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1988oximetry
Authors: Johnson N;Johnson VA;Bannister J;Lilford RJ;. Title: The accuracy of fetal pulse oximetry in the second stage of labour. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1991oximetry
Authors: Johnson N;Johnson VA;Bannister J;Lilford RJ;. Title: The accuracy of fetal pulse oximetry in the second stage of labor. Journal Name: Neonatal Intensive Care. Year: 1992oximetry
Authors: Kellner KR;Key TC;Cruz AC;Spellacy WN;. Title: Evaluation of a continuous tissue pH monitor in the human fetus during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1980not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Kuhnert M;Schmidt S;. Title: Intrapartum management of nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns: a randomized controlled trial of fetal pulse oximetry. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2004 Decoximetry
Authors: Lauersen NH;Miller FC;Paul RH;. Title: Continuous intrapartum monitoring of fetal scalp pH. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1979 Jan 1no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Lauersen NH;Miller F;Paul RH;. Title: Evaluation of continuous fetal scalp pH during labor. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Leszczynska-Gorzelak B;Poniedzialek-Czajkowska E;Oleszczuk J;. Title: Fetal blood saturation during the 1st and 2nd stage of labor and its relation to the neonatal outcome. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 2002not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Leszczynska-Gorzelak B;Poniedzialek-Czajkowska E;Oleszczuk J;. Title: Intrapartum cardiotocography and fetal pulse oximetry in assessing fetal hypoxia. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2002 Janoximetry
Authors: Liedtke B;Agorastos T;Schleuter H;. Title: Continuous transcutaneous monitoring of fetal oxygen tension and fetal heart rate pattern in the cardiotocogram. Journal Name: Birth Defects: Original Article Series. Year: 1979not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Lissauer TJ;Steer PJ;. Title: The relation between the need for intubation at birth, abnormal cardiotocograms in labour and cord artery blood gas and pH values. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986 Octnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Liston R;Crane J;Hamilton E;Hughes O;Kuling S;MacKinnon C;McNamara H;Milne K;Richardson B;Trepanie MJ;Working Group on Fetal Health Surveillance in Labor EaCMMCCPGCaACSoOaGC;Canadian Medical Protection Association.;. Title: Fetal health surveillance in labour.. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2002 Marnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Lofgren O;. Title: Continuous transcutaneous carbon dioxide measurement from the fetal scalp during labor and during first minutes of extrauterine life. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1987not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Lofgren O;. Title: pH measurement from the fetus during labor. A task for the midwife?. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1984not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Lofgren O;Jacobson L;. Title: tcPO2 monitoring of the fetus and mother during normal labor. Journal Name: Birth Defects: Original Article Series. Year: 1979not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Lopez BA;MacKenzie IZ;. Title: Corticosteroid levels in human fetal blood at midgestation and at term. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1987 Jannot relevant
Authors: Lumley J;McKinnon L;Wood C;. Title: Lack of agreement on normal values for fetal scalp blood. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. Year: 1971 Jannot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Lumley J;Wood C;. Title: Unexpected oxygen tensions in fetal acidosis. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1973no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Luttkus A;Fengler TW;Friedmann W;Dudenhausen JW;. Title: Continuous monitoring of fetal oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1995 Feboximetry
Authors: Luttkus AK;Lubke M;Buscher U;Porath M;Dudenhausen JW;. Title: Accuracy of fetal pulse oximetry. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2002 Mayoximetry
Authors: Luttkus AK;Stupin JH;Callsen TA;Dudenhausen JW;. Title: Feasibility of simultaneous application of fetal electrocardiography and fetal pulse oximetry. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2003 Maynot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Luttkus AK;Callsen TA;Stupin JH;Dudenhausen JW;. Title: Pulse oximetry during labour--does it give rise to hope? Value of saturation monitoring in comparison to fetal blood gas status. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 2003 Sep 22not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: McNamara H;Johnson N;. Title: Fetal monitoring by pulse oximetry and CTG... reprinted from J Perinat Med 22(1994) 475–480, copyright 1993 by Walter de Gruyter & Co, Berlin, New York. Journal Name: Neonatal Intensive Care. Year: 1994oximetry
Authors: Murayama K;Ko Z;Kawakami H;Kusakabe M;Saito K;. Title: Fiberoptic oximeter for fetuses and neonates. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1973 Apr 15oximetry
Authors: Nickelsen C;Thomsen SG;Weber T;. Title: Continuous acid-base assessment of the human fetus during labour by tissue pH and transcuteanous carbon dioxide monitoring. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1985no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Nickelsen C;Weber T;. Title: Continuous fetal acid-base assessment during labour by tc-pCO2 monitoring. Journal Name: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Year: 1987not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Nickelsen C;Weber T;. Title: Continuous transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring during human labour. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1988not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Nickelsen C;Weber T;. Title: Normal range of fetal transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1988 Marno comparison
Authors: Nordstrom L;Ingemarsson I;Persson B;Shimojo N;Westgren M;. Title: Lactate in fetal scalp blood and umbilical artery blood measured during normal labor with a test strip method. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1994not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Okamura K;Watanabe T;Endo H;Tanigawara S;Iwamoto M;Murotsuki J;Uehara S;Yajima A;. Title: Biophysical profile and its relation to fetal blood gas level obtained by cordocentesis. Journal Name: Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi - Acta Obstetrica et Gynaecologica Japonica. Year: 1991 Novnto relevant outcome reported
Authors: Okane M;Shigemitsu S;Inaba J;Koresawa M;Kubo T;Iwasaki H;. Title: Non-invasive continuous fetal transcutaneous pO2 and pCO2 monitoring during labor. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1989not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Pearse KE;Paul RH;. Title: Comparison of fetal scalp blood pH measurement with an automated blood microprocessor and a clinical blood gas laboratory. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1982not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Peat S;Booker M;Lanigan C;Ponte J;. Title: Continuous intrapartum measurement of fetal oxygen saturation. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1988 Jul 23letter
Authors: Picard C;Ben-Ayed H;. Title: Continuous fetal pH monitoring. Preliminary results. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
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Authors: Rice PE;Benedetti TJ;. Title: Fetal heart rate acceleration with fetal blood sampling. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1986not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Salamalekis E;Vitoratos N;Loghis C;Panayotopoulos N;Kassanos D;Creatsas G;. Title: Evaluation of fetal heart rate patterns during the second stage of labor through fetal oximetry. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1999not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Salamalekis E;Vitoratos N;Loghis C;Kassanos D;Salloum I;Batalias L;Creatsas G;. Title: Evaluation of non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns with fetal pulse oximetry combined with vibratory acoustic stimulation. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. Year: 2003 Feboximetry
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Authors: Saling E;. Title: Amnioscopy and foetal blood sampling: observations on foetal acidosis. Journal Name: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Year: 1966 Octnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Sameshima H;Ikenoue T;. Title: Predictive value of late decelerations for fetal acidemia in unselective low-risk pregnancies. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 2005no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Schmidt S;. Title: Clinical experience on tcPco2 during labor. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1987not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Schmidt S;Koslowski S;Sierra F;Meyer-Wittkopf M;Heller G;. Title: Clinical usefulness of pulse oximetry in the fetus with non-reassuring heart rate pattern?[see comment]. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 2000not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Schmidt S;Saling E;. Title: Comparative study of application techniques for the tcPCO2 measurement in the fetus. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1987not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Schmidt S;Langner K;Dudenhausen JW;Saling E;. Title: Measurement of transcutaneous pCO2 and pO2 in the fetus during labor. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1985not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Schmidt S;. Title: Methodology and clinical value of transcutaneous blood gas measurements in the fetus. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1988not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Schmidt SC;Saling EZ;. Title: The continuous measurement of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (TcPCO2), an atraumatic tool to verify fetal acidosis?. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1987 Octnot relevant outcomes reported
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Authors: Seeds AE;. Title: Maternal-fetal acid-base relationships and fetal scalp-blood analysis. Journal Name: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1978not relevant outcomes reported
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Authors: Smith NC;Soutter WP;Sharp F;. Title: Fetal scalp blood lactate as an indicator of intrapartum hypoxia. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1983data unable to be extracted
Authors: Smith NC;Quinn MC;Soutter WP;Sharp F;. Title: Rapid whole blood lactate measurement in the fetus and mother during labour. Journal Name: Early Human Development. Year: 1979 Marnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Stange L;. Title: Fetal tcPO2 and FHR variability. Journal Name: Birth Defects: Original Article Series. Year: 1979not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Steer PJ;. Title: Is fetal blood sampling and pH estimation helpful or harmful?. Journal Name: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Year: 1987 Novnot relevant outcomes reported
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Authors: Tatelbaum RC;Rosen MG;. Title: Applicability and acceptability of fetal scalp blood sampling technic. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1968 Augnot relevant outcomes reported
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Authors: Van den BP;Schmidt S;Gesche J;Saling E;. Title: Fetal distress and the condition of the newborn using cardiotocography and fetal blood analysis during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1987the question is slightly different (with CTG)
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Authors: Weber T;Hahn-Pedersen S;. Title: Analysis of sixty consecutive cases of continuous fetal pH measurement. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Weber T;. Title: Continuous fetal scalp tissue pH monitoring during labor. An analysis of 152 consecutive cases. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1980not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Weber T;Hahn-Pedersen S;Bock JE;. Title: Continuous fetal tissue pH recordings during labour. A preliminary report. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1978 Octno relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Weber T;Hahn-Pedersen S;. Title: Normal values for fetal scalp tissue pH during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1979 Sepno comparison
Authors: Weber T;Nickelsen C;. Title: Tissue pH/pCO2 and continuous base excess monitoring in the human fetus. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1988this is a review
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Authors: Williams KP;Galerneau F;. Title: Intrapartum fetal heart rate patterns in the prediction of neonatal acidemia. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year:no relevant outcomes reported
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Authors: Young BK;Noumoff J;Klein SA;Katz M;. Title: Continuous fetal tissue pH measurement in labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1978 Novnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Young BK;. Title: Continuous fetal tissue pH monitoring in labor. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1981this is a review
Authors: Young BK;Katz M;Klein SA;. Title: The relationship of heart rate patterns and tissue pH in the human fetus. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1979 Jul 15no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Zacutti A;Ciuffi FG;. Title: Experience with continuous tissue pH electrode in the human fetus during labor. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology. Year: 1978 Sep 1not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Zanini B;Paul RH;Huey JR;. Title: Intrapartum fetal heart rate: Correlation with scalp pH in the preterm fetus. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1980not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Zourabian A;Siegel A;Chance B;Ramanujan N;Rode M;Boas DA;. Title: Trans-abdominal monitoring of fetal arterial blood oxygenation using pulse oximetry. Journal Name: Journal of Biomedical Optics. Year: 2000 Octoximetry
Authors: Bryce RL;Halperin ME;Sinclair JC;. Title: Association between indicators of perinatal asphyxia and adverse outcome in the term infant: a methodological review.. Journal Name: Neuroepidemiology. Year: 1985review
Authors: Strickland DM;Gilstrap LC;Hauth JC;Widmer K;. Title: Umbilical cord pH and PCO2: effect of interval from delivery to determination. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1984 Jan 15not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Waugh J;Johnson A;Farkas A;. Title: Analysis of cord blood gas at delivery: questionnaire study of practice in the United Kingdom. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 2001 Sep 29not relevant
Authors: Apgar V;James LS;. Title: Further observation on the newborn scoring system. Journal Name: American Journal of Diseases of Children. Year: 1962included in the systematic review
Authors: Apgar V;. Title: Proposal for new method of evaluation of newborn infant. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1953review
Authors: De Jonge A;Lagro-Janssen AL;. Title: Birthing positions. A qualitative study into the views of women about various birthing positions. Journal Name: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2004 MarSmall, scale qualitative study.
Authors: Dildy GA;Thorp JA;Yeast JD;Clark SL;. Title: The relationship between oxygen saturation and pH in umbilical blood: implications for intrapartum fetal oxygen saturation monitoring. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 Sepnot relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Drage JS;. Title: The Apgar Score as an index of neonatal mortality. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1964too old
Authors: Nordstrom L;Achanna S;Naka K;Arulkumaran S;. Title: Fetal and maternal lactate increase during active second stage of labour.[see comment]. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2001 Marno relevant otucome reported
Authors: Pel M;Treffers PE;. Title: The reliability of the result of the umbilical cord pH. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1983not relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Yudkin PL;Johnson P;Redman CW;. Title: Obstetric factors associated with cord blood gas values at birth. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1987 Marthis is about cord gas

15. Is there evidence of factors or interventions that affect outcomes in term prelabour rupture of the membranes?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Myles TD;Santolaya-Forgas J;. Title: Normal ultrasonic evaluation of amniotic fluid in low-risk patients at term. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Year: 2002 AugDoes not include women with PRoM
Authors: . Title: Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: a public health perspective. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Journal Name: MMWR - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Year: 1996 May 31Group B Strep. outside scope of this guideline
Authors: . Title: ACOG Practice Bulletin: Prophylactic antibiotics in labor and delivery. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2004Brief overview summary of evidence and current practice - does not include prelabour RoM at term
Authors: Akyol D;Mungan T;Unsal A;Yuksel K;. Title: Prelabour rupture of the membranes at term--no advantage of delaying induction for 24 hours. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1999 AugIncluded in systematic review
Authors: Alcalay M;Reichman B;Lipitz S;Hourvitz A;Chayen B;Mashiach S;Barkai G;. Title: A prospective randomized study of premature rupture of membranes at term: early induction of labor vs expectant management. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: -32676 AprOutside scope/include in Induction of Labour Guideline
Authors: Alcalay M;Hourvitz A;Reichman B;Luski A;Quint J;Barkai G;Mashiach S;Lipitz S;. Title: Prelabour rupture of membranes at term: early induction of labour versus expectant management. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996 Dec 27Outside scope - Covered in Induction of Labour guideline
Authors: Alexander JM;Mercer BM;Miodovnik M;Thurnau GR;Goldenberg RL;Das AF;Meis PJ;Moawad AH;Iams JD;VanDorsten JP;Paul RH;Dombrowski MP;Roberts JM;McNellis D. Title: The impact of digital cervical examination on expectantly managed preterm rupture of membranes. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000Preterm rupture of membranes
Authors: Brelje MC;Kaltreider DF;. Title: The use of vaginal antibiotics in premature rupture of the membranes. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1966 AprPre-term
Authors: Brocklehurst P;Gates S;Kenzie-McHarg K;Alfirevic Z;Chamberlain G;. Title: Are we prescribing multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids? A survey of practice in the UK. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1999Antenatal intervention
Authors: Cararach V;Botet F;Sentis J;Almirall R;Perez-Picanol E;. Title: Administration of antibiotics to patients with rupture of membranes at term: a prospective, randomized, multicentric study. Collaborative Group on PROM. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1998 MarIn Cochrane review
Authors: Carbonne B;Goffinet F;Cabrol D;. Title: [Vaginal administration prostaglandin E2 in premature ruptured membranes at term with an unfavorable cervix]. [French]. Journal Name: Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. Year: 1996Covered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Chuileannain FN;Brennecke S;. Title: Prediction of preterm labour in multiple pregnancies. [Review] [78 refs]. Journal Name: Baillieres Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 MarMultiple pregnancy
Authors: Chung T;Rogers MS;Gordon H;Chang A;. Title: Prelabour rupture of the membranes at term and unfavourable cervix; a randomized placebo-controlled trial on early intervention with intravaginal prostaglandin E2 gel. Journal Name: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Year: 1992 FebIncluded in systematic review
Authors: Crane JMG;Young DC;. Title: Induction of labour with a favourable cervix and/or pre-labour rupture of membranes. Journal Name: Best Practice and Research in Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2003Overview/discussion paper
Authors: Dare MR;Crowther CA;Middleton P;. Title: Induction of labour versus expectant management for prelabour rupture of membranes at term (more than 37 weeks). Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Covered in Induction guideline
Authors: De Decker HP;Sharief N;. Title: Prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM). Journal Name: British Journal of Intensive Care. Year: 1995Non RCT
Authors: Di Cecco R;Hannah M;Hodnett E;Foster G;Farine D;Helewa M;. Title: Prelabor rupture of the membranes (PROMS) at term: expectant management at home vs. in hospital. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998 JanSummary paper only. Complete version included.
Authors: Duff P;Huff RW;Gibbs RS;. Title: Management of premature rupture of membranes and unfavorable cervix in term pregnancy. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1984 MayNot in scope/Covered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Duff P;. Title: Premature rupture of the membranes in term patients. [Review] [41 refs]. Journal Name: Seminars in Perinatology. Year: 1996 OctNon-systematic review of methods of induction
Authors: Factor SH;Levine OS;Nassar A;Potter J;Fajardo A;O'Sullivan MJ;Schuchat A;. Title: Impact of a risk-based prevention policy on neonatal group B streptococcal disease. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998 DecCovered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Gafni A;Goeree R;Myhr TL;. Title: Induction of labour versus expectant management for prelabour rupture of the membranes at term: an economic evaluation. Journal Name: Canadian Medical Association Journal. Year: 1997Economic evaluation
Authors: Gonen R;Samberg I;Degani S;. Title: Intracervical prostaglandin E2 for induction of labor in patients with premature rupture of membranes and an unripe cervix. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1994 NovCovered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Granstrom L;Hammarstrom M;Hjertberg R;Moberger B;Berg A;Nordlander E;. Title: Expectant management in nulliparous term pregnant women with premature rupture of membranes and an unripe cervix. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1995In Cochrane review
Authors: Grant JM;Serle E;Mahmood T;Sarmandal P;Conway DI;. Title: Management of prelabour rupture of the membranes in term primigravidae: report of a randomized prospective trial.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1992 JulOutside scope - Covered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Hallak M;Bottoms SF;. Title: Induction of labor in patients with term premature rupture of membranes. Effect on perinatal outcome. Journal Name: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy. Year: 1999 MayRetrospective secondary analysis
Authors: Hannah ME;Ohlsson A;Farine D;Hewson SA;Hodnett ED;Myhr TL;Wang EEL;Weston JA;Willan AR;. Title: Induction of labor compared with expectant management for prelabor rupture of the membranes at term. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 1996Included in Cochrane
Authors: Hannah ME;Ohlsson A;Wang EE;Matlow A;Foster GA;Willan AR;Hodnett ED;Weston JA;Farine D;Seaward PG;. Title: Maternal colonization with group B Streptococcus and prelabor rupture of membranes at term: the role of induction of labor. TermPROM Study Group. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997 OctIncluded in systematic review
Authors: Hidar S;Bibi M;Jerbi M;Bouguizene S;Nouira M;Mellouli R;Chaieb A;Khairi H;. Title: [Contribution of intracervical PGE2 administration in premature rupture of the membranes at term. Prospective randomised clinical trial]. Journal Name: Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. Year: 2000 OctCovered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Hjertberg R;Hammarstrom M;Moberger B;Nordlander E;Granstrom L;. Title: Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) at term in nulliparous women with a ripe cervix. A randomized trial of 12 or 24 hours of expectant management. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1996 JanCovered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Gulmezoglu AM;Nikodem VC;de JM;. Title: Amnioinfusion. [Review] [57 refs]. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996 Febpredates later Cochrane review with no additional studies or information
Authors: Kurki T;Hallman M;Zilliacus R;Teramo K;Ylikorkala O;. Title: Premature rupture of the membranes: effect of penicillin prophylaxis and long-term outcome of the children. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1992 JanPre-term rupture of membranes
Authors: Ladfors L;Mattsson LA;Eriksson M;Fall O;. Title: A randomized prospective trial of two expectant managements of pre-labor rupture of the membranes (PROM) at 34–42 weeks. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: - 32676 FebInckudes pre-term babies
Authors: Ladfors L;Mattsson LA;Eriksson M;Fall O;. Title: A randomised trial of two expectant managements of prelabour rupture of the membranes at 34 to 42 weeks. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1996 AugOutside scope/Covered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Ladfors L;Tessin I;Mattsson LA;Eriksson M;Seeberg S;Fall O;. Title: Risk factors for neonatal sepsis in offspring of women with prelabor rupture of the membranes at 34–42 weeks. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1998Includes babies born at 34–36 weeks.
Authors: Mahmood TA;Dick MJ;Smith NC;Templeton AA;. Title: Role of prostaglandin in the management of prelabour rupture of the membranes at term.. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1992 FebIncluded in systematic review
Authors: Mahmood TA;Dick MJ;. Title: A randomized trial of management of pre-labor rupture of membranes at term in multiparous women using vaginal prostaglandin gel. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1995 JanIncluded in systematic review
Authors: Malik N;Gittens L;Gonzalez D;Bardeguez A;Ganesh V;Apuzzio J;. Title: Clinical amnionitis and endometritis in patients with premature rupture of membranes: endocervical prostaglandin E2 gel versus oxytocin for induction of labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 OctOutside scope/Covered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Milasinovic L;Radeka G;Petrovic D;Orelj M;Savin A;. Title: Premature rupture of the fetal membranes--an active or expectant approach in management of this obstetrical problem (translation). Journal Name: Medicinski Pregled. Year: 1998No English abstract
Authors: Mino M;Puertas A;Miranda JA;Herruzo AJ;. Title: Amnioinfusion in term labor with low amniotic fluid due to rupture of membranes: a new indication. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1999 JanInduced labour
Authors: Monahan E;Katz VL;Cox RL;. Title: Amnioinfusion for preventing puerperal infection. A prospective study. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Year: 1995 OctIncludes preterm babies
Authors: Morales WJ;Lazar AJ;. Title: Expectant management of rupture of membranes at term. Journal Name: Southern Medical Journal. Year: 1986 AugOut of scope - included in IOL Guideline
Authors: Mozurkewich EL;Wolf FM;. Title: Premature rupture of membranes at term: A meta-analysis of three management schemes. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997Outside scope/Covered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Narayan S;Deorari AK;. Title: Steroids in perinatology. Journal Name: Indian Pediatrics. Year: 2002Steroid treatment - not applicable to clinical question
Authors: Natale R;Milne K;Campbell K;Webster K;Halinda E;. Title: Management of premature rupture of membranes at term: randomized trial. Journal Name: 49th Annual Meeting of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Year: 1993Covered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Ottervanger HP;Holm JP;Keirse MJ;. Title: A randomized trial of expectant versus active management for prelabour rupture of the membranes at term. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1992Summary only
Authors: Ottervanger HP;Keirse MJ;Smit W;Holm JP;. Title: Controlled comparison of induction versus expectant care for prelabor rupture of the membranes at term. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1996Included in systematic review
Authors: Ovalle A;Gomez R;Martinez MA;Giglio MS;Bianchi R;Diaz JS;Poblete JP;Romero R;. Title: Antibiotic treatment of patients with term premature rupture of membranes: a randomized clinical trial. Journal Name: Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine. Year: 1998In Cochrane review
Authors: Ozden S;Delikara MN;Avci A;Ficicioglu C;. Title: Intravaginal misoprostol vs. expectant management in premature rupture of membranes with low Bishop scores at term. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2002 MayCovered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Poulain P;Betremieux P;Donnio PY;Proudhon JF;Karege G;Giraud JR;. Title: Selective intrapartum anti-bioprophylaxy of group B streptococci infection of neonates: a prospective study in 2454 subsequent deliveries. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1997 AprOutside scope for IPC guideline
Authors: Rydhstrom H;Ingemarsson I;. Title: No benefit from conservative management in nulliparous women with premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) at term. A randomized study.. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1991In Cochrane
Authors: Seince N;Biquard F;Sarfati R;Barjot P;Foucher F;Lassel L;Levaillant C;M'Bwang SR;Perrotin F;Rachedi N;Guerin O;Pierre F;Descamps P;. Title: [Management of premature rupture of the membranes at term: how long to delay? Results of a prospective multicentric study in 713 cases]. Journal Name: Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. Year: 2001 FebFrench language
Authors: Shalev E;Peleg D;Eliyahu S;Nahum Z;. Title: Comparison of 12- and 72-hour expectant management of premature rupture of membranes in term pregnancies. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1995 MayIncluded in systematic review
Authors: Shoaib F;. Title: Management of premature rupture of membranes with unfavourable cervix at term, by prostaglandins. Journal Name: Specialist. Year: 1994In Cochrane
Authors: Tamsen L;Lyrenas S;Cnattingius S;. Title: Premature rupture of the membranes--intervention or not. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1990Covered in Cochrane review
Authors: Tan BP;Hannah ME;. Title: Prostaglandins versus oxytocin for prelabour rupture of membranes at term. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Covered in Induction guideline
Authors: Tan BP;Hannah ME;. Title: Prostaglandins for prelabour rupture of membranes at or near term. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Outside scope/Covered in Induction of labour guideline
Authors: Tan BP;Hannah ME;. Title: Oxytocin for prelabour rupture of membranes at or near term. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Outside scope/Covered in Induction of Labour guideline
Authors: van der WD;Venter PF;. Title: Management of term pregnancy with premature rupture of the membranes and unfavourable cervix. Journal Name: South African Medical Journal. Year: 1989 Jan 21Covered in Cochrane
Authors: van Heerden J;Steyn DW;. Title: Management of premature rupture of the membranes after 34 weeks' gestation - Early versus delayed induction of labour. Journal Name: South African Medical Journal. Year: 1996Includes pre-term babies
Authors: Webster A;. Title: Management of premature rupture of the fetal membranes. [Review] [22 refs]. Journal Name: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Year: 1969 JunOpinion paper/review
Authors: Woodgate P;Flenady V;Steer P;. Title: Intramuscular penicillin for the prevention of early onset group B streptococcal infection in newborn infants. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Outside scope for IPC guideline
Authors: Yudin MH;. Title: Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: Diagnosis, screening, and management. Journal Name: Clinics in Perinatology. Year: 2005Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Natale R;Milne JK;Campbell MK;Potts PG;Webster K;Halinda E;. Title: Management of premature rupture of membranes at term: randomized trial.. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1994 OctOutside scope - Included in IOL guideline
Authors: Sperling LS;Schantz AL;Wahlin A;Duun S;Jaszczak P;Scherling B;Carstensen AA;Frese S;Hvilsom E;Ploug-Jensen B;. Title: Management of prelabor rupture of membranes at term. A randomized study. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1993 NovOutside scope - Included in IOL guideline
Authors: Duff P;. Title: Premature rupture of the membranes in term patients: Induction of labor versus expectant management. Journal Name: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998Non-systematic review
Authors: Buchanan SL;Crowther CA;Morris J;. Title: Planned early birth versus expectant management for women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes at 34 to 37 weeks' gestation for improving pregnancy outcome. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2006Outside scope - preterm
Authors: Dreyfus M;Baldauf JJ;Boesinger F;Tissier I;Andrianivo J;Lehmann M;Ritter J;. Title: Premature rupture of the membranes at term. Retrospective study of 88 cases. Journal Name: Revue Francaise de Gynecologie et d Obstetrique. Year: 1995French language
Authors: Egan D;O'Herlihy C;. Title: Expectant management of spontaneous rupture of membranes at term. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1988Non-RCT
Authors: Guise JM;Duff P;Christian JS;. Title: Management of term patients with premature rupture of membranes and an unfavorable cervix. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1992 JanOutside scope - included in IOL guideline
Authors: Hubner F;Lower U;. Title: Premature membrane rupture at term: When is the most favorable moment for labor induction?. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1993German language
Authors: Kennett CV;. Title: Use of antibiotics in the management of prelabour rupture of the membranes at term. Journal Name: Medical Journal of Australia. Year: 2000 Aug 21Letter
Authors: Marshall VA;. Title: Management of premature rupture of membranes at or near term. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1993 MayOutside scope - includes 36 week gestation and non-RCT
Authors: Mercer BM;Arheart KL;. Title: Antimicrobial therapy in expectant management of preterm premature rupture of the membranes.[erratum appears in Lancet 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):410].. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1995 Nov 11Pre-term
Authors: Naef III RW;Allbert JR;Ross EL;Weber BM;Martin RW;Morrison JC;. Title: Premature rupture of membranes at 34 to 37 weeks' gestation: Aggressive versus conservative management. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998Outside scope - preterm
Authors: Ovalle A;Martinez M;Giglio M;Bianchi R;Poblete J;Diaz L;Saez J;Gomez R;Romero R;. Title: Antibiotic treatment of patients with term premature rupture of membranes reduces the incidence of infection-related complications. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1995 MarSummary - included in systematic review
Authors: Spinnato JA;. Title: Premature rupture of membranes at term. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1985 Jul 1Letter
Authors: Steinfeld JD;Lenkoski C;Lerer T;Wax JR;Ingardia CJ;. Title: Neonatal morbidity at 34–37 weeks: The role of ruptured membranes. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999Outside scope - preterm
Authors: Yamani Zamzami TY;. Title: Prelabor rupture of membranes at term in low- risk women: Induce or wait?. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2006Non-RCT

16. Is there any evidence that identification and management of meconium-stained liquor affect outcomes?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Alvarez M;Puertas A;Suarez AM;Herruzo A;Miranda JA;. Title: Transcervical amnioinfusion in deliveries with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Journal Name: Progresos en Obstetricia y Ginecologia. Year: 1999In Cochrane review
Authors: Ashfaq F;Shah AA;. Title: Effect of amnioinfusion for meconium stained amniotic fluid on perinatal outcome. Journal Name: JPMA - Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. Year: 2004 JunNon RCT Over half sample unbooked Very different health care system - Pakistan
Authors: Cialone PR;Sherer DM;Ryan RM;Sinkin RA;Abramowicz JS;. Title: Amnioinfusion during labor complicated by particulate meconium-stained amniotic fluid decreases neonatal morbidity. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1994In systematic review
Authors: Cohen-Addad N;Chatterjee M;Bautista A;. Title: Intrapartum suctioning of meconium: comparative efficacy of bulb syringe and De Lee catheter. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1987Not clinically relevant
Authors: Dye T;Aubry R;Gross S;Artal R;. Title: Amnioinfusion and the intrauterine prevention of meconium aspiration.[see comment]. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1994 DecOld systematic review - superceded by recent work
Authors: Eriksen NL;Hostetter M;Varisi VM;. Title: Prophylactic amnioinfusion in pregnancies complicated by thick meconium. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1994In Cochrane
Authors: Genevier ESG;Danielian PJ;Steer PJ;. Title: System for continuous measurement of meconium in clear and blood-stained amniotic fluid during labour. Journal Name: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. Year: 1995Technical/research-based
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;. Title: Amnioinfusion: a question of benefits and risks.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1992 JunOpinion
Authors: Klingner MC;Kruse J;. Title: Meconium aspiration syndrome: pathophysiology and prevention. [Review] [121 refs]. Journal Name: Journal of the American Board of Family Practice. Year: 1999 NovOpinion/discussion
Authors: Lameier LN;Katz VL;. Title: Amnioinfusion: a review. [Review] [39 refs]. Journal Name: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Year: 1993 DecOverview only
Authors: Lo KW;Rogers M;. Title: A controlled trial of amnioinfusion: the prevention of meconium aspiration in labour. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1993 FebNon-RCT
Authors: Macri CJ;Schrimmer DB;Greenspoon JS;Strong Jr TH;Paul RH;. Title: Amnioinfusion does not affect the length of labor. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1992Amnioinfusion for oligohydramnios
Authors: Macri CJ;Schrimmer DB;Leung A;Greenspoon JS;Paul RH;. Title: Prophylactic amnioinfusion improves outcome of pregnancy complicated by thick meconium and oligohydramnios. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1992Systematic review
Authors: Magnin G;Ellia F;Sarfati R;. Title: Prophylactic amnioinfusion during labor: Results of 89 case reports. Journal Name: Reproduction Humaine et Hormones. Year: 1995No English abstract
Authors: Mahomed K;Nyoni R;Masona D;. Title: Meconium staining of the liquor in a low risk population. Journal Name: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. Year: 1994Inc. in Cochrane
Authors: Sadovsky Y;Amon E;Bade ME;Petrie RH;. Title: Prophylactic amnioinfusion during labor complicated by meconium: A preliminary report. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1989In systematic review
Authors: Spong CY;Ogundipe OA;Ross MG;. Title: Prophylactic amnioinfusion for meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1994 OctIn Cochrane
Authors: Strong TH;Hetzler G;Sarno AP;Paul RH;. Title: Prophylactic intrapartum amnioinfusion: a randomized clinical trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1990 JunOligohydramnios
Authors: Weber TS;. Title: Intubation ineffective in vigorous meconium-stained infants. Journal Name: Journal of Family Practice. Year: 2000 AprSummary only (whole paper also reviewed)
Authors: Wenstrom KD;Parsons MT;. Title: The prevention of meconium aspiration in labor using amnioinfusion.[see comment]. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1989 AprIn Cochrane review
Authors: Wu BT;Sun LJ;Tang LY;. Title: Intrapartum amnioinfusion for replacement of meconium-stained-amniotic-fluid to prevent meconium aspiration syndrome. Journal Name: Chinese Medical Journal. Year: 1991 MarNon RCT
Authors: Yoder BA;. Title: Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and respiratory complications: Impact of selective tracheal suction. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1994Opinion
Authors: Bent RC;Wiswell TE;Chang A;. Title: Removing meconium from infant tracheae. What works best?. Journal Name: American Journal of Diseases of Children. Year: 1992 SepAnimal research
Authors: Cleary GM;Wiswell TE;. Title: Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and the meconium aspiration syndrome: An update. Journal Name: Pediatric Clinics of North America. Year: 1998Non-RCT
Authors: Daga SR;Dave K;Mehta V;Pai V;. Title: Tracheal suction in meconium stained infants: A randomized controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. Year: 1994Pre-term
Authors: Linder N;Aranda JV;Tsur M;Matoth I;Yatsiv I;Mandelberg H;Rottem M;Feigenbaum D;Ezra Y;Tamir I;. Title: Need for endotracheal intubation and suction in meconium-stained neonates.[see comment]. Journal Name: Journal of Pediatrics. Year: 1988 AprIn Cochrane review
Authors: Narchi H;Kulaylat N;. Title: Is gastric lavage needed in neonates with meconium-stained amniotic fluid?. Journal Name: European Journal of Pediatrics. Year: 1999Non RCT Postnatal
Authors: Weisman LE;Merenstein GB;Digirol M;. Title: The effect of early meconium evacuation on early-onset hyperbilirubinemia. Journal Name: American Journal of Diseases of Children. Year: 1983Not clinically relevant
Authors: Ash AK;. Title: Managing patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. [Review] [32 refs]. Journal Name: Hospital Medicine (London). Year: 2000 DecCommentary
Authors: Carbonne B;Cudeville C;Maillard F;Goffinet F;. Title: Predictive value of pulse oximetry and fetal scalp blood pH in the case of meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year:Pulse oximetry not relevant outside research setting.
Authors: Carbonne B;Cudeville C;Sivan H;Cabrol D;Papiernik E;. Title: Fetal oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry during labour with clear or meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1997Pulse oximetry not relaevant outside research setting
Authors: Fraser W;Marcoux S;Prendiville W;Petrou S;Hofmeyr J;Reinharz D;Goulet C;Ohlsson A;. Title: [Multicenter randomized trial of amnioinfusion]. [Review] [10 refs] [French]. Journal Name: Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. Year: 2000 MayNo findings reported
Authors: Gelfand SL;Fanaroff JM;Walsh MC;. Title: Controversies in the treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome. Journal Name: Clinics in Perinatology. Year: 2004Commentary
Authors: Glantz JC;. Title: Clearing up meconium: Clinical management and research ethics. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 2002In systematic review
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Gulmezoglu AM;Buchmann E;Howarth GR;Shaw A;Nikodem VC;Cronje H;de JM;Mahomed K;. Title: The Collaborative Randomised Amnioinfusion for Meconium Project (CRAMP): 1. South Africa.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 MarIncluded in Cochrane review
Authors: Khosla AH;Sangwan K;Ahuja SD;. Title: Prophylactic amnioinfusion during labour complicated by meconium. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997Non-RCT and small sample
Authors: Lauria MR;Dombrowski MP;aney-Black V;Bottoms SF;. Title: Meconium does not guarantee fetal lung maturity. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Year: 1997 MayNot related to clinicla question
Authors: Lin HC;Su BH;Tsai CH;Lin TW;Yeh TF;. Title: Role of antibiotics in management of non-ventilated cases of meconium aspiration syndrome without risk factors for infection. Journal Name: Biology of the Neonate. Year: 2005Not intrapartum
Authors: Liu WF;Harrington T;. Title: The need for delivery room intubation of thin meconium in the low-risk newborn: A clinical trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1998In Cochrane review
Authors: Mahomed K;Mulambo T;Woelk G;Hofmeyr GJ;Gulmezoglu AM;. Title: The Collaborative Randomised Amnioinfusion for Meconium Project (CRAMP): 2. Zimbabwe.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 MarIn Cochrane Review
Authors: Ouzounian JG;Paul RH;. Title: Clinical role of amnio-infusion. [Review] [56 refs]. Journal Name: Baillieres Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1996 JunNon-RCT/systematic review
Authors: Petrikovsky B;. Title: In utero meconium suctioning may prevent meconium aspiration. Journal Name: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy. Year: 2004 NovNon-RCT and very small sample
Authors: Richey SD;Ramin SM;Bawdon RE;Roberts SW;Dax J;Roberts J;Gilstrap LC;. Title: Markers of acute and chronic asphyxia in infants with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1995 AprResearch question, not based on clinical outcome.
Authors: Wolkoff LI;Davis JM;. Title: Delivery room resuscitation of the newborn. Journal Name: Clinics in Perinatology. Year: 1999Too general and non-RCT
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Intrapartum amnioinfusion for meconium-stained fluid: meta-analysis of prospective clinical trials (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005Abstract only - full paper included
Authors: Dargaville PA;Mills JF;Soll RF;. Title: Therapeutic lung lavage for meconium aspiration syndrome in newborn infants. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Treatment of baby - PN
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;. Title: Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor. Journal Name: Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000Superceded by Cochrane review - no additional information
Authors: Pierce J;Gaudier FL;Sanchez-Ramos L;. Title: Intrapartum amnioinfusion for meconium-stained fluid: Meta-analysis of prospective clinical trials. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000Covered by Cochrane review
Authors: De Meeus J.-B.;Magnin G;Vequeau V;Bascou V;d'Halluin G;. Title: Prophylactic intrapartum amnioinfusion: A controlled retrospective study of 195 cases. Journal Name: Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. Year: 1997Non RCT
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;. Title: Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Library. Year: 2000Superceded by new Cochrane review
Authors: Starks GC;. Title: Correlation of meconium-stained amniotic fluid, early intrapartum fetal pH, and Apgar scores as predictors of perinatal outcome. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1980 NovOutside scope - includes high-risk pregnancies

17. What is the effectiveness of the following interventions or techniques in labour on outcomes?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Charbonneau K;. Title: Food for labor?... food for thought. Journal Name: International Journal of Childbirth Education. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: Garite TJ;Weeks J;Peters-Phair K;Pattillo C;Brewster WR;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of the effect of increased intravenous hydration on the course of labor in nulliparous women. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Gyte G;Richens Y;. Title: Routine prophylactic drugs in normal labour for reducing gastric aspiration and its effects. Journal Name: . Year: 2006Not relevant.
Authors: Hazle NR;. Title: Hydration in labor--is routine intravenous hydration necessary?. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1986 JulNot relevant.
Authors: Hendrie MJ;. Title: Liquid food for obstetric patients. Journal Name: Nursing Times. Year: 1975 Jan 9Not relevant.
Authors: Heston TF;Simkin PP;. Title: Carbohydrate loading in preparation for childbirth. Journal Name: Medical Hypotheses. Year: 1991 FebNot relevant.
Authors: Kaplan M;Eidelman AI;Aboulafia Y;. Title: Fasting and the precipitation of labor. The Yom Kippur effect. Journal Name: JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Year: 1983 Sep 9Not relevant.
Authors: Keppler AB;. Title: The use of intravenous fluids during labor. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1988 JunNot relevant.
Authors: Kubli M;Scrutton MJ;Seed PT;O'Sullivan G;. Title: An evaluation of isotonic 'sport drinks' during labor. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2002Not relevant.
Authors: McAuley DM;Moore J;Dundee JW;McCaughey W;. Title: Oral ranitidine in labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1984 MayNot relevant.
Authors: McGarry JM;. Title: A double-blind comparison of the anti-emetic effect during labour of metoclopramide and perphenazine. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1971 JunNot relevant.
Authors: McKay S;Mahan C;. Title: How can aspiration of vomitus in obstetrics best be prevented?. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1988 DecNot relevant.
Authors: O'Reilly SA;Hoyer PJP;Walsh E;. Title: Low-risk mothers: oral intake and emesis in labor. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: O'Sullivan G;. Title: Gastric emptying during pregnancy and the puerperium. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: Parsons M;Bidewell J;Nagy S;. Title: Natural eating behavior in latent labor and its effect on outcomes in active labor. Journal Name: Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. Year: 2006Not relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (I): a summary of medical research to facilitate informed choice about the care of mother and baby. Reproduced with permission Copyright NCT 1996. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 JulNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (III).. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 OctNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (IV). A summary of medical research to facilitate informed choice about the care of mother and child.. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 NovNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (V). An update of the the NCT Briefing Paper.. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (II): a summary of medical research to facilitate informed choice about the care of mother and baby. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998Not relevant.
Authors: Pettit GP;Smith GA;Mcllroy WL;. Title: Droperidol in obstetrics: a double- blind study. Journal Name: Military Medicine. Year: 1976 MayNot relevant.
Authors: Ron-El R;Caspi E;Modai D;. Title: Controlled sodium bicarbonate infusion and maternal acid-base balance during labor. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1980Not relevant.
Authors: Scheepers H;Thans MCJ;de Jong PA;Esses GGM;Le Cessie S;Kanhai HH;. Title: A double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled study on the influence of carbohydrate solution intake during labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2002Not relevant.
Authors: Scheepers HC;de Jong PA;Essed GG;Kanhai HH;. Title: Carbohydrate solution intake during labour just before the start of the second stage: a double-blind study on metabolic effects and clinical outcome. Journal Name: BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. Year: 2004 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Scheepers HC;Thans MC;de Jong PA;Essed GG;Kanhai HH;. Title: The effects of oral carbohydrate administration on fetal acid base balance. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 2002Not relevant.
Authors: Singata M;Tranmer JE;. Title: Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour [protocol]. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2003Not relevant.
Authors: Singhi S;Parshad O;. Title: Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1985 FebNot relevant.
Authors: Singhi SC;Chookang E;. Title: Maternal fluid overload during labour; transplacental hyponatraemia and risk of transient neonatal tachypnoea in term infants. Journal Name: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Year: 1984 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Soreide E;. Title: Prevention of aspiration pneumonitis in the obstetric patient. Journal Name: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Year: 1997Not relevant.
Authors: Speak S;. Title: Food intake in labour: the benefits and drawbacks. Journal Name: Nursing Times. Year: 2002 May 21Not relevant.
Authors: Toohill J;Soong B;Flenady V;. Title: Interventions for ketosis during labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Not relevant.
Authors: Tourangeau A;Carter N;Tansil N;McLean A;Downer V;. Title: Intravenous therapy for women in labour:implementation of a practice change. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1999Not relevant.
Authors: Watanabe T;Minakami H;Sakata Y;Matsubara S;Tamura N;Obara H;Wada T;Onagawa T;Sato I;. Title: Effect of labor on maternal dehydration, starvation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 2001Not relevant.
Authors: West CR;Harding JE;. Title: Maternal water intoxication as a cause of neonatal seizures. Journal Name: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. Year: 2004Not relevant.
Authors: Whitehead EM;Smith M;Dean Y;O'Sullivan G;. Title: Forum: An evaluation of gastic emptying times in pregnancy and the puerperium. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: Charbonneau K;. Title: Food for labor?... food for thought. Journal Name: International Journal of Childbirth Education. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: Garite TJ;Weeks J;Peters-Phair K;Pattillo C;Brewster WR;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of the effect of increased intravenous hydration on the course of labor in nulliparous women. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Hazle NR;. Title: Hydration in labor--is routine intravenous hydration necessary?. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1986 JulNot relevant.
Authors: Hendrie MJ;. Title: Liquid food for obstetric patients. Journal Name: Nursing Times. Year: 1975 Jan 9Not relevant.
Authors: Heston TF;Simkin PP;. Title: Carbohydrate loading in preparation for childbirth. Journal Name: Medical Hypotheses. Year: 1991 FebNot relevant.
Authors: Kaplan M;Eidelman AI;Aboulafia Y;. Title: Fasting and the precipitation of labor. The Yom Kippur effect. Journal Name: JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Year: 1983 Sep 9Not relevant.
Authors: Keppler AB;. Title: The use of intravenous fluids during labor. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1988 JunNot relevant.
Authors: Kubli M;Scrutton MJ;Seed PT;O'Sullivan G;. Title: An evaluation of isotonic 'sport drinks' during labor. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2002Not relevant.
Authors: McAuley DM;Moore J;Dundee JW;McCaughey W;. Title: Oral ranitidine in labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1984 MayPart of included Cochrane Review
Authors: McGarry JM;. Title: A double-blind comparison of the anti-emetic effect during labour of metoclopramide and perphenazine. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1971 JunPart of included Cochrane Review
Authors: McKay S;Mahan C;. Title: How can aspiration of vomitus in obstetrics best be prevented?. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1988 DecNot relevant.
Authors: O'Reilly SA;Hoyer PJP;Walsh E;. Title: Low-risk mothers: oral intake and emesis in labor. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: O'Sullivan G;. Title: Gastric emptying during pregnancy and the puerperium. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: Parsons M;Bidewell J;Nagy S;. Title: Natural eating behavior in latent labor and its effect on outcomes in active labor. Journal Name: Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. Year: 2006Not relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (I): a summary of medical research to facilitate informed choice about the care of mother and baby. Reproduced with permission Copyright NCT 1996. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 JulNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (III).. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 OctNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (IV). A summary of medical research to facilitate informed choice about the care of mother and child.. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 NovNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (V). An update of the the NCT Briefing Paper.. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (II): a summary of medical research to facilitate informed choice about the care of mother and baby. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998Not relevant.
Authors: Pettit GP;Smith GA;Mcllroy WL;. Title: Droperidol in obstetrics: a double- blind study. Journal Name: Military Medicine. Year: 1976 MayNot relevant.
Authors: Ron-El R;Caspi E;Modai D;. Title: Controlled sodium bicarbonate infusion and maternal acid-base balance during labor. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1980Not relevant.
Authors: Scheepers H;Thans MCJ;de Jong PA;Esses GGM;Le Cessie S;Kanhai HH;. Title: A double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled study on the influence of carbohydrate solution intake during labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2002Not relevant.
Authors: Scheepers HC;de Jong PA;Essed GG;Kanhai HH;. Title: Carbohydrate solution intake during labour just before the start of the second stage: a double-blind study on metabolic effects and clinical outcome. Journal Name: BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. Year: 2004 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Scheepers HC;Thans MC;de Jong PA;Essed GG;Kanhai HH;. Title: The effects of oral carbohydrate administration on fetal acid base balance. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 2002Not relevant.
Authors: Scrutton MJ;Metcalfe GA;Lowy C;. Title: Eating in labour: a randomised controlled trial assessing the risks and benefits. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1999Not relevant.
Authors: Singata M;Tranmer JE;. Title: Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour [protocol]. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2003Not relevant.
Authors: Singhi S;Parshad O;. Title: Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1985 FebNot relevant.
Authors: Singhi SC;Chookang E;. Title: Maternal fluid overload during labour; transplacental hyponatraemia and risk of transient neonatal tachypnoea in term infants. Journal Name: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Year: 1984 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Soreide E;. Title: Prevention of aspiration pneumonitis in the obstetric patient. Journal Name: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Year: 1997Not relevant.
Authors: Speak S;. Title: Food intake in labour: the benefits and drawbacks. Journal Name: Nursing Times. Year: 2002 May 21Not relevant.
Authors: Toohill J;Soong B;Flenady V;. Title: Interventions for ketosis during labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Not relevant.
Authors: Tourangeau A;Carter N;Tansil N;McLean A;Downer V;. Title: Intravenous therapy for women in labour:implementation of a practice change. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1999Not relevant.
Authors: Watanabe T;Minakami H;Sakata Y;Matsubara S;Tamura N;Obara H;Wada T;Onagawa T;Sato I;. Title: Effect of labor on maternal dehydration, starvation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 2001Not relevant.
Authors: West CR;Harding JE;. Title: Maternal water intoxication as a cause of neonatal seizures. Journal Name: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. Year: 2004Not relevant.
Authors: Whitehead EM;Smith M;Dean Y;O'Sullivan G;. Title: Forum: An evaluation of gastic emptying times in pregnancy and the puerperium. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: Charbonneau K;. Title: Food for labor?... food for thought. Journal Name: International Journal of Childbirth Education. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: Garite TJ;Weeks J;Peters-Phair K;Pattillo C;Brewster WR;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of the effect of increased intravenous hydration on the course of labor in nulliparous women. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Gyte G;Richens Y;. Title: Routine prophylactic drugs in normal labour for reducing gastric aspiration and its effects. Journal Name: . Year: 2006Not relevant.
Authors: Hazle NR;. Title: Hydration in labor--is routine intravenous hydration necessary?. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1986 JulNot relevant.
Authors: Hendrie MJ;. Title: Liquid food for obstetric patients. Journal Name: Nursing Times. Year: 1975 Jan 9Not relevant.
Authors: Heston TF;Simkin PP;. Title: Carbohydrate loading in preparation for childbirth. Journal Name: Medical Hypotheses. Year: 1991 FebNot relevant.
Authors: Kaplan M;Eidelman AI;Aboulafia Y;. Title: Fasting and the precipitation of labor. The Yom Kippur effect. Journal Name: JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Year: 1983 Sep 9Not relevant.
Authors: Keppler AB;. Title: The use of intravenous fluids during labor. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1988 JunNot relevant.
Authors: McAuley DM;Moore J;Dundee JW;McCaughey W;. Title: Oral ranitidine in labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1984 MayNot relevant.
Authors: McGarry JM;. Title: A double-blind comparison of the anti-emetic effect during labour of metoclopramide and perphenazine. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1971 JunNot relevant.
Authors: McKay S;Mahan C;. Title: How can aspiration of vomitus in obstetrics best be prevented?. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1988 DecNot relevant.
Authors: O'Reilly SA;Hoyer PJP;Walsh E;. Title: Low-risk mothers: oral intake and emesis in labor. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1993Not relevant. Not relevant.
Authors: O'Sullivan G;. Title: Gastric emptying during pregnancy and the puerperium. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: Parsons M;Bidewell J;Nagy S;. Title: Natural eating behavior in latent labor and its effect on outcomes in active labor. Journal Name: Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. Year: 2006Not relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (I): a summary of medical research to facilitate informed choice about the care of mother and baby. Reproduced with permission Copyright NCT 1996. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 JulNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (III).. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 OctNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (IV). A summary of medical research to facilitate informed choice about the care of mother and child.. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 NovNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (V). An update of the the NCT Briefing Paper.. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Pengelley L;Gyte G;. Title: Eating and drinking in labour (II): a summary of medical research to facilitate informed choice about the care of mother and baby. Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1998Not relevant.
Authors: Pettit GP;Smith GA;Mcllroy WL;. Title: Droperidol in obstetrics: a double- blind study. Journal Name: Military Medicine. Year: 1976 MayNot relevant.
Authors: Ron-El R;Caspi E;Modai D;. Title: Controlled sodium bicarbonate infusion and maternal acid-base balance during labor. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1980Not relevant.
Authors: Scrutton MJ;Metcalfe GA;Lowy C;. Title: Eating in labour: a randomised controlled trial assessing the risks and benefits. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1999Not relevant.
Authors: Singata M;Tranmer JE;. Title: Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour [protocol]. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2003Not relevant.
Authors: Singhi S;Parshad O;. Title: Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1985 FebNot relevant.
Authors: Singhi SC;Chookang E;. Title: Maternal fluid overload during labour; transplacental hyponatraemia and risk of transient neonatal tachypnoea in term infants. Journal Name: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Year: 1984 DecNot relevant.
Authors: Soreide E;. Title: Prevention of aspiration pneumonitis in the obstetric patient. Journal Name: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Year: 1997Not relevant.
Authors: Speak S;. Title: Food intake in labour: the benefits and drawbacks. Journal Name: Nursing Times. Year: 2002 May 21Not relevant.
Authors: Toohill J;Soong B;Flenady V;. Title: Interventions for ketosis during labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Not relevant.
Authors: Tourangeau A;Carter N;Tansil N;McLean A;Downer V;. Title: Intravenous therapy for women in labour:implementation of a practice change. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1999Not relevant.
Authors: Watanabe T;Minakami H;Sakata Y;Matsubara S;Tamura N;Obara H;Wada T;Onagawa T;Sato I;. Title: Effect of labor on maternal dehydration, starvation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 2001Not relevant.
Authors: West CR;Harding JE;. Title: Maternal water intoxication as a cause of neonatal seizures. Journal Name: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. Year: 2004Not relevant.
Authors: Whitehead EM;Smith M;Dean Y;O'Sullivan G;. Title: Forum: An evaluation of gastic emptying times in pregnancy and the puerperium. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1993Not relevant.
Authors: Cluett ER;Pickering RM;Getliffe K;Saunders NJSG;. Title: Randomised controlled trial of labouring in water compared with standard of augmentation for management of dystocia in first stage of labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year:this is a study on water birth as a mean of augmentation
Authors: Geary M;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of early versus delayed use of amniotomy and oxytocin infusion in nulliparous labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1996 Septhis is a correspondence
Authors: Lee H;Ernst E;. Title: Acupuncture for labor pain management: A systematic review. [Review] [42 refs]. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2004 Novthis is a systematic review of acupuncuture, but all included studies have been included already
Authors: Nordstrom L;Fogelstam K;Fridman G;Larsson A;Rydhstroem H;. Title: Routine oxytocin in the third stage of labour: A placebo controlled randomised trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997this is about third stage of labour
Authors: Oppenheimer LW;Labrecqne M;Wells G;Bland ES;Fraser WD;Eason E;Brisson-Carroll G;Yetisir E;. Title: Prostaglandin E2 vaginal gel to treat dystocia in spontaneous labour: A multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2005the RCT is abour prostaglandin
Authors: Peaceman AM;Socol ML;. Title: Active management of labor. [Review] [28 refs]. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 Augthis is a review paper to look at partogram with not systematic apporach
Authors: Singh KC;Jain P;Goel N;Saxena A;. Title: Drotaverine hydrochloride for augmentation of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2004 Janthis is an RCT of drotaverine
Authors: Sosa CG;Balaguer E;Alonso JG;Panizza R;Laborde A;Berrondo C;. Title: Meperidine for dystocia during the first stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2004this is an RCT of meperidine
Authors: Surbek DV;Fehr PM;Hosli I;Holzgreve W;. Title: Oral misoprostol for third stage of labor: A randomized placebo- controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999
Authors: Wingfield M;Boylan P;. Title: Randomised trial comparing a policy of early with selective amniotomy and uncomplicated labour at term. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997 Octthis is a correspondence
Authors: Dale A;Cornwell S;. Title: The role of lavender oil in relieving perineal discomfort following childbirth: a blind randomized clinical trial. Journal Name: Journal of Advanced Nursing. Year: 1994 Janthis is targetting women in postnatal period
Authors: Chua S;Kurup A;Arulkumaran S;Ratnam SS;. Title: Augmentation of labor: does internal tocography result in better obstetric outcome than external tocography?. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1990 Augthis is an RCT looking at tocography
Authors: Glantz JC;McNanley TJ;. Title: Active management of labor: a meta-analysis of cesarean delivery rates for dystocia in nulliparas. Journal Name: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Year: 1997This is a systematic review on active management. All the included trials in this articles have been included.
Authors: Fraser W;Vendittelli F;Krauss I;Breart G;. Title: Effects of early augmentation of labour with amniotomy and oxytocin in nulliparous women: a meta-analysis. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 Febthis is a systematic review; all the included study have been included
Authors: Brisson-Carroll G;Fraser W;Breart G;Krauss I;Thornton J;. Title: The effect of routine early amniotomy on spontaneous labor: a meta-analysis. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 Maythis is a systematic review that included RCTs, which have been all included in a more recent systematic review
Authors: Thornton JG;Lilford RJ;. Title: Active management of labour: current knowledge and research issues. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1994 Aug 6this is a critical appraisal of the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Rogers R;Gilson G;Kammerer-Doak D;. Title: Epidural analgesia and active management of labor: effects on length of labor and mode of delivery. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999 Junthe population has been included in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Ernst E;. Title: Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe?. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2002 Marthis is a review article most of relevant articles have been included already
Authors: Martin DH;Thompson W;Pinkerton JH;Watson JD;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of selective planned delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1978 Febthis is an RCT looking at induction of labour
Authors: Hemminki E;Saarikoski S;. Title: Ambulation and delayed amniotomy in the first stage of labor. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1983 Julthis is an RCT looking at ambulation as a mean of augmentation
Authors: Burns EE;Blamey C;Ersser SJ;Barnetson L;Lloyd AJ;. Title: An investigation into the use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice. Journal Name: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Year: 2000 Aprthis is not an RCT
Authors: Chez RA;Jonas WB;. Title: Complementary and alternative medicine. Part I: Clinical studies in obstetrics.. Journal Name: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Year: 1997 Novthis is a review article, where there is another more recent systematic review
Authors: Curtis P;Resnick JC;Evens S;Thompson CJ;. Title: A comparison of breast stimulation and intravenous oxytocin for the augmentation of labor. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1999 Junthis is an RCT looking at breast stimulation as a mean of augmentation
Authors: Johnson N;. Title: Randomised trial comparing a policy of early with selective amniotomy in uncomplicated labour at term.. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997 Marthis is an RCT that has been included in a systematic review, which we have icluded
Authors: Sanchez-Ramos L;. Title: Randomized trial of oxytocin alone and with propranolol in the management of dysfunctional labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 Octthis is comparing oxytocoin versus oxytocin plus propranolol
Authors: Fugh-Berman A;Kronenberg F;. Title: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials. Journal Name: Reproductive Toxicology. Year: 2003this is a systematic review, where there is another more recent systematic review
Authors: Lavender T;Wallymahmed AH;Walkinshaw SA;. Title: Managing labor using partograms with different action lines: a prospective study of women's views.. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1999 Jundetails of satisfaction profile from the study that has been included
Authors: Hemminki E;Lenck M;Saarikoski S;Henriksson L;. Title: Ambulation versus oxytocin in protracted labour: a pilot study. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1985 Octthis is an RCT looking at ambulation as a mean of augmentation
Authors: . Title: Comparing routine versus delayed amniotomy in spontaneous first labor at term. A multicenter randomized trial. UK Amniotomy Group. Journal Name: Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials. Year: 1994 Apr 1this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Bader W;Ast S;Hatzmann W;. Title: The significance of acupuncture in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Akupunktur. Year: 2000this is german paper, and unlikely to make substantial impact on recommendation
Authors: Barker M;. Title: A multicentre randomised trial of amniotomy in spontaneous first labour at term. (5 refs). Journal Name: Br J Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year:this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Barrett JF;Savage J;Phillips K;Lilford RJ;. Title: Randomized trial of amniotomy in labour versus the intention to leave membranes intact until the second stage.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1992 Janthis is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Bidgood KA;Steer PJ;. Title: A randomized control study of oxytocin augmentation of labour. 2. Uterine activity. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1987the study population have been inlcuded, but the outcome of this study not relevant
Authors: Chanrachakul B;Suthutvoravut S;Sangthawan M;Herabutya Y;. Title: Effect of lower uterine segment sweeping on progress of labor in nullipara. Journal Name: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Year: 2001 Novneither amnitomoy nor oxytocin
Authors: Chung UL;Hung LC;Kuo SC;Huang CL;. Title: Effects of LI4 and BL 67 acupressure on labor pain and uterine contractions in the first stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR. Year: 2003 Decthis is not an RCT, where there is other RCT evidence
Authors: Fraser WD;Sauve R;Parboosingh IJ;Fung T;Sokol R;Persaud D;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of early amniotomy.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991 Janthis is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Fraser WD;Marcoux S;Moutquin JM;Christen A;. Title: Effect of early amniotomy on the risk of dystocia in nulliparous women. The Canadian Early Amniotomy Study Group.[see comment]. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 1993 Apr 22this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Freeman RM;Macaulay AJ;Eve L;. Title: Randomised trial of self hypnosis for analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1986this is an RCT on hypnosis, but has been included in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Garite TJ;Porto M;Carlson NJ;Rumney PJ;Reimbold PA;. Title: The influence of elective amniotomy on fetal heart rate patterns and the course of labor in term patients: A randomized study. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Guerresi E;Gori G;Beccari A;. Title: Influence of spasmolytic treatment and amniotomy on delivery times: A factorial clinical trial. Journal Name: Clinical Therapeutics. Year: 1981this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Habiba M;. Title: Randomised trial of amniotomy in labour versus the intention to leave membranes intact until second stage. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1993 Janthis is correspondence
Authors: Hawkins RMF;. Title: A systematic meta-review of hypnosis as an empirically supported treatment for pain. Journal Name: Pain Reviews. Year: 2001this is a systematic review, but there is another more recent systematic review including all the relevant articles included in this review
Authors: Henderson J;. Title: Active management of labour and caesarean section rates. (Reviews the research evidence including randomized controlled trials). Journal Name: British Journal of Midwifery. Year: 147this is a review paper to look at active management of labour with no systematic approach
Authors: Kuruvila S;Jasper P;Peedicayil A;Mathai M;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of valethamate bromide in acceleration of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1992 Junthe RCT is about valethamate bromide
Authors: Patka JH;Lodolce AE;Johnston AK;. Title: High- versus low-dose oxytocin for augmentation or induction of labor. [Review] [22 refs]. Journal Name: Annals of Pharmacotherapy. Year: 2005 Janthis is a systematic review; all the included studies have been appraised
Authors: Qiu H;Zhu H;Ouyang W;Wang Z;Sun H;. Title: Clinical effects and mechanism of chanlibao in accelerating second stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Tongji Medical University. Year: 1999the study is an RCT, though with limeted quality (e.g. not mentioning details of randomisation) and the medication is not widely available in the UK
Authors: Saunders NJ;Spiby H;Gilbert L;Fraser RB;Hall JM;Mutton PM;Jackson A;Edmonds DK;. Title: Oxytocin infusion during second stage of labour in primiparous women using epidural analgesia: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1989 Dec 9this is targetting women with epidural analgesia
Authors: Stein JL;Bardeguez AD;Verma UL;Tegani N;. Title: Nipple stimulation for labor augmentation. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Year: 1990 Julthis RCT is looking at nipple stimulation as a mean of augmentation
Authors: Tasker M;Verduijn CP;Bassett C;Murray K;Thornton J;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of early amniotomy. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991 Octthis is a correpondence
Authors: Thornton JG;Barker M;Bassett C;Boyce J;Cartmill R;Dawson A;Grant A;Grant J;Galloway S;Guthrie K;Johansen R;Johnson N;Kelly M;Lilford R;Marshall O;Mugf. Title: A multicentre randomised trial of amniotomy in spontaneous first labour at term. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1994this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Ushiroyama T;Sakuma K;Souen H;Nakai G;Morishima S;Yasuda K;Orino I;Ueki M;. Title: Therapeutic effects of Kyuki-chouketsu-in in restoring postpartum physical condition. Journal Name: American Journal of Chinese Medicine. Year: 2003this is targetting women in postpartum period
Authors: Cluett ER;Pickering RM;Brooking JI;. Title: An investigation into the feasibility of comparing three management options (augmentation, conservative and water) for nulliparae with dystocia in the first stage of labour. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 2001 Marthis is an RCT compraing amniotomy, expectent and use of water on augmentation, but there are only 4 women enroled per each arm
Authors: Harris M;Cooper EV;. Title: Amnihook versus amnicot for amniotomy in labour. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1993 Decthis is a comparison of devices on amniotomy
Authors: Pettersson KO;Svensson ML;Christensson K;. Title: Evaluation of an adapted model of the World Health Organization partograph used by Angolan midwives in a peripheral delivery unit. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 2000 JunThis is not randomised controlled trial, where there are other RCTs exsiting
Authors: Brown H;Paranjothy S;Thomas J;. Title: Package of care for active management in labour for reducing caesarean section rates in low-risk women. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005this is a protocol of a systematic review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Effects of early augmentation of labour with amniotomy and oxytocin in nulliparous women: a meta-analysis (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of a systematic review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: The effect of routine early amniotomy on spontaneous labor: a meta-analysis (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005This is a critical appraisal of a systematic review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Active management of labour: current knowledge and research issues (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of the systematic review that has included four different cochrane reviews. We are looking at one package of care rather than different component of the care
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Active management of labor: a meta-analysis of Cesarean delivery rates for dystocia in nulliparas (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005This is a critical appraisal of a systematic review that was included in this review
Authors: Lavender T;O'Brien P;Hart A;. Title: Effect of partogram use on outcomes for women in spontaneous labour at term. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005This is only a protocol of systematic review
Authors: Rouse DJ;Owen J;Hauth JC;. Title: Active-phase labor arrest: oxytocin augmentation for at least 4 hours. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999 Marthis is not an RCT
Authors: Selo-Ojeme DO;Okonofua FE;. Title: Risk factors for primary postpartum haemorrhage. A case control study. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1997non high-income OECD countries
Authors: van Coeverden de Groot HA;Vader CG;. Title: The duration of normal labour in Cape Town whites. Journal Name: South African Medical Journal. Year: 1978 Dec 30not relevant outcomes
Authors: Crowley P;Elbourne D;Ashurst H;Garcia J;Murphy D;Duignan N;. Title: Delivery in an obstetric birth chair: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991 JulIn Cochrane review
Authors: Danilenko-Dixon DR;Tefft L;Cohen RA;Haydon B;Carpenter MW;. Title: Positional effects on maternal cardiac output during labor with epidural analgesia. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 OctNot based on clinical outcomes
Authors: De Jong PR;Johanson RB;Baxen P;Adrians VD;van der WS;Jones PW;. Title: Randomised trial comparing the upright and supine positions for the second stage of labour.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997 MayIncluded in Cochrane review
Authors: Eappen S;Robbins D;. Title: Nonpharmacological means of pain relief for labor and delivery. Journal Name: International Anesthesiology Clinics. Year: 2002Non-systematic review
Authors: Eberle RL;Norris MC;Eberle AM;Naulty JS;Arkoosh VA;. Title: The effect of maternal position on fetal heart rate during epidural or intrathecal labor analgesia.. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998 JulRelated to epidural induction
Authors: Field T;Hernandez-Reif M;Taylor S;Quintino O;Burman I;. Title: Labor pain is reduced by massage therapy. Journal Name: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997 DecIncluded in systematic review
Authors: Flynn P;Franiek J;Janssen P;Hannah WJ;Klein MC;. Title: How can second- stage management prevent perineal trauma? Critical review. [Review] [23 refs]. Journal Name: Canadian Family Physician. Year: 1997 JanNon-systematic review
Authors: Fraser WD;Cayer M;Soeder BM;Turcot L;Marcoux S;PEOPLE (Pushing Early or Pushing Late with Epidural) Study Group;. Title: Risk factors for difficult delivery in nulliparas with epidural analgesia in second stage of labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002 MarThe study does not look at positions, pushing or mobilisation
Authors: Gardosi J;Hutson N;Lynch C;. Title: Randomised, controlled trial of squatting in the second stage of labour.[see comment]. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1989 Jul 8In Cochrane review
Authors: Geden EA;Beck NC;Anderson JS;Kennish ME;Mueller-Heinze M;. Title: Effects of cognitive and pharmacologic strategies on analogued labor pain. Journal Name: Nursing Research. Year: 1986In Cochrane review
Authors: Gupta JK;Nikodem VC;. Title: Selected Cochrane systematic reviews. Women's position during second stage of labour. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1Abstract only
Authors: Hansen SL;Clark SL;Foster JC;. Title: Active pushing versus passive fetal descent in the second stage of labor: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002 JanIn Cochrane review
Authors: Hemminki E;Virkkunen A;Makela A;. Title: A trial of delivery in a birth chair. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986In Cochrane review
Authors: Johnstone FD;Aboelmagd MS;Harouny AK;. Title: Maternal posture in second stage and fetal acid base status. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1987 AugIn Cochrane systematic review
Authors: Liddell HS;Fisher PR;. Title: The birthing chair in the second stage of labour. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1985 FebIn Cochrane review
Authors: Maresh M;Choong KH;Beard RW;. Title: Delayed pushing with lumbar epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1983 JulOnly quasi randomised
Authors: Martensson L;Wallin G;. Title: Labour pain treated with cutaneous injections of sterile water: a randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1999 JulIn Cochrane review
Authors: Marttila M;Kajanoja P;Ylikorkala O;. Title: Maternal half-sitting position in the second stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1983In Cochrane review
Authors: Melzack R;Belanger E;Lacroix R;. Title: Labor pain: effect of maternal position on front and back pain. Journal Name: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. Year: 1991 NovNon RCT
Authors: Petrou S;Coyle D;Fraser WD;. Title: Cost-effectiveness of a delayed pushing policy for patients with epidural anesthesia. The PEOPLE (Pushing Early or Pushing Late with Epidural) Study Group. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000 MayCost-effectiveness study
Authors: Preston R;Crosby ET;Kotarba D;Dudas H;Elliott RD;. Title: Maternal positioning affects fetal heart rate changes after epidural analgesia for labour. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1993 DecEpidural induction
Authors: Read JA;Miller FC;Paul RH;. Title: Randomized trial of ambulation versus oxytocin for labor enhancement: a preliminary report. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1981 Mar 15this is an RCT looking at ambulation as a mean of augmentation
Authors: Richardson MG;Thakur R;Abramowicz JS;Wissler RN;. Title: Maternal posture influences the extent of sensory block produced by intrathecal dextrose-free bupivacaine with fentanyl for labor analgesia. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1996 DecPosture during induction of epidural
Authors: Rickford WJ;Reynolds F;. Title: Epidural analgesia in labour and maternal posture. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1983 DecOutside scope - establishment of epidural anaesthesia
Authors: Roodt A;Nikodem VC;. Title: Pushing/bearing down methods used during the second stage of labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Protocol only
Authors: Adachi K;Shimada M;Usui A;. Title: The relationship between the parturient's positions and perceptions of labor pain intensity. Journal Name: Nursing Research. Year: 2003Non RCT
Authors: Ader L;Hansson B;Wallin G;. Title: Injections of sterile water for labour pain. Journal Name: Nursing Times. Year:In Cochrane review
Authors: Ader L;Hansson B;Wallin G;. Title: Parturition pain treated by intracutaneous injections of sterile water.[see comment]. Journal Name: Pain. Year: 1990 MayIncluded in Cochrane review
Authors: Allahbadia GN;Vaidya PR;. Title: Why deliver in the supine position?. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1992 MayIn Cochrane review
Authors: Allahbadia GN;Vaidya PR;. Title: Squatting position for delivery. Journal Name: Journal of the Indian Medical Association. Year: 1993 JanIn Cochrane review
Authors: Asselineau D;. Title: Does ambulation under epidural analgesia during labour modify foetal extraction conditions? [This is a translated title][French]. Journal Name: Contraception, Fertilite, Sexualite. Year: 1996Abstract only French language
Authors: Bomfim-Hyppolito S;. Title: Influence of the position of the mother at delivery over some maternal and neonatal outcomes. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1998 DecIncluded in Cochrane review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Nonpharmacologic relief of pain during labor: systematic reviews of five methods (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005This is a structured abstract
Authors: Chang MY;Wang SY;Chen CH;. Title: Effects of massage on pain and anxiety during labour: a randomized controlled trial in Taiwan. Journal Name: Journal of Advanced Nursing. Year: 2002 AprIncluded in Cochrane review
Authors: Stewart P;Hillan E;Calder AA;. Title: A randomised trial to evaluate the use of a birth chair for delivery. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1983 JunIn Cochrane review
Authors: Stone CI;. Title: Coping with pain: A component analysis of Lamaze and cognitive-behavioral procedures. Journal Name: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Year: 78In Cochrane review
Authors: Trolle B;Moller M;Kronborg H;Thomsen S;. Title: The effect of sterile water blocks on low back labor pain. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991 MayIncluded in Cochrane review
Authors: Waldenstrom U;Gottvall K;. Title: A randomized trial of birthing stool or conventional semirecumbent position for second-stage labor. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1991 MarIn Cochrane review
Authors: Wilson MJ;Cooper G;MacArthur C;Shennan A;Comparative Obstetric Mobile Epidural Trial (COMET) Study Group;. Title: Randomized controlled trial comparing traditional with two 'mobile' epidural techniques: anesthetic and analgesic efficacy. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 2002 Decstudy included in Cochrane review and needs follow up
Authors: Cluett ER;Pickering RM;Getliffe K;Saunders NJSG;. Title: Randomised controlled trial of labouring in water compared with standard of augmentation for management of dystocia in first stage of labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year:this is a study on water birth as a mean of augmentation
Authors: Geary M;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of early versus delayed use of amniotomy and oxytocin infusion in nulliparous labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1996 Septhis is a correspondence
Authors: Lee H;Ernst E;. Title: Acupuncture for labor pain management: A systematic review. [Review] [42 refs]. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2004 Novthis is a systematic review of acupuncuture, but all included studies have been included already
Authors: Nordstrom L;Fogelstam K;Fridman G;Larsson A;Rydhstroem H;. Title: Routine oxytocin in the third stage of labour: A placebo controlled randomised trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997this is about third stage of labour
Authors: Oppenheimer LW;Labrecqne M;Wells G;Bland ES;Fraser WD;Eason E;Brisson-Carroll G;Yetisir E;. Title: Prostaglandin E2 vaginal gel to treat dystocia in spontaneous labour: A multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2005the RCT is abour prostaglandin
Authors: Peaceman AM;Socol ML;. Title: Active management of labor. [Review] [28 refs]. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 Augthis is a review paper to look at partogram with not systematic apporach
Authors: Singh KC;Jain P;Goel N;Saxena A;. Title: Drotaverine hydrochloride for augmentation of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2004 Janthis is an RCT of drotaverine
Authors: Sosa CG;Balaguer E;Alonso JG;Panizza R;Laborde A;Berrondo C;. Title: Meperidine for dystocia during the first stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2004this is an RCT of meperidine
Authors: Wingfield M;Boylan P;. Title: Randomised trial comparing a policy of early with selective amniotomy and uncomplicated labour at term. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997 Octthis is a correspondence
Authors: Dale A;Cornwell S;. Title: The role of lavender oil in relieving perineal discomfort following childbirth: a blind randomized clinical trial. Journal Name: Journal of Advanced Nursing. Year: 1994 Janthis is targetting women in postnatal period
Authors: Chua S;Kurup A;Arulkumaran S;Ratnam SS;. Title: Augmentation of labor: does internal tocography result in better obstetric outcome than external tocography?. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1990 Augthis is an RCT looking at tocography
Authors: Glantz JC;McNanley TJ;. Title: Active management of labor: a meta-analysis of cesarean delivery rates for dystocia in nulliparas. Journal Name: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Year: 1997This is a systematic review on active management. All the included trials in this articles have been included.
Authors: Fraser W;Vendittelli F;Krauss I;Breart G;. Title: Effects of early augmentation of labour with amniotomy and oxytocin in nulliparous women: a meta-analysis. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 Febthis is a systematic review; all the included study have been included
Authors: Brisson-Carroll G;Fraser W;Breart G;Krauss I;Thornton J;. Title: The effect of routine early amniotomy on spontaneous labor: a meta-analysis. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 Maythis is a systematic review that included RCTs, which have been all included in a more recent systematic review
Authors: Thornton JG;Lilford RJ;. Title: Active management of labour: current knowledge and research issues. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1994 Aug 6this is a critical appraisal of the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Rogers R;Gilson G;Kammerer-Doak D;. Title: Epidural analgesia and active management of labor: effects on length of labor and mode of delivery. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999 Junthe population has been included in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Ernst E;. Title: Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe?. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2002 Marthis is a review article most of relevant articles have been included already
Authors: Martin DH;Thompson W;Pinkerton JH;Watson JD;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of selective planned delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1978 Febthis is an RCT looking at induction of labour
Authors: Hemminki E;Saarikoski S;. Title: Ambulation and delayed amniotomy in the first stage of labor. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1983 Julthis is an RCT looking at ambulation as a mean of augmentation
Authors: Burns EE;Blamey C;Ersser SJ;Barnetson L;Lloyd AJ;. Title: An investigation into the use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice. Journal Name: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Year: 2000 Aprthis is not an RCT
Authors: Chez RA;Jonas WB;. Title: Complementary and alternative medicine. Part I: Clinical studies in obstetrics.. Journal Name: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Year: 1997 Novthis is a review article, where there is another more recent systematic review
Authors: Curtis P;Resnick JC;Evens S;Thompson CJ;. Title: A comparison of breast stimulation and intravenous oxytocin for the augmentation of labor. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1999 Junthis is an RCT looking at breast stimulation as a mean of augmentation
Authors: Johnson N;. Title: Randomised trial comparing a policy of early with selective amniotomy in uncomplicated labour at term.. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997 Marthis is an RCT that has been included in a systematic review, which we have icluded
Authors: Sanchez-Ramos L;. Title: Randomized trial of oxytocin alone and with propranolol in the management of dysfunctional labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 Octthis is comparing oxytocoin versus oxytocin plus propranolol
Authors: Fugh-Berman A;Kronenberg F;. Title: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials. Journal Name: Reproductive Toxicology. Year: 2003this is a systematic review, where there is another more recent systematic review
Authors: Lavender T;Wallymahmed AH;Walkinshaw SA;. Title: Managing labor using partograms with different action lines: a prospective study of women's views.. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1999 Jundetails of satisfaction profile from the study that has been included
Authors: Hemminki E;Lenck M;Saarikoski S;Henriksson L;. Title: Ambulation versus oxytocin in protracted labour: a pilot study. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1985 Octthis is an RCT looking at ambulation as a mean of augmentation
Authors: . Title: Comparing routine versus delayed amniotomy in spontaneous first labor at term. A multicenter randomized trial. UK Amniotomy Group. Journal Name: Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials. Year: 1994 Apr 1this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Bader W;Ast S;Hatzmann W;. Title: The significance of acupuncture in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Akupunktur. Year: 2000this is german paper, and unlikely to make substantial impact on recommendation
Authors: Barker M;. Title: A multicentre randomised trial of amniotomy in spontaneous first labour at term. (5 refs). Journal Name: Br J Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year:this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Barrett JF;Savage J;Phillips K;Lilford RJ;. Title: Randomized trial of amniotomy in labour versus the intention to leave membranes intact until the second stage.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1992 Janthis is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Bidgood KA;Steer PJ;. Title: A randomized control study of oxytocin augmentation of labour. 2. Uterine activity. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1987the study population have been inlcuded, but the outcome of this study not relevant
Authors: Chanrachakul B;Suthutvoravut S;Sangthawan M;Herabutya Y;. Title: Effect of lower uterine segment sweeping on progress of labor in nullipara. Journal Name: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Year: 2001 Novneither amnitomoy nor oxytocin
Authors: Chung UL;Hung LC;Kuo SC;Huang CL;. Title: Effects of LI4 and BL 67 acupressure on labor pain and uterine contractions in the first stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR. Year: 2003 Decthis is not an RCT, where there is other RCT evidence
Authors: Fraser WD;Sauve R;Parboosingh IJ;Fung T;Sokol R;Persaud D;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of early amniotomy.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991 Janthis is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Fraser WD;Marcoux S;Moutquin JM;Christen A;. Title: Effect of early amniotomy on the risk of dystocia in nulliparous women. The Canadian Early Amniotomy Study Group.[see comment]. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 1993 Apr 22this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Freeman RM;Macaulay AJ;Eve L;. Title: Randomised trial of self hypnosis for analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1986this is an RCT on hypnosis, but has been included in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Garite TJ;Porto M;Carlson NJ;Rumney PJ;Reimbold PA;. Title: The influence of elective amniotomy on fetal heart rate patterns and the course of labor in term patients: A randomized study. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Guerresi E;Gori G;Beccari A;. Title: Influence of spasmolytic treatment and amniotomy on delivery times: A factorial clinical trial. Journal Name: Clinical Therapeutics. Year: 1981this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Habiba M;. Title: Randomised trial of amniotomy in labour versus the intention to leave membranes intact until second stage. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1993 Janthis is correspondence
Authors: Hawkins RMF;. Title: A systematic meta-review of hypnosis as an empirically supported treatment for pain. Journal Name: Pain Reviews. Year: 2001this is a systematic review, but there is another more recent systematic review including all the relevant articles included in this review
Authors: Henderson J;. Title: Active management of labour and caesarean section rates. (Reviews the research evidence including randomized controlled trials). Journal Name: British Journal of Midwifery. Year: 147this is a review paper to look at active management of labour with no systematic approach
Authors: Kuruvila S;Jasper P;Peedicayil A;Mathai M;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of valethamate bromide in acceleration of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1992 Junthe RCT is about valethamate bromide
Authors: Patka JH;Lodolce AE;Johnston AK;. Title: High- versus low-dose oxytocin for augmentation or induction of labor. [Review] [22 refs]. Journal Name: Annals of Pharmacotherapy. Year: 2005 Janthis is a systematic review; all the included studies have been appraised
Authors: Qiu H;Zhu H;Ouyang W;Wang Z;Sun H;. Title: Clinical effects and mechanism of chanlibao in accelerating second stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Tongji Medical University. Year: 1999the study is an RCT, though with limeted quality (e.g. not mentioning details of randomisation) and the medication is not widely available in the UK
Authors: Saunders NJ;Spiby H;Gilbert L;Fraser RB;Hall JM;Mutton PM;Jackson A;Edmonds DK;. Title: Oxytocin infusion during second stage of labour in primiparous women using epidural analgesia: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1989 Dec 9this is targetting women with epidural analgesia
Authors: Stein JL;Bardeguez AD;Verma UL;Tegani N;. Title: Nipple stimulation for labor augmentation. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Year: 1990 Julthis RCT is looking at nipple stimulation as a mean of augmentation
Authors: Tasker M;Verduijn CP;Bassett C;Murray K;Thornton J;. Title: A randomized controlled trial of early amniotomy. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991 Octthis is a correpondence
Authors: Thornton JG;Barker M;Bassett C;Boyce J;Cartmill R;Dawson A;Grant A;Grant J;Galloway S;Guthrie K;Johansen R;Johnson N;Kelly M;Lilford R;Marshall O;Mugf. Title: A multicentre randomised trial of amniotomy in spontaneous first labour at term. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1994this is an RCT inlcuded in a systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Ushiroyama T;Sakuma K;Souen H;Nakai G;Morishima S;Yasuda K;Orino I;Ueki M;. Title: Therapeutic effects of Kyuki-chouketsu-in in restoring postpartum physical condition. Journal Name: American Journal of Chinese Medicine. Year: 2003this is targetting women in postpartum period
Authors: Cluett ER;Pickering RM;Brooking JI;. Title: An investigation into the feasibility of comparing three management options (augmentation, conservative and water) for nulliparae with dystocia in the first stage of labour. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 2001 Marthis is an RCT compraing amniotomy, expectent and use of water on augmentation, but there are only 4 women enroled per each arm
Authors: Harris M;Cooper EV;. Title: Amnihook versus amnicot for amniotomy in labour. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1993 Decthis is a comparison of devices on amniotomy
Authors: Pettersson KO;Svensson ML;Christensson K;. Title: Evaluation of an adapted model of the World Health Organization partograph used by Angolan midwives in a peripheral delivery unit. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 2000 JunThis is not randomised controlled trial, where there are other RCTs exsiting
Authors: Brown H;Paranjothy S;Thomas J;. Title: Package of care for active management in labour for reducing caesarean section rates in low-risk women. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005this is a protocol of a systematic review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Effects of early augmentation of labour with amniotomy and oxytocin in nulliparous women: a meta-analysis (Structured abstract). Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of a systematic review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: The effect of routine early amniotomy on spontaneous labor: a meta-analysis (Structured abstract). Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005This is a critical appraisal of a systematic review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Active management of labour: current knowledge and research issues (Structured abstract). Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of the systematic review that has included four different cochrane reviews. We are looking at one package of care rather than different component of the care
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Active management of labor: a meta-analysis of Cesarean delivery rates for dystocia in nulliparas (Structured abstract). Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005This is a critical appraisal of a systematic review that was included in this review
Authors: Lavender T;O'Brien P;Hart A;. Title: Effect of partogram use on outcomes for women in spontaneous labour at term. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005This is only a protocol of systematic review

18. Is there evidence that the type, frequency and mode of administration of the following pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain relief and regional analgesia influence outcomes?

19. When is use of each of these methods of regional analgesia appropriate?

20. What observations, above baseline care, should be undertaken on both mother and baby while using regional analgesia?

21. What IV fluids should be used to maintain blood pressure during labour while using regional analgesia?

22. What is the most effective use of regional analgesia to minimise instrumental delivery rates and optimise pain relief in the second stage of labour?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Abboud TK;Reyes A;Richardson M;Afrasiabi A;D'Onofrio L;Kalra M;Zhu J;Khoo N;Cheung M;Mantilla M;Mosaad P;Paul R;. Title: Epidural morphine or butorphanol augments bupivacaine analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia. Year: 1989outside the criteria
Authors: Asokumar B;Newman LM;McCarthy RJ;Ivankovich AD;Tuman KJ;. Title: Intrathecal bupivacaine reduces pruritus and prolongs duration of fentanyl analgesia during labor: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1998 Decoutside the criteria
Authors: Atienzar MC;Palanca JM;Borras R;Esteve I;Fernandez M;Miranda A;. Title: Ropivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl 2 microg mL(−1) by epidural infusion for labour analgesia. Journal Name: European Journal of Anaesthesiology. Year: 2004 Octoutside the criteria
Authors: Bailey CR;Ruggier R;Findley IL;. Title: Diamorphine-bupivacaine mixture compared with plain bupivacaine for analgesia. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1994outside the criteria
Authors: Elliott RD;Stockwell M;. Title: Continuous infusion epidural anesthesia for obstetrics. Bupivacaine vs bupivacaine-fentanyl. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1990 Mayconference abstract
Authors: Bogod DG;Rosen M;Rees GAD;. Title: Extradural infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine at 10 ml h-1 to women during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1987outside the criteria
Authors: Capogna G;Celleno D;Fusco P;Lyons G;Columb M;. Title: Relative potencies of bupivacaine and ropivacaine for analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1999no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Ferrante FM;Barber MJ;Segal M;Hughes NJ;Datta S;. Title: 0.0625% Bupivacaine with 0.0002% fentanyl via patient-controlled epidural analgesia for pain of labor and delivery. Journal Name: Clinical Journal of Pain. Year: 1995outside the criteria
Authors: Ferrante FM;Lu L;Jamison SB;Datta S;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia: Demand dosing. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1991outside the criteria
Authors: Fontenot RJ;Price RL;Henry A;Reisner LS;Weinger MB;. Title: Double-blind evaluation of patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1993outside the criteria
Authors: Gaiser RR;Lewin SB;Cheek TG;Gutsche BB;. Title: Effects of immediately initiating an epidural infusion in the combined spinal and epidural technique in nulliparous parturients. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. Year: 2000outside the criteria
Authors: Gambling DR;Yu P;Cole C;McMorland GH;Palmer L;. Title: A comparative study of patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and continuous infusion epidural analgesia (CIEA) during labour. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1988outside the criteria
Authors: Halpern SH;Walsh V;. Title: Epidural ropivacaine versus bupivacaine for labor: a meta-analysis.. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2003included studies are all included individually
Authors: James KS;McGrady E;Quasim I;Patrick A;. Title: Comparison of epidural bolus administration of 0.25% bupivacaine and 0.1% bupivacaine with 0.0002% fentanyl for analgesia during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1998outside the criteria
Authors: Johnson C;Oriol N;Feinstein D;Ransil BJ;. Title: Onset of action between bupivacaine 0.5% and bupivacaine 0.5% plus fentanyl 75 mcg. Journal Name: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. Year: 1989outside the criteria
Authors: Justins DM;Francis D;Houlton PG;Reynolds F;. Title: A controlled trial of extradural fentanyl in labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1982does not mention this an RCT or not
Authors: Khan MAH;Pillai A;Dave NM;Kamdar BM;. Title: Epidural analgesia during labour-comparison of continuous infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine V/s 0.0625% bupivacaine/0.0001% fentanyl. Journal Name: Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology. Year: 2004outside the criteria
Authors: Lim EH;Sia AT;Wong K;Tan HM;. Title: Addition of bupivacaine 1.25 mg to fentanyl confers no advantage over fentanyl alone for intrathecal analgesia in early labour. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 2002 Janoutside the criteria
Authors: Lirzin JD;Dailland P;Jacquinot P;Conseiller C;Jorrot JC;. Title: Effect of diluting fentanyl on epidural bupivacaine during labor analgesia. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia. Year: 1989outside the criteria
Authors: Lysak SZ;Eisenach JC;Dobson II CE;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor: A comparison of three solutions with a continuous infusion control. Journal Name: . Year: 1990outside the criteria
Authors: Mayberry LJ;Clemmens D;De A;. Title: Epidural analgesia side effects, co- interventions, and care of women during childbirth: a systematic review.. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002 Mayoutside the criteria
Authors: McGrady EM;Brownhill DK;Davis AG;. Title: Epidural diamorphine and bupivacaine in labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1989outside the criteria
Authors: McLeod GA;Munishankar B;Columb MO;. Title: Is the clinical efficacy of epidural diamorphine concentration-dependent when used as analgesia for labour?. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 2005outside the criteria
Authors: Murphy JD;Henderson K;Bowden MI;Lewis M;Cooper GM;. Title: Bupivacaine versus bupivacaine plus fentanyl for epidural analgesia: effect on maternal satisfaction.. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1991 Mar 9outside the criteria
Authors: Celleno D;Capogna G;. Title: Epidural fentanyl plus bupivacaine 0.125 per cent for labour: analgesic effects. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1988 Juloutside the criteria
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Epidural ropivacaine versus bupivacaine for labor: a meta-analysis (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of another study
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Fetal bradycardia due to intrathecal opioids for labour analgesia: a systematic review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal for another study
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia versus continuous infusion for labour analgesia: a meta-analysis (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of another study
Authors: Nageotte M;Larson D;Rumney P;Sidhu M;Hollenback K;. Title: A prospective randomized study of intrapartum epidural vs combination intrathecal/epidural anesthesia with or without ambulation. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997conference abstract
Authors: Pace MC;Aurilio C;Bulletti C;Iannotti M;Passavanti MB;Palagiano A;. Title: Subarachnoid analgesia in advanced labor: a comparison of subarachnoid analgesia and pudendal block in advanced labor: analgesic quality and obstetric outcome. Journal Name: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Year: 2004 Decoutside the criteria
Authors: Paech MJ;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia in labour - Is a continuous infusion of benefit?. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 1992outside the criteria
Authors: Parpaglioni R;Frigo MG;Sebastiani M;Lemma A;Barbati G;Celleno D;. Title: High volume of subarachnoid levobupivacaine decreases drug requirement in first stage labor analgesia. Journal Name: Minerva Anestesiologica. Year: 2004 Decoutside the criteria
Authors: Pierce ET;Denson DD;Essell SK;Santos DJ;Edstrom HH;. Title: The effect of rate of infusion on continuous epidural analgesia for labor and delivery. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia. Year: 1989small size and not relevant outcomes
Authors: Polley LS;Columb MO;Naughton NN;Wagner DS;Dorantes DM;Van d;. Title: Effect of intravenous versus epidural fentanyl on the minimum local analgesic concentration of epidural bupivacaine in labor. Journal Name: . Year: 2000 Juloutside the criteria
Authors: Purdie J;Reid J;Thorburn J;Asbury AJ;. Title: Continuous extradural analgesia: comparison of midwife top-ups, continuous infusions and patient controlled administration. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1992 Junoutside the criteria
Authors: Connelly NR;Parker RK;Lucas T;El-Mansouri M;Komanduri V;Nayak P;Gutta S;Gibson C;Dunn SM;. Title: The influence of a bupivacaine and fentanyl epidural infusion after epidural fentanyl in patients allowed to ambulate in early labor. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2001outside the criteria
Authors: Curry PD;Pacsoo C;Heap DG;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia in obstetric anaesthetic practice. Journal Name: Pain. Year: 1994outside the criteria
Authors: Daniel M;McGrady EM;. Title: Epidural diamorphine. A comparison of bolus and infusion administration in labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1995 Janoutside the criteria
Authors: Desprats R;Mandry J;Grandjean H;. Title: The use of fentanyl and marcaine as compared with marcaine alone in epidural analgesia. Journal Name: Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. Year: 1983outside the criteria
Authors: Douglas MJ;Weeks SB;Writer WD;Gambling DR;Macarthur A;Muir HA;McMorland GH;. Title: A double-blind comparison between epidural ropivacaine 0.25% and bupivacaine 0.25% for the relief of childbirth pain: Report of a multicentre study. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia. Year: 1994conference abstract
Authors: Purdy G;Currie J;Owen H;. Title: Continuous extradural analgesia in labour. Comparison between 'on demand' and regular 'top-up' injections. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1987 Maroutside the criteria
Authors: Robinson AP;Lyons GR;Wilson RC;Gorton HJ;Columb MO;. Title: Levobupivacaine for epidural analgesia in labor: the sparing effect of epidural fentanyl. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2001 Feboutside the criteria
Authors: Ruban P;Sia ATH;Chong JL;. Title: The effect of adding fentanyl to ropivacaine 0.125% on patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 2000outside the criteria
Authors: Salim R;Nachum Z;Moscovici R;Lavee M;Shalev E;. Title: Continuous compared with intermittent epidural infusion on progress of labor and patient satisfaction. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2005not relevant comparison
Authors: Sia AT;Chong JL;. Title: Epidural 0.2% ropivacaine for labour analgesia: parturient-controlled or continuous infusion?. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 1999 Aproutside the criteria
Authors: Sinatra RS;Goldstein R;Sevarino FB;. Title: The clinical effectiveness of epidural bupivacaine, bupivacaine with lidocaine, and bupivacaine with fentanyl for labor analgesia. Journal Name: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. Year: 1991 Mayoutside the criteria
Authors: Smedvig JP;Soreide E;Gjessing L;. Title: Ropivacaine 1 mg/ml, plus fentanyl 2 mug/ml for epidural analgesia during labour. Is mode of administration important?. Journal Name: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Year: 2001outside the criteria
Authors: St Amant MS;Koffel B;Malinow AM;. Title: The effects of epidural opioids on fetal heart rate variability when coadministered with 0.25% bupivacaine for labor analgesia. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1998 Junoutside the criteria
Authors: Tan S;Reid J;Thorburn J;. Title: Extradural analgesia in labour: Complications of three techniques of administration. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1994outside the criteria
Authors: Teoh WH;Sia AT;. Title: Hyperbaric bupivacaine 2.5 mg prolongs analgesia compared with plain bupivacaine when added to intrathecal fentanyl 25 microg in advanced labor. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2003 Sepoutside the criteria (spinal)
Authors: Vella LM;Willatts DG;Knott C;. Title: Epidural fentanyl in labour. An evaluation of the systemic contribution to analgesia. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1985outside the criteria
Authors: Viscomi C;Eisenach JC;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991outside the criteria
Authors: Yau G;Gregory MA;Gin T;Bogod DG;Oh TE;. Title: The addition of fentanyl to epidural bupivacaine in first stage labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 1990too small numbers
Authors: Yu PYH;Gambling DR;Cole C;McMorland GH;. Title: A comparative study of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and continuous infusion epidural analgesia (CIEA) during labour. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1988conference abstract
Authors: Ferrante FM;Rosinia FA;Gordon C;Datta S;. Title: The role of continuous background infusions in patient-controlled epidural analgesia for labor and delivery. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1994outside the criteria
Authors: Halpern SH;Muir H;Breen TW;Campbell DC;Barrett J;Liston R;Blanchard JW;. Title: A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing patient-controlled epidural with intravenous analgesia for pain relief in labor. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2004outside the criteria
Authors: Long J;Yue Y;. Title: Patient controlled intravenous analgesia with tramadol for labor pain relief. Journal Name: Chinese Medical Journal. Year: 2003outside the criteria
Authors: Cheek TG;Samuels P;Miller F;Tobin M;Gutsche BB;. Title: Normal saline i.v. fluid load decreases uterine activity in active labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1996 Novreviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Collins KM;Bevan DR;Beard RW;. Title: Fluid loading to reduce abnormalities of fetal heart rate and maternal hypotension during epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1978 Novreviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Hawthorne L;Slaymaker A;Bamber J;Dresner M;. Title: Effect of fluid preload on maternal haemodynamics for low-dose epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 2001reviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Kinsella SM;Pirlet M;Mills MS;Tuckey JP;Thomas TA;. Title: Randomized study of intravenous fluid preload before epidural analgesia during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 2000 Augreviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Kubli M;Shennan AH;Seed PT;O'Sullivan G;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of fluid pre-loading before low dose epidural analgesia for labour. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 2003reviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Shannon MT;Ramanathan S;. Title: An intravenous fluid bolus is not necessary before administration of intrathecal fentanyl for labor analgesia. Journal Name: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. Year: 1998 Sepreviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Stratton JF;Stronge J;Boylan PC;. Title: Hyponatraemia and non-electrolyte solutions in labouring primigravida. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1995 Aprdifferent question
Authors: Toohill J;Soong B;Flenady V;. Title: Interventions for ketosis during labour. Journal Name: . Year: 2005this is a protocol
Authors: Zamora JE;Rosaeg OP;Lindsay MP;Crossan ML;. Title: Haemodynamic consequences and uterine contractions following 0.5 or 1.0 litre crystalloid infusion before obstetric epidural analgesia. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1996 Aprreviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: The effects of epidural analgesia on labor, maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005Have complete paper
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Unintended effects of epidural analgesia during labor: a systematic review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005Non-systematic review
Authors: Liu EH;Sia AT;. Title: Rates of caesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in nulliparous women after low concentration epidural infusions or opioid analgesia: systematic review.[see comment]. [Review] [13 refs]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 2004 Jun 12All studies included in Cochrane review
Authors: Maresh M;Choong KH;Beard RW;. Title: Delayed pushing with lumbar epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1983 JulQuasi-randomisation (area already covered by 5 good RCTs)
Authors: Patel M;Fernando R;Gill P;Urquhart J;Morgan B;. Title: A prospective study of long-term backache after childbirth in primigravidae - The effect of ambulatory epidural analgesia during labour. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1995Non RCT
Authors: Porter J;Bonello E;Reynolds F;. Title: Effect of epidural fentanyl on neonatal respiration.[erratum appears in Anesthesiology 1998 Dec;89(6):1615]. Journal Name: . Year: 1998 Julthe population has been inlcuded in another study
Authors: Thorp JA;Breedlove G;. Title: Epidural analgesia in labor: an evaluation of risks and benefits.. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1996 JunNon-systematic review
Authors: Thorp JA;. Title: The effect of intrapartum epidural analgesia on nulliparous labor: a randomized, controlled, prospective trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993 OctIn systematic review
Authors: Bai J;Wei M;Xu X;. Title: The effect of pethidin in the first course of labor. Journal Name: Acta Academiae Medicinae Hubei. Year: 1995Poor abstract only
Authors: Blair JM;Hill DA;Fee JP;. Title: Patient-controlled analgesia for labour using remifentanil: a feasibility study. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 2001 SepNon-RCT - Feasibility study
Authors: Brice JE;Moreland TA;Walker CH;. Title: Effects of pethidine and its antagonists on the newborn. Journal Name: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Year: 1979 MayStudy of the effects of naloxone and nalorphine.
Authors: Brock-Utne JG;Love AJ;Mankowitz E;Downing JW;. Title: Indoprofen - a new non-opioid analgesic. A comparison with pethidine. Journal Name: South African Medical Journal. Year: 1985Not intrapartum
Authors: Bundsen P;Ericson K;Peterson LE;Thiringer K;. Title: Pain relief in labor by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Testing of a modified stimulation technique and evaluation of the neurological and biochemical condition of the newborn infant. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1982reviewed in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Busacca M;Gementi P;Gambini E;. Title: Neonatal effects of the administration of meperidine and promethazine to the mother in labor. Double blind study. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1982Promethazine not commonly used in labour in UK
Authors: Campbell DC;. Title: Parenteral optoids for labor analgesia. Journal Name: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003Non-research
Authors: Carroll D;Tramer M;McQuay H;Nye B;Moore A;. Title: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in labour pain: a systematic review.. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997 Febreviewed in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Carstoniu J;Levytam S;Norman P;Daley D;Katz J;Sandler AN;. Title: Nitrous oxide in early labor: Safety and analgesic efficacy assessed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1994reviewed in the systematic review that has been included already
Authors: Cavanagh D;Lecart C;Cassady JC;Kiem IM;. Title: Comparison of anileridine and meperidine as obstetric analgesia. A double blind study of 471 patients. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1966 Sep 15Anileridine not used in UK
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Effect of epidural vs parenteral opioid analgesia on the progress of labor: a meta-analysis (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005Abstract only
Authors: Lee JS;Singh P;. Title: Randomized trial of epidural versus intravenous analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 MarOpinion/letter
Authors: Maduska AL;Hajghassemali M;. Title: A double-blind comparison of butorphanol and meperidine in labour: maternal pain relief and effect on the newborn. Journal Name: Canadian Anaesthetists Society Journal. Year: 1978 SepButorphanol not used in UK
Authors: Malkasian GD;Smith RA;Decker DG;. Title: Comparison of hydroxyzine- meperidine and promethazine-meperidine for analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1967 OctNot in current use in UK
Authors: McQuitty FM;. Title: Relief of pain in labour. A controlled double-blind trial comparing pethidine and various phenothiazine derivatives. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. Year: 1967 DecNot used currently in UK
Authors: Merkow AJ;McGuinness GA;Erenberg A;Kennedy RL;. Title: The neonatal neurobehavioral effects of bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and 2-chloroprocaine used for pudendal block. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1980Not related to clinical question
Authors: Moore J;Carson M;Ball H;. Title: A clinical trial of pethidine and pentazocine (Fortral) during labour. Journal Name: Midwives Chronicle. Year: 1970 JanIn Cochrane review
Authors: Moore J;Ball HG;. Title: A sequential study of intravenous analgesic treatment during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1974 Maynon-RCT
Authors: Morris GF;Gore-Hickman W;Lang SA;Yip RW;. Title: Can parturients distinguish between intravenous and epidural fentanyl?. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1994Non-RCT
Authors: Morrison CE;Dutton D;Howie H;Gilmour H;. Title: Pethidine compared with meptazinol during labour. A prospective randomised double-blind study in 1100 patients. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1987In systematic review
Authors: Mowat J;Garrey MM;. Title: Comparison of pentazocine and pethidine in labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1970 Jun 27In Cochrane review
Authors: Nel CP;Bloch B;Rush JM;. Title: A comparison of meptazinol and pethidine for pain relief during the first stage of labour. Journal Name: South African medical journal Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde. Year: 1981 JunIn Cochrane review
Authors: Nesheim BI;Lindbaek E;Storm-Mathisen I;Jenssen H;. Title: Neurobehavioral response of infants after paracervical block during labour. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1979Rare in UK
Authors: Nesheim BI;. Title: The use of transcutaneous nerve stimulation for pain relief during labor. A controlled clinical study. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1981reviewed in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Nesheim BI;. Title: Which local anesthetic is best suited for paracervical blocks?. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1983Rare in UK
Authors: Nicholas AD;Robson PJ;. Title: Double-blind comparison of meptazinol and pethidine in labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1982 AprIncluded in Cochrane review
Authors: Nieminen K;Puolakka J;. Title: Effective obstetric paracervical block with reduced dose of bupivacaine. A prospective randomized double-blind study comparing 25 mg (0.25%) and 12.5 mg (0.125%) of bupivacaine. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1997Rare in UK
Authors: Nikkola EM;Ekblad UU;Kero PO;Alihanka JJ;Salonen MA;. Title: Intravenous fentanyl PCA during labour. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1997 DecIn systematic review
Authors: Nisbet R;Boulas SH;Kantor HI;. Title: Diazepam (valium) during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1967 MayOutside scope
Authors: Nissen E;Lilja G;Matthiesen A;Ransjo-Arvidsson A;Uvnas-Moberg K;Widstrom A;. Title: Effects of maternal pethidine on infants' developing breast feeding behaviour. Journal Name: Acta Paediatrica. Year: 1995Non RCT
Authors: Niswander KR;. Title: Effect of diazepam on meperidine requirements of patients during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1969 JulOutside scope
Authors: Osler M;. Title: A double-blind study comparing meptazinol and pethidine for pain relief in labour. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1987In Cochrane review
Authors: Philipsen T;Jensen NH;. Title: Epidural block or parenteral pethidine as analgesic in labour; a randomized study concerning progress in labour and instrumental deliveries. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1989 JanIn Cochrane review
Authors: Philipsen T;Jensen NH;. Title: Maternal opinion about analgesia in labour and delivery. A comparison of epidural blockade and intramuscular pethidine. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1990 MarNot relevant.
Authors: Phillips TJ;Macdonald RR;. Title: Comparative effect of pethidine, trichloroethylene, and Entonox on fetal and neonatal acid-base and PO2. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1971 Sep 4this is not an RCT
Authors: Quilligan EJ;Keegan KA;Donahue MJ;. Title: Double-blind comparison of intravenously injected butorphanol and meperidine in parturients. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1980Butorphanol not used in UK
Authors: Ramin SM;Gambling DR;Lucas MJ;Sharma SK;Sidawi JE;Leveno KJ;. Title: Randomized trial of epidural versus intravenous analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1995Included in systematic review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Nitrous oxide for relief of labor pain: a systematic review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005this is an appraisal of a systematic review
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation does not relieve labor pain: updated systematic review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005this is an appraisal of a systematic review
Authors: Chang A;Wood C;Humphrey M;Gilbert M;Wagstaff C;. Title: The effects of narcotics on fetal acid base status. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1976 JanNon-clinical
Authors: Chia YT;Arulkumaran S;Chua S;Ratnam SS;. Title: Effectiveness of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulator for pain relief in labour. Journal Name: Asia- Oceania Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1990 Junreviewed in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Davies JM;Rosen M;. Title: Intramuscular diazepam in labour. A double- blind trial in multiparae. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1977 JunNot in scope
Authors: De Boer FC;Shortland D;Simpson RL;. Title: A comparison of the effects of maternally administered meptazinol and pethidine on neonatal acid-base status. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1987More than 25% women excluded following randomisation
Authors: Dickinson JE;Godfrey M;Evans SF;Newnham JP;. Title: Factors influencing the selection of analgesia in spontaneously labouring nulliparous women at term. Journal Name: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Year: 1997 AugNot an RCT
Authors: Dickinson JE;Paech MJ;McDonald SJ;Evans SF;. Title: The impact of intrapartum analgesia on labour and delivery outcomes in nulliparous women. Journal Name: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Year: 2002Included in systematic review
Authors: Dolan PF;Rosen M;. Title: Inhalational analgesia in labour: facemask or mouthpiece. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1975 Nov 22this is comparing facemask versus mouthpiece for N2O in labour
Authors: Ellis B;. Title: Short report: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain relief: recent research findings and implications for clinical use. Journal Name: Physical Therapy Reviews. Year: 1998Not intrapartum
Authors: Erkkola R;Pikkola P;Kanto J;. Title: Transcutaneous nerve stimulation for pain relief during labour: A controlled study. Journal Name: Annales Chirurgiae et Gynaecologiae. Year: 1980reviewed in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Ranta P;Jouppila P;Spalding M;Kangas-Saarela T;Jouppila R;. Title: Paracervical block--a viable alternative for labor pain relief?. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1995 FebRare in UK
Authors: Rayburn W;Leuschen MP;Earl R;Woods M;Lorkovic M;Gaston-Johansson F;. Title: Intravenous meperidine during labor: A randomized comparison between nursing- and patient-controlled administration. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1989In systematic review
Authors: Rayburn WF;Smith CV;Leuschen MP;Hoffman KA;Flores CS;. Title: Comparison of patient-controlled and nurse-administered analgesia using intravenous fentanyl during labor. Journal Name: Anesthesiology Review. Year: 1991 JanIn systematic review
Authors: Rayburn WF;Smith CV;Parriott JE;Woods RE;. Title: Randomized comparison of meperidine and fentanyl during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1989In systematic review
Authors: Refstad SO;Lindbaek E;. Title: Ventilatory depression of the newborn of women receiving pethidine or pentazocine. A double-blind comparative trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1980In systematic review
Authors: Robinson JO;Rosen M;Evans JM;. Title: Self-administered intravenous and intramuscular pethidine. A controlled trial in labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1980RCT with high loss to follow-up
Authors: Robinson PN;Romney M;Gordon H;Loughnan BA;. Title: Outcome of labour using low-dose extradural bupivacaine compared with intramuscular pethidine. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1997Not an intention to treat analysis.
Authors: Ron M;Menashe M;Hochner-Celnikier D;Palti Z;. Title: Maternal blood pressure response to the intravenous administration of pethidine-promethazine during labor. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1984Promethazine not used in UK
Authors: Schierup L;Schmidt JF;Torp JA;Rye BA;. Title: Pudendal block in vaginal deliveries. Mepivacaine with and without epinephrine. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1988Not related to clinical question
Authors: Sharma SK;McIntire DD;Wiley J;Leveno KJ;. Title: Labor Analgesia and Cesarean Delivery: An Individual Patient Meta-analysis of Nulliparous Women. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 2004Population outside scope.
Authors: Sharma SK;Leveno KJ;. Title: Regional analgesia and progress of labor. Journal Name: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003This is a non-systematic review
Authors: Sheikh A;Tunstall ME;. Title: Comparative study of meptazinol and pethidine for the relief of pain in labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986Included in Cochrane review
Authors: Sliom CM;. Title: Analgesia during labour: a comparison between dihydrocodeine and pethidine. Journal Name: South African medical journal Suid- Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde. Year: 1970 MarAnalgesic not commonly used in UK IPC
Authors: Spellacy WN;Shattuck CA;Loffer FD;. Title: A double-blind study of the comparative effects of meperidine with secobarbital, hydroxyzine, or a placebo on labor and delivery. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1966 FebNot used in Uk
Authors: Stefani SJ;Hughes SC;Shnider SM;. Title: Neonatal neurobehavioral effects of inhalation analgesia for vaginal delivery. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1982reviewed in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Teramo K;. Title: Effects of obstetrical paracervical blockade on the fetus. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Supplement. Year: 1971Non-systematic review
Authors: Teramo K;. Title: Fetal acid-base balance and heart rate during labour with bupivacaine paracervical block anaesthesia. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1969 OctRarely used in UK
Authors: Thomas IL;Tyle V;Webster J;Neilson A;. Title: An evaluation of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain relief in labour. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1988reviewed in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: van der Ploeg JM;Vervest HA;Liem AL;Schagen van Leeuwen JH;. Title: Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) during the first stage of labour: a randomized clinical trial. Journal Name: Pain. Year: 1996 Novreviewed in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: van der Spank JT;Cambier DC;De Paepe HM;Danneels LA;Witvrouw EE;Beerens L;. Title: Pain relief in labour by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2000 Novthis is not an RCT
Authors: Viegas OA;Khaw B;Ratnam SS;. Title: Tramadol in labour pain in primiparous patients. A prospective comparative clinical trial. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1993 MayIncluded in Cochrane review
Authors: Viscomi CM;. Title: Randomized trial of epidural versus intravenous analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 MarOpinion/letter
Authors: Volmanen P;Akural EI;Raudaskoski T;Alahuhta S;. Title: Remifentanil in obstetric analgesia: a dose-finding study.. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2002Dose-finding study
Authors: Westholm H;Magno R;Berg AA;. Title: Experiences with paracervical block. A double-blind study with bupivacaine (Marcaine). Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1970Rare in UK
Authors: Westholm H;Magno R;Berg AA;. Title: Paracervical block in labour. A double-blind study with bupivacaine, Marcaine. Journal Name: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Year: 1969Rare in UK
Authors: Wheble AM;Dawes GS;Gillmer MDG;Sykes GS;. Title: A double blind quantitative study of the effects of meptazinol and pethidine on the fetal heart rate in labour. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1988In Cochrane
Authors: Wiener PC;Hogg MI;Rosen M;. Title: Neonatal respiration, feeding and neurobehavioural state. Effects of intrapartum bupivacaine, pethidine and pethidine reversed by naloxone. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1979reviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Wilson CM;McClean E;Moore J;Dundee JW;. Title: A double-blind comparison of intramuscular pethidine and nalbuphine in labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1986In systematic review
Authors: Yentis SM;Clyburn P;. Title: The use of Entonox(TM) for labour pain should be abandoned. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 2001Non-research
Authors: Flowers CE;Rudolph AJ;Desmond MM;. Title: Diazepam (valium) as an adjunct in obstetric analgesia. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1969 JulOutside scope
Authors: Frank M;McAteer EJ;Cattermole R;Loughnan B;Stafford LB;Hitchcock AM;. Title: Nalbuphine for obstetric analgesia. A comparison of nalbuphine with pethidine for pain relief in labour when administered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1987 JulIn systematic review
Authors: Hager A;Newton W;. Title: Comparing epidural and parenteral opioid analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Journal of Family Practice. Year: 1999 MarSummary only - full article available
Authors: Halpern SH;Leighton BL;Ohlsson A;Barrett JF;Rice A;. Title: Effect of epidural vs parenteral opioid analgesia on the progress of labor: a meta-analysis. Journal Name: JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Year: 1998 Dec 23Superceded by Cochrane review
Authors: Harrison RF;Cullen R;. Title: A comparative study of the behaviour of the neonate following various forms of maternal intrapartum analgesia and anaesthesia. Journal Name: Irish Journal of Medical Science. Year: 1986non RCT
Authors: Harrison RF;Shore M;Woods T;Mathews G;Gardiner J;Unwin A;. Title: A comparative study of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), entonox, pethidine + promazine and lumbar epidural for pain relief in labor. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1987non RCT
Authors: Harrison RF;Woods T;Shore M;. Title: Pain relief in labour using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). A TENS/TENS placebo controlled study in two parity groups. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986reviewed in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Heese H;Davey DA;Rorke M;Molteno C;. Title: Effect of maternal anaesthesia on oxygenation and acid-base status of the newborn infant. Journal Name: South African medical journal Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde. Year: 1973 Octelective Caesarean section
Authors: Heimrath J;Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk E;Florjanski J;Pajak J;Tomialowicz M;Gora J;Laskowska M;. Title: Influence of epidural and pethydine anaesthesia on neonatal status by Apgar score and choosen parameters of spontaneous labour. Journal Name: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Year: 2002non RCT
Authors: Hodgkinson R;Bhatt M;Wang CN;. Title: Double-blind comparison of the neurobehaviour of neonates following the administration of different doses of meperidine to the mother. Journal Name: Canadian Anaesthetists' Society Journal. Year: 1978 SepIncluded co-drugs not used in UK
Authors: Hodgkinson R;Huff RW;Hayashi RH;Husain FJ;. Title: Double-blind comparison of maternal analgesia and neonatal neurobehaviour following intravenous butorphanol and meperidine. Journal Name: Journal of International Medical Research. Year: 1979Butorphanol not used in UK
Authors: Howell CJ;Kidd C;Roberts W;Upton P;Lucking L;Jones PW;Johanson RB;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of epidural compared with non-epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2001 JanIn Cochrane review
Authors: Howell CJ;. Title: Epidural versus non-epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2000Previous version - updated version included
Authors: Howell CJ;Dean T;Lucking L;Dziedzic K;Jones PW;Johanson RB;. Title: Randomised study of long term outcome after epidural versus non-epidural analgesia during labour.[see comment][erratum appears in BMJ 2002 Sep 14;325(7364):580]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 2002 Aug 17Included in Cochrane review
Authors: Jain S;Arya VK;Gopalan S;Jain V;. Title: Analgesic efficacy of intramuscular opioids versus epidural analgesia in labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2003 OctIn Cochrane review
Authors: Jensen F;Qvist I;Brocks V;. Title: Submucous paracervical blockade compared with intramuscular meperidine as analgesia during labor: A double-blind study. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1984Rare in UK
Authors: Johnston RV;Burrows E;Merrin MIJ;Burrows R;. Title: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain relief in labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005Cochrane protocol only
Authors: Jones PL;Rosen M;Mushin WW;Jones EV;. Title: Methoxyflurane and nitrous oxide as obstetric analgesics. I. A comparison by continuous administration. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1969 Aug 2Not used in UK
Authors: Kamyabi Z;Naderi T;Ramazani A;. Title: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of pethidine on labor pain, uterine contractions and infant Apgar score. Journal Name: Annals of Saudi Medicine. Year: 2003Not relevant.
Authors: Kan RE;Hughes SC;Rosen MA;Kessin C;Preston PG;Lobo EP;. Title: Intravenous remifentanil: placental transfer, maternal and neonatal effects. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1998 JunElective CS
Authors: Kaplan B;Rabinerson D;Lurie S;Bar J;Krieser UR;Neri A;. Title: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for adjuvant pain-relief during labor and delivery. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1998 Marthe outcome is only duration of first stage
Authors: Kolatat T;Jarungphan S;Charastong C;Jundeewong Y;. Title: Pulmonary function in infants exposed to pethidine. Journal Name: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Year: 2002 AugNon RCT
Authors: Langhoff-Roos J;Lindmark G;. Title: Analgesia and maternal side effects of pudendal block at delivery. A comparison of three local anesthetics. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1985Not related to clinical question
Authors: Lee EW;Chung IW;Lee JY;Lam PW;Chin RK;. Title: The role of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in management of labour in obstetric patients. Journal Name: Asia-Oceania Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1990 Sepreviewed in the systematic review that has been included
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Acupuncture for labor pain management: a systematic review (Provisional record). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2006Provisional record only
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain: a systematic review (Provisional record). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2006Provisional record only
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Hypnosis for pain relief in labour and childbirth: a systematic review (Provisional record). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2006Provisional record only
Authors: Abboud TK;Reyes A;Richardson M;Afrasiabi A;D'Onofrio L;Kalra M;Zhu J;Khoo N;Cheung M;Mantilla M;Mosaad P;Paul R;. Title: Epidural morphine or butorphanol augments bupivacaine analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia. Year: 1989outside the criteria
Authors: Asokumar B;Newman LM;McCarthy RJ;Ivankovich AD;Tuman KJ;. Title: Intrathecal bupivacaine reduces pruritus and prolongs duration of fentanyl analgesia during labor: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1998 Decoutside the criteria
Authors: Atienzar MC;Palanca JM;Borras R;Esteve I;Fernandez M;Miranda A;. Title: Ropivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl 2 microg mL(−1) by epidural infusion for labour analgesia. Journal Name: European Journal of Anaesthesiology. Year: 2004 Octoutside the criteria
Authors: Bailey CR;Ruggier R;Findley IL;. Title: Diamorphine-bupivacaine mixture compared with plain bupivacaine for analgesia. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1994outside the criteria
Authors: Elliott RD;Stockwell M;. Title: Continuous infusion epidural anesthesia for obstetrics. Bupivacaine vs bupivacaine-fentanyl. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1990 Mayconference abstract
Authors: Bogod DG;Rosen M;Rees GAD;. Title: Extradural infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine at 10 ml h-1 to women during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1987outside the criteria
Authors: Capogna G;Celleno D;Fusco P;Lyons G;Columb M;. Title: Relative potencies of bupivacaine and ropivacaine for analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1999no relevant outcomes reported
Authors: Ferrante FM;Barber MJ;Segal M;Hughes NJ;Datta S;. Title: 0.0625% Bupivacaine with 0.0002% fentanyl via patient-controlled epidural analgesia for pain of labor and delivery. Journal Name: Clinical Journal of Pain. Year: 1995outside the criteria
Authors: Ferrante FM;Lu L;Jamison SB;Datta S;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia: Demand dosing. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1991outside the criteria
Authors: Fontenot RJ;Price RL;Henry A;Reisner LS;Weinger MB;. Title: Double-blind evaluation of patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1993outside the criteria
Authors: Fraser WD;Cayer M;Soeder BM;Turcot L;Marcoux S;PEOPLE (Pushing Early or Pushing Late with Epidural) Study Group;. Title: Risk factors for difficult delivery in nulliparas with epidural analgesia in second stage of labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002 MarDoes not include required interventions
Authors: Gaiser RR;Lewin SB;Cheek TG;Gutsche BB;. Title: Effects of immediately initiating an epidural infusion in the combined spinal and epidural technique in nulliparous parturients. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. Year: 2000outside the criteria
Authors: Gambling DR;Yu P;Cole C;McMorland GH;Palmer L;. Title: A comparative study of patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and continuous infusion epidural analgesia (CIEA) during labour. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1988outside the criteria
Authors: Gerancher JC;Grice SC;Dewan DM;Eisenach J;. Title: An evaluation of informed consent prior to epidural analgesia for labor and delivery. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 2000Outcome not relevant to guideline
Authors: Halpern SH;Walsh V;. Title: Epidural ropivacaine versus bupivacaine for labor: a meta-analysis.. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2003included studies are all included individually
Authors: James KS;McGrady E;Quasim I;Patrick A;. Title: Comparison of epidural bolus administration of 0.25% bupivacaine and 0.1% bupivacaine with 0.0002% fentanyl for analgesia during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1998outside the criteria
Authors: Johnson C;Oriol N;Feinstein D;Ransil BJ;. Title: Onset of action between bupivacaine 0.5% and bupivacaine 0.5% plus fentanyl 75 mcg. Journal Name: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. Year: 1989outside the criteria
Authors: Justins DM;Francis D;Houlton PG;Reynolds F;. Title: A controlled trial of extradural fentanyl in labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1982does not mention this an RCT or not
Authors: Khan MAH;Pillai A;Dave NM;Kamdar BM;. Title: Epidural analgesia during labour-comparison of continuous infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine V/s 0.0625% bupivacaine/0.0001% fentanyl. Journal Name: Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology. Year: 2004outside the criteria
Authors: Leighton BL;Halpern SH;. Title: Epidural analgesia: effects on labor progress and maternal and neonatal outcome.. Journal Name: Seminars in Perinatology. Year: 2002 AprSuperceded by systematic review by same authors
Authors: Leong EW;Sivanesaratnam V;Oh LL;Chan YK;. Title: Epidural analgesia in primigravidae in spontaneous labour at term: a prospective study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. Year: 2000 AugNon RCT
Authors: Lim EH;Sia AT;Wong K;Tan HM;. Title: Addition of bupivacaine 1.25 mg to fentanyl confers no advantage over fentanyl alone for intrathecal analgesia in early labour. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 2002 Janoutside the criteria
Authors: Lirzin JD;Dailland P;Jacquinot P;Conseiller C;Jorrot JC;. Title: Effect of diluting fentanyl on epidural bupivacaine during labor analgesia. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia. Year: 1989outside the criteria
Authors: Lysak SZ;Eisenach JC;Dobson II CE;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor: A comparison of three solutions with a continuous infusion control. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1990outside the criteria
Authors: Maresh M;Choong KH;Beard RW;. Title: Delayed pushing with lumbar epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1983 JulQuasi-randomised
Authors: Mayberry LJ;Clemmens D;De A;. Title: Epidural analgesia side effects, co- interventions, and care of women during childbirth: a systematic review.. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002 Mayoutside the criteria
Authors: McGrady EM;Brownhill DK;Davis AG;. Title: Epidural diamorphine and bupivacaine in labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1989outside the criteria
Authors: McLeod GA;Munishankar B;Columb MO;. Title: Is the clinical efficacy of epidural diamorphine concentration-dependent when used as analgesia for labour?. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 2005outside the criteria
Authors: Murphy JD;Henderson K;Bowden MI;Lewis M;Cooper GM;. Title: Bupivacaine versus bupivacaine plus fentanyl for epidural analgesia: effect on maternal satisfaction.. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1991 Mar 9outside the criteria
Authors: Celleno D;Capogna G;. Title: Epidural fentanyl plus bupivacaine 0.125 per cent for labour: analgesic effects. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1988 Juloutside the criteria
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Delayed versus early pushing in women with epidural analgesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis (Provisional record). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005Search terms only
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour and childbirth: a review with a systematic approach (Provisional record). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005Search terms only
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Epidural analgesia in association with duration of labor and mode of delivery: a quantitative review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005Poor quality review Superceded by Cochrane
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Epidural ropivacaine versus bupivacaine for labor: a meta-analysis (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of another study
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Fetal bradycardia due to intrathecal opioids for labour analgesia: a systematic review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal for another study
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia versus continuous infusion for labour analgesia: a meta-analysis (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of another study
Authors: Nageotte M;Larson D;Rumney P;Sidhu M;Hollenback K;. Title: A prospective randomized study of intrapartum epidural vs combination intrathecal/epidural anesthesia with or without ambulation. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997conference abstract
Authors: Olmez G;Dag IH;Ozyilmaz MA;Yalinkaya A;. Title: Can combined spinal-epidural analgesia be an alternative to epidural analgesia alone in labour?. Journal Name: Turk Anesteziyoloji Ve Reanimasyon. Year: 2003Not relevant.
Authors: Pace MC;Aurilio C;Bulletti C;Iannotti M;Passavanti MB;Palagiano A;. Title: Subarachnoid analgesia in advanced labor: a comparison of subarachnoid analgesia and pudendal block in advanced labor: analgesic quality and obstetric outcome. Journal Name: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Year: 2004 Decoutside the criteria
Authors: Paech MJ;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia in labour - Is a continuous infusion of benefit?. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 1992outside the criteria
Authors: Parpaglioni R;Frigo MG;Sebastiani M;Lemma A;Barbati G;Celleno D;. Title: High volume of subarachnoid levobupivacaine decreases drug requirement in first stage labor analgesia. Journal Name: Minerva Anestesiologica. Year: 2004 Decoutside the criteria
Authors: Pattee C;Ballantyne M;Milne B;. Title: Epidural analgesia for labour and delivery: Informed consent issues. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1997Non-RCT, small-scale survey
Authors: Pierce ET;Denson DD;Essell SK;Santos DJ;Edstrom HH;. Title: The effect of rate of infusion on continuous epidural analgesia for labor and delivery. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia. Year: 1989small size and not relevant outcomes
Authors: Polley LS;Columb MO;Naughton NN;Wagner DS;Dorantes DM;Van d;. Title: Effect of intravenous versus epidural fentanyl on the minimum local analgesic concentration of epidural bupivacaine in labor. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 2000 Juloutside the criteria
Authors: Purdie J;Reid J;Thorburn J;Asbury AJ;. Title: Continuous extradural analgesia: comparison of midwife top-ups, continuous infusions and patient controlled administration. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1992 Junoutside the criteria
Authors: Connelly NR;Parker RK;Lucas T;El-Mansouri M;Komanduri V;Nayak P;Gutta S;Gibson C;Dunn SM;. Title: The influence of a bupivacaine and fentanyl epidural infusion after epidural fentanyl in patients allowed to ambulate in early labor. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2001outside the criteria
Authors: Curry PD;Pacsoo C;Heap DG;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia in obstetric anaesthetic practice. Journal Name: Pain. Year: 1994outside the criteria
Authors: Daniel M;McGrady EM;. Title: Epidural diamorphine. A comparison of bolus and infusion administration in labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1995 Janoutside the criteria
Authors: Desprats R;Mandry J;Grandjean H;. Title: The use of fentanyl and marcaine as compared with marcaine alone in epidural analgesia. Journal Name: Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. Year: 1983outside the criteria
Authors: Douglas MJ;Weeks SB;Writer WD;Gambling DR;Macarthur A;Muir HA;McMorland GH;. Title: A double-blind comparison between epidural ropivacaine 0.25% and bupivacaine 0.25% for the relief of childbirth pain: Report of a multicentre study. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia. Year: 1994conference abstract
Authors: Purdy G;Currie J;Owen H;. Title: Continuous extradural analgesia in labour. Comparison between 'on demand' and regular 'top-up' injections. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1987 Maroutside the criteria
Authors: Robinson AP;Lyons GR;Wilson RC;Gorton HJ;Columb MO;. Title: Levobupivacaine for epidural analgesia in labor: the sparing effect of epidural fentanyl. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2001 Feboutside the criteria
Authors: Robinson JN;Norwitz ER;Cohen AP;McElrath TF;Lieberman ES;. Title: Epidural analgesia and third- or fourth-degree lacerations in nulliparas. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999 AugNon-RCT
Authors: Ruban P;Sia ATH;Chong JL;. Title: The effect of adding fentanyl to ropivacaine 0.125% on patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 2000outside the criteria
Authors: Salim R;Nachum Z;Moscovici R;Lavee M;Shalev E;. Title: Continuous compared with intermittent epidural infusion on progress of labor and patient satisfaction. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2005not relevant comparison
Authors: Sia AT;Chong JL;. Title: Epidural 0.2% ropivacaine for labour analgesia: parturient-controlled or continuous infusion?. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 1999 Aproutside the criteria
Authors: Sinatra RS;Goldstein R;Sevarino FB;. Title: The clinical effectiveness of epidural bupivacaine, bupivacaine with lidocaine, and bupivacaine with fentanyl for labor analgesia. Journal Name: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. Year: 1991 Mayoutside the criteria
Authors: Smedvig JP;Soreide E;Gjessing L;. Title: Ropivacaine 1 mg/ml, plus fentanyl 2 mug/ml for epidural analgesia during labour. Is mode of administration important?. Journal Name: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Year: 2001outside the criteria
Authors: St Amant MS;Koffel B;Malinow AM;. Title: The effects of epidural opioids on fetal heart rate variability when coadministered with 0.25% bupivacaine for labor analgesia. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1998 Junoutside the criteria
Authors: Tan S;Reid J;Thorburn J;. Title: Extradural analgesia in labour: Complications of three techniques of administration. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1994outside the criteria
Authors: Teoh WH;Sia AT;. Title: Hyperbaric bupivacaine 2.5 mg prolongs analgesia compared with plain bupivacaine when added to intrathecal fentanyl 25 microg in advanced labor. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2003 Sepoutside the criteria (spinal)
Authors: Vella LM;Willatts DG;Knott C;. Title: Epidural fentanyl in labour. An evaluation of the systemic contribution to analgesia. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1985outside the criteria
Authors: Viscomi C;Eisenach JC;. Title: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991outside the criteria
Authors: Yau G;Gregory MA;Gin T;Bogod DG;Oh TE;. Title: The addition of fentanyl to epidural bupivacaine in first stage labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 1990too small numbers
Authors: Yu PYH;Gambling DR;Cole C;McMorland GH;. Title: A comparative study of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and continuous infusion epidural analgesia (CIEA) during labour. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1988conference abstract
Authors: Kotlko DM;. Title: A controlled comparison of maternal analgesia: effects on neonatal nutritional sucking behavior. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1995Small-scale, non-RCT
Authors: Asselineau D;. Title: Does ambulation under epidural analgesia during labour modify foetal extraction conditions? [This is a translated title][French]. Journal Name: Contraception, Fertilite, Sexualite. Year: 1996Abstract only French language
Authors: Bourne TM;Campbell F;Mushambi MC;May AE;. Title: Patients' assessment of sensory levels during epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1997Outside scope - sensory loss rather than pain relief
Authors: Crowhurst JA;Burgess RW;Derham RJ;. Title: Monitoring epidural analgesia in the parturient.. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 1990 AugOutside scope - care from anaesthetist
Authors: Haberer JP;Monteillard C;. Title: Foetal and neonatal effects of obstetrical epidural anaesthesia. Journal Name: Annales Francaises d Anesthesie et de Reanimation. Year: 1986French language
Authors: McCool WF;. Title: Epidurals, electronic fetal monitoring, and 'Dolly'. The role of technology in the care of women. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1997 JulEditorial
Authors: Pitkanen MT;Paatero H;Rosenberg PH;. Title: The effect of maternal lateral position or position change on epidural anesthesia and plasma bupivacaine concentrations. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia. Year: 1988Outside scope - Caesarean section
Authors: Ralston DH;Shnider SM;. Title: The fetal and neonatal effects of regional anesthesia in obstetrics.. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1978 JanNon-systematic review
Authors: Rickford WJ;Reynolds F;. Title: Epidural analgesia in labour and maternal posture. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1983 DecOutside scope - establishment of epidural anaesthesia
Authors: Stickles BJ;. Title: Idiosyncratic supraventricular tachycardia after epidural anesthesia. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1993 JanCase report
Authors: Walker M;. Title: Do labor medications affect breastfeeding?.. Journal Name: Journal of Human Lactation. Year: 1997 JunNon-systematic review
Authors: Kuczkowski KM;. Title: Severe persistent fetal bradycardia following subarachnoid administration of fentanyl and bupivacaine for induction of a combined spinal-epidural analgesia for labor pain. Journal Name: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. Year: 2004 FebLetter
Authors: Steiger RM;Nageotte MP;. Title: Effect of uterine contractility and maternal hypotension on prolonged decelerations after bupivacaine epidural anesthesia. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1990Outside scope
Authors: Ferrante FM;Rosinia FA;Gordon C;Datta S;. Title: The role of continuous background infusions in patient-controlled epidural analgesia for labor and delivery. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1994outside the criteria
Authors: Halpern SH;Muir H;Breen TW;Campbell DC;Barrett J;Liston R;Blanchard JW;. Title: A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing patient-controlled epidural with intravenous analgesia for pain relief in labor. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2004outside the criteria
Authors: Long J;Yue Y;. Title: Patient controlled intravenous analgesia with tramadol for labor pain relief. Journal Name: Chinese Medical Journal. Year: 2003outside the criteria
Authors: Ramin SM;Gambling DR;Lucas MJ;Sharma SK;Sidawi JE;Leveno KJ;. Title: Randomized trial of epidural versus intravenous analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1995In systematic review
Authors: Robinson PN;Romney M;Gordon H;Loughnan BA;. Title: Outcome of labour using low-dose extradural bupivacaine compared with intramuscular pethidine. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1997Not intention to treat analysis
Authors: Sharma SK;McIntire DD;Wiley J;Leveno KJ;. Title: Labor Analgesia and Cesarean Delivery: An Individual Patient Meta-analysis of Nulliparous Women. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 2004Includes women with complicated pregnancies.
Authors: Cheek TG;Samuels P;Miller F;Tobin M;Gutsche BB;. Title: Normal saline i.v. fluid load decreases uterine activity in active labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1996 Novreviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Collins KM;Bevan DR;Beard RW;. Title: Fluid loading to reduce abnormalities of fetal heart rate and maternal hypotension during epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1978 Novreviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Hawthorne L;Slaymaker A;Bamber J;Dresner M;. Title: Effect of fluid preload on maternal haemodynamics for low-dose epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 2001reviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Kinsella SM;Pirlet M;Mills MS;Tuckey JP;Thomas TA;. Title: Randomized study of intravenous fluid preload before epidural analgesia during labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 2000 Augreviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Kubli M;Shennan AH;Seed PT;O'Sullivan G;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of fluid pre-loading before low dose epidural analgesia for labour. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 2003reviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Shannon MT;Ramanathan S;. Title: An intravenous fluid bolus is not necessary before administration of intrathecal fentanyl for labor analgesia. Journal Name: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. Year: 1998 Sepreviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: Stratton JF;Stronge J;Boylan PC;. Title: Hyponatraemia and non-electrolyte solutions in labouring primigravida. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1995 Aprdifferent question
Authors: Toohill J;Soong B;Flenady V;. Title: Interventions for ketosis during labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005this is a protocol
Authors: Zamora JE;Rosaeg OP;Lindsay MP;Crossan ML;. Title: Haemodynamic consequences and uterine contractions following 0.5 or 1.0 litre crystalloid infusion before obstetric epidural analgesia. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1996 Aprreviewed in the a systematic review included
Authors: . Title: Early intrathecal analgesia does not increase cesarean sections. Journal Name: Journal of Family Practice. Year: 2005For CS
Authors: Baraka A;Noueihid R;Hajj S;. Title: Intrathecal injection of morphine for obstetric analgesia. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1981 FebNon RCT
Authors: Brownridge P;. Title: Shivering related to epidural blockade with bupivacaine in labour, and the influence of epidural pethidine. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 1986Not relevant.
Authors: Buggy D;MacEvilly M;. Title: Do epidurals cause back pain?. Journal Name: British Journal of Hospital Medicine. Year: 1996 Jul 10Non-systematic review
Authors: Camann WR;Hortvet LA;Hughes N;Bader AM;Datta S;. Title: Maternal temperature regulation during extradural analgesia for labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1991 NovNon RCT
Authors: Capogna G;. Title: Effect of epidural analgesia on the fetal heart rate.. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 2001 OctDescriptive review article
Authors: Capogna G;Camorcia M;. Title: Epidural analgesia for childbirth: Effects of newer techniques on neonatal outcome. Journal Name: Pediatric Drugs. Year: 2004Descriptive review article
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Delayed versus early pushing in women with epidural analgesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis (Provisional record). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005Only search terms included
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Effect of epidural analgesia for labor on the Cesarean delivery rate (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005stuRCTured abstract
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour and childbirth: a review with a systematic approach (Provisional record). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005Only search terms included
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Methods and interpretation in systematic reviews: commentary on two parallel reviews of epidural analgesia during labor (Provisional record). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005This is a method paper
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: The effects of epidural analgesia on labor, maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005Have complete paper
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Unintended effects of epidural analgesia during labor: a systematic review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005Non-systematic review
Authors: Chestnut DH;. Title: Does epidural analgesia during labor affect the incidence of cesarean delivery?. Journal Name: Regional Anesthesia. Year: 1997 NovNon RCT
Authors: Choi PT;Galinski SE;Takeuchi L;Lucas S;Tamayo C;Jadad AR;. Title: PDPH is a common complication of neuraxial blockade in parturients: a meta-analysis of obstetrical studies. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 2003 MayNot comparative
Authors: Desprats R;Mandry J;Grandjean H;. Title: The use of fentanyl and marcaine as compared with marcaine alone in epidural analgesia. Journal Name: Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. Year: 1983In French
Authors: Ebell MH;. Title: Effect of epidural anesthesia on labor. Journal Name: Journal of Family Practice. Year: 1995 MayNon RCT
Authors: Eltzschig HK;Lieberman ES;Camann WR;. Title: Medical progress: regional anesthesia and analgesia for labor and delivery. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 2003Not research
Authors: Eltzschig HK;Lieberman ES;Camann WR;. Title: Regional anesthesia and analgesia for labor and delivery.. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 2003 Jan 23This study is noit an RCT
Authors: Fernando R;Bonello E;Gill P;Urquhart J;Reynolds F;Morgan B;. Title: Neonatal welfare and placental transfer of fentanyl and bupivacaine during ambulatory combined spinal epidural analgesia for labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1997Non RCT
Authors: Fernando R;Gill P;Urquhart J;Morgan BM;. Title: Neurobehavioural changes in neonates after ambulatory combined spinal epidural (CSE) analgesia during labour. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1994This study is not an RCT
Authors: Finegold H;Mandell G;Vallejo M;Ramanathan S;. Title: Does spinal anesthesia cause hearing loss in the obstetric population?. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2002Not relevant.
Authors: Finster M;Santos AC;. Title: The effects of epidural analgesia on the course and outcome of labour.. Journal Name: Baillieres Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 SepThis is a non-systematic review
Authors: Gerancher JC;Grice SC;Dewan DM;Eisenach J;. Title: An evaluation of informed consent prior to epidural analgesia for labor and delivery. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 2000Outside scope
Authors: Goetzl L;Cohen A;Frigoletto JF;Lang JM;Lieberman E;. Title: Maternal epidural analgesia and rates of maternal antibiotic treatment in a low-risk nulliparous population. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatology. Year: 2003Not relevant.
Authors: Goetzl L;Cohen A;Frigoletto F;Ringer SA;Lang JM;Lieberman E;. Title: Maternal epidural use and neonatal sepsis evaluation in afebrile mothers.. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 2001 NovNon RCT
Authors: Gomes MEW;Balle VR;Machado SB;Mendes FF;. Title: Comparison between 0.125% and 0.25% bupivacaine associated to fentanyl for epidural labor analgesia. Journal Name: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Year: 2004Abstract only
Authors: Graninger EM;McCool WP;. Title: Nurse-midwives' use of and attitudes toward epidural analgesia. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1998 JulNot relevant to clinical questions
Authors: Herman NL;Choi KC;Affleck PJ;Calicott R;Brackin R;Singhal A;Andreasen A;Gadalla F;Fong J;Gomillion MC;Hartman JK;Koff HD;Lee SH;Van Decar TK;. Title: Analgesia, pruritus, and ventilation exhibit a dose-response relationship in parturients receiving intrathecal fentanyl during labor. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1999 AugDose limiting
Authors: Hogl B;Frauscher B;Seppi K;Ulmer H;Poewe W;. Title: Transient restless legs syndrome after spinal anesthesia: a prospective study.. Journal Name: Neurology. Year: 2002 Dec 10Not labour
Authors: Hughes D;Simmons SW;Brown J;Cyna AM;. Title: Selected Cochrane systematic reviews. Combined spinal-epidural versus epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 2004Included in systematic review
Authors: Justins DM;Knott C;Luthman J;Reynolds F;. Title: Epideral versus intramuscular fentanyl. Analgesia and pharmacokinetics in labour. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1983Not relevant.
Authors: Karraz MA;. Title: Ambulatory epidural anesthesia and the duration of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2003 FebThis study involves ambulation with mobile epidural
Authors: Kuczkowski KM;. Title: Walking away from labor pain: Walking epidurals. Journal Name: Progress in Anesthesiology. Year: 2003Non RCT
Authors: Leighton BL;Halpern SH;. Title: Epidural analgesia: effects on labor progress and maternal and neonatal outcome.. Journal Name: Seminars in Perinatology. Year: 2002 AprIncludes non RCTs and retrospective studies
Authors: Leong EW;Sivanesaratnam V;Oh LL;Chan YK;. Title: Epidural analgesia in primigravidae in spontaneous labour at term: a prospective study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. Year: 2000 AugThis study is not an RCT
Authors: Lieberman E;Lang J;Richardson DK;Frigoletto FD;Heffner LJ;Cohen A;. Title: Intrapartum maternal fever and neonatal outcome.. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 2000 JanNot relevant.
Authors: Liu EH;Sia AT;. Title: Rates of caesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in nulliparous women after low concentration epidural infusions or opioid analgesia: systematic review.[see comment]. [Review] [13 refs]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 2004 Jun 12All studies included in Cochrane review
Authors: Lyons G;Columb M;Hawthorne L;Dresner M;. Title: Extradural pain relief in labour: Bupivacaine sparing by extradural fentanyl is dose dependent. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1997Non RCT
Authors: Maresh M;Choong KH;Beard RW;. Title: Delayed pushing with lumbar epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1983 JulQuasi-randomisation (area already covered by 5 good RCTs)
Authors: Matthews NC;Corser G;. Title: Epidural fentanyl for shaking in obstetrics.. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1988 SepPaper deals with treatment of side effects
Authors: Menez-Orieux C;Linet T;Philippe H;Boog G;. Title: Delayed versus immediate pushing in the second stage of labor for nulliparous parturients with epidural analgesia: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal Name: Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. Year: 2005In French
Authors: Nageotte MP;Larson D;Rumney PJ;Didhu M;Hollenbach K;. Title: Epidural analgesia compared with combined spinal-epidural analgesia during labor in nulliparous women. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 1997Study was excluded from Cochrane review
Authors: Norris MC;Grieco WM;Borkowski M;Leighton BL;Arkoosh VA;Huffnagle HJ;Huffnagle S;. Title: Complications of labor analgesia: Epidural versus combined spinal epidural techniques. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 1994Excluded from Cochrane review
Authors: Olmez G;Dag IH;Ozyilmaz MA;Yalinkaya A;. Title: Can combined spinal- epidural analgesia be an alternative to epidural analgesia alone in labour?. Journal Name: Turk Anesteziyoloji Ve Reanimasyon. Year: 2003Not relevant.
Authors: Ozmert G;Sen S;Sekerci S;Caliskan E;Ozalp G;Dilbaz B;. Title: The Comparison of Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia with Continuous Epidural Infusion Analgesia for Relief of Labor Pain. Journal Name: Turk Anesteziyoloji Ve Reanimasyon Dernegi Dergisi. Year: 2004Abstract only
Authors: Panni MK;Segal S;. Title: Local anesthetic requirements are greater in dystocia than in normal labor. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 2003 AprNon RCT
Authors: Parnass SM;Schmidt KJ;. Title: Adverse effects of spinal and epidural anaesthesia. [Review] [75 refs]. Journal Name: Drug Safety. Year: 1990 Maynot research
Authors: Patel M;Fernando R;Gill P;Urquhart J;Morgan B;. Title: A prospective study of long-term backache after childbirth in primigravidae - The effect of ambulatory epidural analgesia during labour. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1995Non RCT
Authors: Pattee C;Ballantyne M;Milne B;. Title: Epidural analgesia for labour and delivery: Informed consent issues. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1997Ouside scope
Authors: Porter J;Bonello E;Reynolds F;. Title: Effect of epidural fentanyl on neonatal respiration.[erratum appears in Anesthesiology 1998 Dec;89(6):1615]. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1998 Julthe population has been inlcuded in another study
Authors: Robinson JN;Norwitz ER;Cohen AP;McElrath TF;Lieberman ES;. Title: Epidural analgesia and third- or fourth-degree lacerations in nulliparas. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999 AugThis study is not an RCT
Authors: Rodriguez Lopez JM;Sanchez-Conde P;Nicolas J;Garcia C;Del BE;Muriel C;. Title: Comparison of ropivacaine and bupivacaine for epidural analgesia during labor. Journal Name: Revista Espanola de Anestesiologia y Reanimacion. Year: 2001Abstract only
Authors: Russell R;Quinlan J;Reynolds F;. Title: Motor block during epidural infusions for nulliparous women in labour. A randomized double blind comparison of 0.125% bupivacaine and 0.0625% bupivacaine with 2.5 mug/ml fentanyl. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1994Already have the complete paper
Authors: Sanchez-Pereles MC;Uribarri FJ;. Title: Epidural analgesia for the delivery work. Use of low doses of bupivacaine associated with fentanile. Journal Name: Revista de la Sociedad Espanola del Dolor. Year: 1999Abstract only
Authors: Scull TJ;Hemmings GT;Carli F;Weeks SK;Mazza L;Zingg HH;. Title: Epidural analgesia in early labour blocks the stress response but uterine contractions remain unchanged. Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1998 JulNon RCT
Authors: Shehabi Y;Gatt S;Buckman T;Isert P;. Title: Effect of adrenaline, fentanyl and warming of injectate on shivering following extradural analgesia in labour.[erratum appears in Anaesth Intensive Care 1991 May;19(2):305–6]. Journal Name: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Year: 1990 FebNon RCT
Authors: Sheiner E;Sheiner EK;Shoham-Vardi I;Gurman GM;Press F;Mazor M;Katz M;. Title: Predictors of recommendation and acceptance of intrapartum epidural analgesia. Journal Name: Anesthesia and Analgesia. Year: 2000 JanAbstract only
Authors: Shennan AH;. Title: Effect of low-dose mobile versus traditional epidural techniques on mode of delivery: A randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 2001Included in systematic review
Authors: Sprotte G;Rietbrock I;Lehmann V;Roebke A;. Title: Differential peridural analgesia for vaginal delivery. A randomised study of its influence on the progress and mode of delivery. Journal Name: Anaesthesist - Regional Anaesthesie. Year: 1981Abstract only
Authors: Stainthorp SF;Bradshaw EG;Challen PD;Tobias MA;. Title: 0.125% bupivacaine for obstetric analgesia?. Journal Name: Anaesthesia. Year: 1978 JanTest dosing of current practice
Authors: Theunynck D;Leroy B;Courcol R;Leroy M;. Title: Peridural anesthesia by bupivacaine-fentanyl association in obstetrics (203 cas). Journal Name: Agressologie. Year: 1984Abstract only
Authors: Thomas ML;Yentis SM;Barnes P;. Title: Maternal temperature during labour using low-dose (ambulatory) epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 1998This is not an RCT
Authors: Thorp JA;. Title: Epidural analgesia for labor: Effect on the cesarean birth rate. Journal Name: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998This is a non-systematic review
Authors: Thorp JA;Breedlove G;. Title: Epidural analgesia in labor: an evaluation of risks and benefits.. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1996 JunNon-systematic review
Authors: Thorp JA;. Title: The effect of intrapartum epidural analgesia on nulliparous labor: a randomized, controlled, prospective trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1993 OctIn systematic review
Authors: Tok D;Ganidagli S;Ozyilmaz MA;Turhanoglu S;Yayla M;Bayhan N;. Title: Comparison of bupivacaine and bupivacaine with fentanyl in epidural analgesia during labour. Journal Name: Agri Dergisi. Year: 1997Abstract only
Authors: Topcu I;Yentur EA;Tekin S;Cavus Z;Ekici NZ;Sakarya M;. Title: The comparison of efficiency of bupivacaine-fentanyl with ropivacaine-fentanyl in patient controlled epidural analgesia for labour. Journal Name: Anestezi Dergisi. Year: 2004Abstract only
Authors: Tsen LC;Thue B;Datta S;Segal S;. Title: Is combined spinal-epidural analgesia associated with more rapid cervical dilation in nulliparous patients when compared with conventional epidural analgesia?. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1999study is in Cochrane review
Authors: Turhanoglu S;Ozyilmaz MA;Olmez G;Tok D;Bayhan N;. Title: Comparison of continious epidural infusion and patient-controlled epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: Agri. Year: 1999Abstract only
Authors: Uckunkaya N;Bilgin H;Sahin S;Ozsarac O;. Title: Comparison of continuous infusion and patient-controlled epidural analgesia luring labor. Journal Name: Turk Anesteziyoloji Ve Reanimasyon. Year: 1996Abstract only
Authors: Van de Velde M;Benhamou D;. Title: Intermittent top-ups are better than continuous infusions for epidural analgesia in labour. Journal Name: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Year: 2000This is a non research paper
Authors: Vaughan DJ;Ahmad N;Lillywhite NK;Lewis N;Thomas D;Robinson PN;. Title: Choice of opioid for initiation of combined spinal epidural analgesia in labour-- fentanyl or diamorphine. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 2001 AprNon RCT
Authors: Vertommen JD;. Title: Opioids in combination with local anesthetics for epidural analgesia during labor. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1995This is not an RCT
Authors: Vettermann J;Thomas H;Lischke V;Asskali F;. Title: Repeated addition of fentanyl to epidural bupivacaine analgesia during labor. Clinical efficacy and plasma concentrations of fentanyl. Journal Name: Anaesthesist. Year: 1996Abstract only
Authors: Webb PJ;James III FM;Wheeler AS;. Title: Shivering during epidural analgesia in women in labor. Journal Name: Anesthesiology. Year: 1981Non RCT
Authors: Wilson J;. Title: A double-blind comparison of single doses of etidocaine 1 % and bupivacaine 0.5 % during continuous lumbar epidural block in obstetrics. Journal Name: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Year: 1975Not relevant.

23. Does the method of management of the third stage of labour affect outcomes?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Kundodyiwa TW;Majoko F;Rusakaniko S;. Title: Misoprostol versus oxytocin in the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001the study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Kerekes L;Domokos N;. Title: The effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha on third stage labor. Journal Name: Prostaglandins. Year: 1979 Julthis has been reviewed and excluded from the systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Festin MR;Lumbiganon P;Tolosa JE;Finney KA;Ba-Thike K;Chipato T;Gaitan H;Xu L;Limpongsanurak S;Mittal S;Peedicayil A;Pramono N;Purwar M;Shenoy S;Dalyl. Title: International survey on variations in practice of the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Year: 2003this is a cross sectional survey on international variation of practice in the third stage management
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Walraven G;Gulmezoglu AM;Maholwana B;Alfirevic Z;Villar J;. Title: Misoprostol to treat postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review.. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2005 Maythis is treatment of PPH
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Misoprostol use during the third stage of labor (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of a systematic review
Authors: Dehbashi S;Honarvar M;Fardi FH;. Title: Manual removal or spontaneous placental delivery and postcesarean endometritis and bleeding. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2004 Julthis is about manual removal of placenta
Authors: Harding JE;Elbourne DR;Prendiville WJ;. Title: Views of mothers and midwives participating in the Bristol randomized, controlled trial of active management of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1989 Marthis study has been included in a systematic review that has been included
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Nikodem VC;de Jager M;Gelbart BR;. Title: A randomised placebo controlled trial of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 Septhis study ahs been included in the systematic review that has been reviewed
Authors: Mategrano VA;Gabay MP;. Title: Misoprostol in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.. Journal Name: Annals of Pharmacotherapy. Year: 2001 Decthis is a review paper
Authors: O'Brien P;El-Refaey H;. Title: The management of the third stage of labor using misoprostol in low risk women. Journal Name: Contemporary Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997this is a review paper
Authors: Pipingas A;Gulmezoglu AM;Mitri FF;Hofmeyr GJ;. Title: Umbilical vein injection for retained placenta: clinical feasibility study of a new technique. Journal Name: East African Medical Journal. Year: 1994 Junthis is a case-series of 9 patients
Authors: Van AH;Scanlan S;Truesdale A;Macfarlane A;Elbourne D;. Title: A placebo- controlled trial of oral ergometrine to reduce postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1997 Julthis is a letter
Authors: Weihong H;Hanrong C;Hong L;Linan C;. Title: Preventing of postpartum haemorrhage by carboprost methylate suppository administered through vagina or subslingually. Journal Name: Acta Academiae Medicinae Shanghai. Year: 1998this is only abstract
Authors: Bider D;Ben-Rafael Z;Dulitzky M;Menashe Y;Mashiach S;Barkai G;. Title: Effect of intraumbilical prostaglandin F(2alpha) injection on the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist. Year: 1992the study did not state if the allocation was done via randomisation or not.
Authors: Ackermann-Liebrich U;Voegeli T;Gunter-Witt K;Kunz I;Zullig M;Schindler C;Maurer M;. Title: Home versus hospital deliveries: Follow up study of matched pairs for procedures and outcome. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1996This cohort study investigating home birth in Switzerland was included in 983.
Authors: Dowswell T;Thornton JG;Hewison J;Lilford RJ;Raisler J;Macfarlane A;Young G;Newburn M;Dodds R;Settatree RS;. Title: Should there be a trial of home versus hospital delivery in the United Kingdom?. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1996 Mar 23This is an opinion article on home birth.
Authors: Berg D;Suss J;. Title: [Increased mortality in home delivery]. [German]. Journal Name: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde. Year: 1994 MarThis is a review article on increased mortality in home birth published in German language. Rejected as the methodology was not systematic.
Authors: Stotland NE;Declercq ER;. Title: Safety of out-of-hospital birth in industrialized nations: A review. Journal Name: Current Problems in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Fertility. Year: 2002This is a comprehensive but not systematic review on satefy of out-of-hospital birth.
Authors: Ladfors L;Eriksson M;Mattsson LA;Kyleback K;Magnusson L;Milsom I;. Title: A population based study of Swedish women's opinions about antenatal, delivery and postpartum care. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2001 FebThis is a cross-sectional study investigating women's perception towards home birth in Sweden. Rejected as of obvious week design.
Authors: Liabsuetrakul T;Choobun T;Islam M;Peeyananjarassri K;. Title: Prophylactic use of ergot alkaloids in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005this is a protocol
Authors: Ng PS;Chan AS;Sin WK;Tang LC;Cheung KB;Yuen PM;. Title: A multicentre randomized controlled trial of oral misoprostol and i.m. syntometrine in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Human Reproduction. Year: 2001 Janthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Bamigboye AA;Merrell DA;Hofmeyr GJ;Mitchell R;. Title: Randomized comparison of rectal misoprostol with Syntometrine for management of third stage of labor. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1998 Febthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Bider D;Dulitzky M;Goldenberg M;Lipitz S;Mashiach S;. Title: Intraumbilical vein injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha in retained placenta. [Review] [13 refs]. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996 Janthis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Boucher M;Nimrod CA;Tawagi GF;Meeker TA;Rennicks White RE;Varin J;. Title: Comparison of carbetocin and oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage following vaginal delivery:a double-blind randomized trial. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2004 Maythe trial is comparing oxytocin versus oxytocin agonist
Authors: bu-Omar AA;. Title: Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, safety and efficacy. Journal Name: Saudi Medical Journal. Year: 2001Not an RCT
Authors: Bugalho A;Daniel A;Faundes A;Cunha M;. Title: Misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 Aprthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Bullough CHW;. Title: Breast suckling or nipple stimulation: Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage?. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996this is only abtract
Authors: Caliskan E;Meydanli MM;Dilbaz B;Aykan B;Sonmezer M;Haberal A;. Title: Is rectal misoprostol really effective in the treatment of third stage of labor? A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002the study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Carroli G;Belizan JM;Grant A;Gonzalez L;Campodonico L;Bergel E;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein injection and retained placenta: evidence from a collaborative large randomised controlled trial. Grupo Argentino de Estudio de Placenta Retenida. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 Febthis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Choy CM;Lau WC;Tam WH;Yuen PM;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of intramuscular syntometrine and intravenous oxytocin in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2002 Febthis was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Chua S;Chew SL;Yeoh CL;Roy AC;Ho LM;Selamat N;Arulkumaran S;Ratnam SS;. Title: A randomized controlled study of prostaglandin 15-methyl F2 alpha compared with syntometrine for prophylactic use in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1995the study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Cock C;Spurrett B;Murray H;. Title: A randomized clinical trial comparing oral misoprostol with synthetic oxytocin or syntometrine in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1999Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Davies GA;Tessier JL;Woodman MC;Lipson A;Hahn PM;. Title: Maternal hemodynamics after oxytocin bolus compared with infusion in the third stage of labor: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2005 Febthis is comapring oxytocin bolus versus oxytocin infusion for the management in the third stage
Authors: de Groot AN;. Title: The role of oral (methyl)ergometrine in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage.[see comment]. [Review] [19 refs]. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996 Octthis is a pharmacokinetic study
Authors: de Groot AN;Van RJ;van Dongen PW;Borm GF;. Title: A placebo-controlled trial of oral ergometrine to reduce postpartum hemorrhage.[see comment]. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1996 Maythis was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: El-Refaey H;Nooh R;O'Brien P;Abdalla M;Geary M;Walder J;Rodeck C;. Title: The misoprostol third stage of labour study: a randomised controlled comparison between orally administered misoprostol and standard management.[see comment]. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2000 Septhe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Fenton JJ;Baumeister LM;Fogarty J;. Title: Active management of the third stage of labor among American Indian women. Journal Name: Family Medicine. Year: 2005this is not an RCT
Authors: Gazvani MR;Luckas MJ;Drakeley AJ;Emery SJ;Alfirevic Z;Walkinshaw SA;. Title: Intraumbilical oxytocin for the management of retained placenta: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998 Febthis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Gerstenfeld TS;Wing DA;. Title: Rectal misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2001the study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Habek D;Hrgovic Z;Ivanisevic M;Delmis J;. Title: Treatment of a retained placenta with intraumbilical oxytocin injection. Journal Name: Zentralblatt fur Gynakologie. Year: 2001 JulThis is not an RCT
Authors: Huh WK;Chelmow D;Malone FD;. Title: A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of oxytocin at the beginning versus the end of the third stage of labor for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 2004the study is comparing differen timing of oxytocin administartion
Authors: Jackson KW;Allbert JR;Schemmer GK;Elliot M;Humphrey A;Taylor J;. Title: A randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin administration before and after placental delivery in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2001 Octthis study is comapring different timing of oxytocin infusion before or after placenta
Authors: Khan GQ;John IS;Chan T;Wani S;Hughes AO;Stirrat GM;. Title: Abu Dhabi third stage trial: oxytocin versus Syntometrine in the active management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1995 Febthis is an RCT included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Makkonen M;Suonio S;Saarikoski S;. Title: Intraumbilical oxytocin for management of retained placenta. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1995 Febthis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Nordstrom L;Fogelstam K;Fridman G;Larsson A;Rydhstroem H;. Title: Routine oxytocin in the third stage of labour: A placebo controlled randomised trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997this was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Oboro VO;Tabowei TO;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of misoprostol versus oxytocin in the active management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2003 Janthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Penaranda WA;Arrieta OB;Yances BR;. Title: Active management of childbirth with sublingual misoprostol: a controlled clinical trial in the Hospital de Maternidad Rafael Calvo. Journal Name: Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecologia. Year: 2002Spanish language paper
Authors: Strand RT;Da SF;Jangsten E;Bergstrom S;. Title: Postpartum hemorrhage: A prospective, comparative study in Angola using a new disposable device for oxytocin administration. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2005not an RCT
Authors: Surbek DV;Fehr PM;Hosli I;Holzgreve W;. Title: Oral misoprostol for third stage of labor: A randomized placebo- controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999the study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Van SM;Kanhai HH;Keirse MJ;. Title: Preventing the recurrence of atonic postpartum hemorrhage: a double-blind trial. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1995 Aprthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Villar J;Gulmezoglu AM;Hofmeyr GJ;Forna F;. Title: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. [Review] [47 refs]. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002 Decthe systematic review is the same as the sysmatic review that we have included
Authors: Walley RL;Wilson JB;Crane JM;Matthews K;Sawyer E;Hutchens D;. Title: A double-blind placebo controlled randomised trial of misoprostol and oxytocin in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2000 Septhe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Walraven G;Dampha Y;Bittaye B;Sowe M;Hofmeyr J;. Title: Misoprostol in the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in addition to routine management: a placebo randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2004 Septhis is about treatment of PPH
Authors: Bamigboye AA;Hofmeyr GJ;Merrell DA;. Title: Rectal misoprostol in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage: a placebo-controlled trial.. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998 Octthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Gulmezoglu AM;Villar J;Ngoc NT;Piaggio G;Carroli G;Adetoro L;Abdel- Aleem H;Cheng L;Hofmeyr G;Lumbiganon P;Unger C;Prendiville W;Pinol A;Elbourne D;el . Title: WHO multicentre randomised trial of misoprostol in the management of the third stage of labour.. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 2001 Sep 1the study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Lokugamage AU;Sullivan KR;Niculescu I;Tigere P;Onyangunga F;el Refaey H;Moodley J;Rodeck CH;. Title: A randomized study comparing rectally administered misoprostol versus Syntometrine combined with an oxytocin infusion for the cessation of primary post partum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2001 Septhis is about treatment of PPH
Authors: Lumbiganon P;Hofmeyr J;Gulmezoglu AM;Pinol A;Villar J;. Title: Misoprostol dose-related shivering and pyrexia in the third stage of labour. WHO Collaborative Trial of Misoprostol in the Management of the Third Stage of Labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1999 Aprthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Rogers J;Wood J;McCandlish R;Ayers S;Truesdale A;Elbourne D;. Title: Active versus expectant management of third stage of labour: the Hinchingbrooke randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1998 Mar 7the RCT was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Bider D;Zolti M;Menashe Y;Dulitzky M;Mashiach S;Ben-Rafael Z;. Title: Oxytocin or saline injected intra-umbilically did not influence the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1991the study does not state the allocation was done via either randomisation or not
Authors: Diab KM;Ramy AR;Yehia MA;. Title: Use of rectal misoprostol as active pharmacological management of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. Year: 1999this is not an RCT
Authors: Elbourne D;Harding J;. Title: Routine management for the third stage of labour: evidence from two random controlled trials. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991this is a review paper
Authors: Frappell JM;Pearce JM;McParland P;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein oxytocin in the management of retained placenta: A random, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1988this was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Goodfellow CF;Studd C;. Title: The reduction of forceps in primagravidae with epidural analgesia - A controlled trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Clinical Practice. Year: 1979This is not an RCT, where there is an RCT
Authors: Hammar M;Bostrom K;Borgvall B;. Title: Comparison between the influence of methylergometrine and oxytocin on the incidence of retained placenta in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1990the study is not an RCT
Authors: Huber MG;Wildschut HI;Boer K;Kleiverda G;Hoek FJ;. Title: Umbilical vein administration of oxytocin for the management of retained placenta: is it effective?. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991 Maythis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Irons DW;Sriskandabalan P;Bullough CH;. Title: A simple alternative to parenteral oxytocics for the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1994 Julthe RCT is looking at the effectiveness of nipple stimulation in the third stage of labour
Authors: Joy SD;Sanchez-Ramos L;Kaunitz AM;. Title: Misoprostol use during the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year:the study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Kristiansen FV;Frost L;Kaspersen P;Moller BR;. Title: The effect of oxytocin injection into the umbilical vein for the management of the retained placenta. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1987 Aprthis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Lumbiganon P;Villar J;Piaggio G;Gulmezoglu AM;Adetoro L;Carroli G;. Title: Side effects of oral misoprostol during the first 24 hours after administration in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year:the study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: McDonald SJ;Prendiville WJ;Blair E;. Title: Randomised controlled trial of oxytocin alone versus oxytocin and ergometrine in active management of third stage of labour.[see comment][erratum appears in BMJ 1993 Dec 4;307(6917):1454]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1993 Nov 6This was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Mitchell GG;Elbourne DR;. Title: The Salford Third Stage Trial. Oxytocin plus ergometrine versus oxytocin alone in the active management of the third stage of labor. [Review] [13 refs]. Journal Name: Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials. Year: 1993 Aug 13this was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Moir DD;Amoa AB;. Title: Ergometrine or oxytocin? Blood loss and side- effects at spontaneous vertex delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1979 Febthis is an old trial comparing ergometrine and oxytocin, This was exlcuded as this was not conisdered to add new information to an existing cochrane review
Authors: Ogunbode O;Obisesan K;Ayeni O;. Title: Methergin in the management of the third stage of labour: A comparative clinical trial with syntometrine and ergometrine. Journal Name: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental. Year: 1979This is an RCT comparing methylergotamine in Nigeria. It was excluded because it is too old and in a different setting.
Authors: Poeschmann RP;Doesburg WH;Eskes TKAB;. Title: A randomized comparison of oxytocin, sulprostone and placebo in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991the study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Prendiville WJ;Harding JE;Elbourne DR;Stirrat GM;. Title: The Bristol third stage trial: active versus physiological management of third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1988 Nov 19the RCT was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Selinger M;MacKenzie I;Dunlop P;James D;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein oxytocin in the management of retained placenta. A double blind placebo controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986this was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Thilaganathan B;Cutner A;Latimer J;Beard R;. Title: Management of the third stage of labour in women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1993 Janthe RCT was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Wilken-Jensen C;Strom V;Nielsen MD;Rosenkilde-Gram B;. Title: Removing a retained placenta by oxytocin - A controlled study. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1989this was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Anderson T;. Title: Active versus expectant management of the third stage of labour. (Cochrane Review). Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1999this is a critical apraisal of the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Begley CM;. Title: A comparison of 'active' and 'physiological' management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1990 Marthe RCT was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Gyte GM;. Title: Evaluation of the meta-analyses on the effects, on both mother and baby, of the various components of 'active' management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1994 Decthis is a review article looking at old systematic reviews, an updated version of which has been included.
Authors: Caliskan E;Dilbaz B;Meydanli MM;Ozturk N;Narin MA;Haberal A;. Title: Oral misoprostol for the third stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003the study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Ferreira S;Nikodem VC;Mangesi L;Singata M;Jafta Z;Maholwana B;Mlokoti Z;Walraven G;Gulmezoglu AM;. Title: Misoprostol for treating postpartum haemorrhage: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN72263357. Journal Name: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. Year: 2004this is about treatment of PPH
Authors: Abdel-Aleem H;bol-Oyoun EM;Moustafa SA;Kamel HS;bdel-Wahab HA;. Title: Carboprost trometamol in the management of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1993 Septhis has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Ben-Aroya Z;Yochai D;Silberstein T;Friger M;Hallak M;Katz M;Mazor M;. Title: Oxytocin use in grand-multiparous patients: safety and complications. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Year: 2001 Octnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Bider D;Dulitzky M;Goldenberg M;Lipitz S;Mashiach S;. Title: Intraumbilical vein injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha in retained placenta. [Review] [13 refs]. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996 JanIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Carroli G;Belizan JM;Grant A;Gonzalez L;Campodonico L;Bergel E;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein injection and retained placenta: evidence from a collaborative large randomised controlled trial. Grupo Argentino de Estudio de Placenta Retenida. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 FebIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Frappell JM;Pearce JM;McParland P;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein oxytocin in the management of retained placenta: A random, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1988Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Gazvani MR;Luckas MJ;Drakeley AJ;Emery SJ;Alfirevic Z;Walkinshaw SA;. Title: Intraumbilical oxytocin for the management of retained placenta: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998 FebIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Sherman SJ;Greenspoon JS;Nelson JM;Paul RH;. Title: Obstetric hemorrhage and blood utilization. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Year: 1993not relevant question
Authors: Thomas IL;Jeffers TM;Brazier JM;Burt CL;Barr KE;. Title: Does cord drainage of placental blood facilitate delivery of the placenta?. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1990not relevant question
Authors: Wingeier R;Griggs R;. Title: Management of retained placenta using intraumbilical oxytocin injection.. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1991 Julreview paper
Authors: Habek D;Hrgovic Z;Ivanisevic M;Delmis J;. Title: Treatment of a retained placenta with intraumbilical oxytocin injection. Journal Name: Zentralblatt fur Gynakologie. Year: 2001 Julnot an RCT
Authors: Huber MG;Wildschut HI;Boer K;Kleiverda G;Hoek FJ;. Title: Umbilical vein administration of oxytocin for the management of retained placenta: is it effective?. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991 MayIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Kristiansen FV;Frost L;Kaspersen P;Moller BR;. Title: The effect of oxytocin injection into the umbilical vein for the management of the retained placenta. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1987 AprIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Makkonen M;Suonio S;Saarikoski S;. Title: Intraumbilical oxytocin for management of retained placenta. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1995 FebIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Mikulandra F;Stojnic E;Perisa M;Merlak I;Sikic D;Zenic N;. Title: Fetal macrosomia - Pregnancy and delivery. Journal Name: Zentralblatt fur Gynakologie. Year: 1993non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Quddusi H;Baloch SN;. Title: Intrarectal prostaglandin in the management of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. Year: 2000not an RCT
Authors: Selinger M;MacKenzie I;Dunlop P;James D;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein oxytocin in the management of retained placenta. A double blind placebo controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Sheiner E;Sarid L;Levy A;Seidman DS;Hallak M;. Title: Obstetric risk factors and outcome of pregnancies complicated with early postpartum hemorrhage: A population-based study. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. Year: 2005non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Abdel-Aleem H;bol-Oyoun EM;Moustafa SA;Kamel HS;bdel-Wahab HA;. Title: Carboprost trometamol in the management of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1993 SepIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Abdel-Aleem H;El-Nashar I;bdel-Aleem A;. Title: Management of severe postpartum hemorrhage with misoprostol. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 Jannot an RCT
Authors: Abitbol MM;Castillo I;Udom-Rice I;Taylor U;Wang H;. Title: Maternal complications following prolonged or arrested labor. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal Investigation. Year: 1994no report on PPH
Authors: Al-Sibai MH;Rahman MS;Rahman J;. Title: Obstetric problems in the grand multipara: A clinical study of 1330 cases. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1987non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Ali AM;bu-Heija AT;. Title: Obstetric and perinatal outcome of women para >= 5 including one lower segment cesarean section. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. Year: 2002non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Amant F;Spitz B;Timmerman D;Corremans A;van Assche FA;. Title: Misoprostol compared with methylergometrine for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage: a double-blind randomised trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1999 OctIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Ananthasubramaniam L;Rao K;Sivaraman R;Raghavan KS;. Title: Management of intractable postpartum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony with intramuscular 15(S)15 methyl PGF(2alpha). Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Supplement. Year: 1988not an RCT
Authors: Anjaneyulu R;Devi PK;Jain S;Kanthamani CR;Vijaya R;Raghavan KS;. Title: Prophylactic use of 15(S)15 methyl PGF(2alpha) by intramuscular route - A controlled clinical trial. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Supplement. Year: 1988not an RCT
Authors: Appiah AK;. Title: Treatment of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage with a deproteinized hemodialysate. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2002not relevant question
Authors: Arumugam K;. Title: The use of sulprostone in postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony - a controlled trial. Journal Name: Medical Science Research. Year: 1991not an RCT
Authors: Bamigboye AA;Merrell DA;Hofmeyr GJ;Mitchell R;. Title: Randomized comparison of rectal misoprostol with Syntometrine for management of third stage of labor. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1998 FebIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Baskett TF;. Title: Emergency obstetric hysterectomy. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2003 Julnot relevant question
Authors: Baskett TF;O'Connell CM;. Title: Severe obstetric maternal morbidity: a 15- year population-based study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2005 Jannot relevant question
Authors: Baskett TF;. Title: Surgical management of severe obstetric hemorrhage: experience with an obstetric hemorrhage equipment tray. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2004 Sepnot relevant question
Authors: Conde-Agudelo A;Belizan JM;Lammers C;. Title: Maternal-perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with adolescent pregnancy in Latin America: Cross-sectional study.[see comment]. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2005 Febnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Conde-Agudelo A;Belizan JM;Lindmark G;. Title: Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with multiple gestations. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000 Junnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Cotter A;Ness A;Tolosa J;. Title: Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2006Reviewed elsewhere.
Authors: Craig S;Chau H;Cho H;. Title: Treatment of severe postpartum hemorrhage by rectally administered gemeprost pessaries. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1999not relevant question
Authors: de Costa CM;. Title: Is grand multiparity an independent predictor of pregnancy risk? A retrospective observational study.. Journal Name: Medical Journal of Australia. Year: 2004 Feb 16letter
Authors: Devi PK;Sutaria UD;Raghavan KS;. Title: Prophylactic use of 15(S)15 methyl PGF(2alpha) for control of postpartum bleeding. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Supplement. Year: 1988Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Diab KM;Ramy AR;Yehia MA;. Title: Use of rectal misoprostol as active pharmacological management of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. Year: 1999not an RCT
Authors: El-Refaey H;Nooh R;O'Brien P;Abdalla M;Geary M;Walder J;Rodeck C;. Title: The misoprostol third stage of labour study: a randomised controlled comparison between orally administered misoprostol and standard management.[see comment]. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2000 SepIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Evaldson GR;. Title: The grand multipara in modern obstetrics. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1990non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Bhattacharya P;Devi PK;Jain S;Kanthamani CR;Raghavan KS;. Title: Prophylactic use of 15(S)15 methyl PGF(2alpha) by intramuscular route for control of postpartum bleeding - A comparative trial with methylergometrine. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Supplement. Year: 1988Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Bider D;Ben-Rafael Z;Dulitzky M;Menashe Y;Mashiach S;Barkai G;. Title: Effect of intraumbilical prostaglandin F(2alpha) injection on the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist. Year: 1992not an RCT
Authors: Bigrigg A;Chissell S;Read MD;. Title: Use of intra myometrial 15-methyl prostaglandin F2 alpha to control atonic postpartum haemorrhage following vaginal delivery and failure of conventional therapy. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991 Julnot an RCT
Authors: Bodnar LM;Siega-Riz AM;Arab L;Chantala K;McDonald T;. Title: Predictors of pregnancy and postpartum haemoglobin concentrations in low-income women. Journal Name: Public Health Nutrition. Year: 2004low-income country
Authors: Bondagji N;. Title: The perinatal and neonatal outcome in grand-grand multiparous women, a comparative case control study. Journal Name: Bahrain Medical Bulletin. Year: 2005non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Bruce SL;Paul RH;Van Dorsten JP;. Title: Control of postpartum uterine atony by intramyometrial prostaglandin. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1982 Junnot an RCT
Authors: bu-Heija AT;Chalabi HE;. Title: Great grand multiparity: Is it a risk?. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1997non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Bugalho A;Daniel A;Faundes A;Cunha M;. Title: Misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 AprIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Buttino L;Garite TJ;. Title: The use of 15 methyl F2 alpha prostaglandin (Prostin 15M) for the control of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1986 Julnot an RCT
Authors: Caliskan E;Meydanli MM;Dilbaz B;Aykan B;Sonmezer M;Haberal A;. Title: Is rectal misoprostol really effective in the treatment of third stage of labor? A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Caliskan E;Dilbaz B;Meydanli MM;Ozturk N;Narin MA;Haberal A;. Title: Oral misoprostol for the third stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Carpenter JP;. Title: Misoprostol for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in developing countries. Journal Name: Tropical Doctor. Year: 2003letter
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials (Structured abstract). Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005appraisal of a sr
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Misoprostol for women's health: a review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness. Year: 2006appraisal of a sr
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Misoprostol use during the third stage of labor (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of a systematic review
Authors: Chandhiok N;Dhillon BS;Datey S;Mathur A;Saxena NC;. Title: Oral misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage by paramedical workers in India. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2006this is a cluster RCT
Authors: Chandra S;Persad V;Young D;Baskett T;. Title: A preliminary study of cutaneous blood flow associated with postpartum use of oral misoprostol. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2004 Decnot an RCT
Authors: Chua S;Chew SL;Yeoh CL;Roy AC;Ho LM;Selamat N;Arulkumaran S;Ratnam SS;. Title: A randomized controlled study of prostaglandin 15-methyl F2 alpha compared with syntometrine for prophylactic use in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1995Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Feerasta SH;Motiei A;Motiwala S;Zuberi NF;. Title: Uterine atony at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan: a risk factor analysis. Journal Name: JPMA - Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. Year: 2000 Aprnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Few BJ;. Title: Prostaglandin F2alpha for treating severe postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. Year: 1987opinion paper
Authors: Fuchs K;Peretz BA;Marcovici R;Paldi E;Timor-Tritsh I;. Title: The 'grand multipara'--is it a problem? A review of 5785 cases. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1985 Sepnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Gerstenfeld TS;Wing DA;. Title: Rectal misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2001Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Goldberg CC;Kallen MA;McCurdy CM;Miller HS;. Title: Effect of intrapartum use of oxytocin on estimated blood loss and hematocrit change at vaginal delivery. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1996 Augalready reviewed elsewhere
Authors: Granstrom L;Ekman G;Ulmsten U;. Title: Intravenous infusion of 15 methyl- prostaglandin F2 alpha (Prostinfenem) in women with heavy post-partum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1989not an RCT
Authors: Gulmezoglu AM;Villar J;Ngoc NT;Piaggio G;Carroli G;Adetoro L;Abdel- Aleem H;Cheng L;Hofmeyr G;Lumbiganon P;Unger C;Prendiville W;Pinol A;Elbourne D;el . Title: WHO multicentre randomised trial of misoprostol in the management of the third stage of labour.. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 2001 Sep 1Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Hayashi RH;Castillo MS;Noah ML;. Title: Management of severe postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony using an analogue of prostaglandin F2 alpha. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1981 Octnot an RCT
Authors: Hayashi RH;Castillo MS;Noah ML;. Title: Management of severe postpartum hemorrhage with a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1984 Junnot an RCT
Authors: Hazra S;Chilaka VN;Rajendran S;Konje JC;. Title: Massive postpartum haemorrhage as a cause of maternal morbidity in a large tertiary hospital. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2004non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Nikodem VC;de Jager M;Gelbart BR;. Title: A randomised placebo controlled trial of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 Sepincluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Ferreira S;Nikodem VC;Mangesi L;Singata M;Jafta Z;Maholwana B;Mlokoti Z;Walraven G;Gulmezoglu AM;. Title: Misoprostol for treating postpartum haemorrhage: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN72263357. Journal Name: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. Year: 2004Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Walraven G;Gulmezoglu AM;Maholwana B;Alfirevic Z;Villar J;. Title: Misoprostol to treat postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review.. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2005 Maythere is a newer systematic review, which has been included.
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Nikodem VC;de JM;Drakely A;. Title: Side-effects of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour - A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Journal Name: South African Medical Journal. Year: 2001Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Ijaiya MA;Aboyeji AP;Abubakar D;. Title: Analysis of 348 consecutive cases of primary postpartum haemorrhage at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2003non high-income OECD countries
Authors: International Confederation of Midwives;International Federation of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians.;. Title: Joint statement: management of the third stage of labour to prevent post-partum haemorrhage.. Journal Name: Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. Year: 2004 Janpolicy statement
Authors: International Confederation of Midwives;International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics;Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.;. Title: Management of the third stage of labour to prevent postpartum hemorrhage.. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2003 Novreview
Authors: Jiun HL;Boon CT;Ahmad EJ;Symonds EM;. Title: Delivery of macrosomic babies: Management and outcomes of 330 cases. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2002non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Karkanis SG;Caloia D;Salenieks ME;Kingdom J;Walker M;Meffe F;Windrim R;. Title: Randomized controlled trial of rectal misoprostol versus oxytocin in third stage management. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2002 FebIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Kerekes L;Domokos N;. Title: The effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha on third stage labor. Journal Name: Prostaglandins. Year: 1979 JulIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Khan RU;El-Refaey H;. Title: Pharmacokinetics and adverse-effect profile of rectally administered misoprostol in the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003 MayIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Kundodyiwa TW;Majoko F;Rusakaniko S;. Title: Misoprostol versus oxytocin in the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Kupferminc MJ;Gull I;Bar-Am A;Daniel Y;Jaffa A;Shenhav M;Lessing JB;. Title: Intrauterine irrigation with prostaglandin F2-alpha for management of severe postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1998 Maynot an RCT
Authors: Lazer S;Biale Y;Mazor M;Lewenthal H;Insler V;. Title: Complications associated with the macrosomic fetus. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Year: 1986 Junnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Ledee N;Ville Y;Musset D;Mercier F;Frydman R;Fernandez H;. Title: Management in intractable obstetric haemorrhage: an audit study on 61 cases.[see comment]. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 2001 Febnot relevant question
Authors: Lokugamage AU;Sullivan KR;Niculescu I;Tigere P;Onyangunga F;el Refaey H;Moodley J;Rodeck CH;. Title: A randomized study comparing rectally administered misoprostol versus Syntometrine combined with an oxytocin infusion for the cessation of primary post partum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2001 Sepalready in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Lumbiganon P;Villar J;Piaggio G;Gulmezoglu AM;Adetoro L;Carroli G;. Title: Side effects of oral misoprostol during the first 24 hours after administration in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year:Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Mathew M;Machado L;Al-Ghabshi R;Al-Haddabi R;. Title: Fetal macrosomia. Risk factors and outcome. Journal Name: Saudi Medical Journal. Year: 2005non high-income OECD countries
Authors: McDonald SJ;Abbott JM;. Title: Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes [protocol]. Journal Name: Cochrane Library. Year: 2003protocol
Authors: Mesleh R;. Title: The grand multipara - still an obstetric problem. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Mousa HA;Alfirevic Z;Elbourne D;Trusdale A;Toh CH;Haycox A;. Title: FAST study: factor seven for the treatment of primary major postpartum haemorrhage: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial [abstract]. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2002letter
Authors: Mwambingu FT;Al Meshari AA;Akiel A;. Title: The problem of grandmultiparity in current obstetric practice. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1988 Junnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Ng PS;Chan AS;Sin WK;Tang LC;Cheung KB;Yuen PM;. Title: A multicentre randomized controlled trial of oral misoprostol and i.m. syntometrine in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Human Reproduction. Year: 2001 JanIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Oleen MA;Mariano JP;. Title: Controlling refractory atonic postpartum hemorrhage with Hemabate sterile solution. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1990not an RCT
Authors: Peyser MR;Kupferminc MJ;. Title: Management of severe postpartum hemorrhage by intrauterine irrigation with prostaglandin E2. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1990 Marnot an RCT
Authors: Phuapradit W;Saropala N;Rangsipragarn R;. Title: Treatment of atonic postpartum hemorrhage with a prostaglandin E2 analogue. Journal Name: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Year: 1993 Junnot an RCT
Authors: Ploeckinger B;Ulm MR;Chalubinski K;Gruber W;. Title: Epidural anaesthesia in labour: Influence on surgical delivery rates, intrapartum fever and blood loss. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1995already reviewed elsewhere
Authors: Poeschmann RP;Doesburg WH;Eskes TKAB;. Title: A randomized comparison of oxytocin, sulprostone and placebo in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Ramesh S;Bhatnagar B;Karna S;Ranjana.;. Title: Role of intramyometrial prostaglandin E2 in management of third stage of labour. Journal Name: Indian Journal of Medical Research. Year: 1983 Maynot an RCT
Authors: Selo-Ojeme DO;Bhattacharjee P;Izuwa-Njoku NF;Kadir RA;. Title: Emergency peripartum hysterectomy in a tertiary London hospital. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2005 Febnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Seror J;Allouche C;Elhaik S;. Title: Use of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube in massive postpartum hemorrhage: a series of 17 cases. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2005 Julcase-series
Authors: Sherman SJ;Greenspoon JS;Nelson JM;Paul RH;. Title: Identifying the obstetric patient at high risk of multiple-unit blood transfusions. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Year: 1992 Julnot relevant question
Authors: Surbek DV;Fehr PM;Hosli I;Holzgreve W;. Title: Oral misoprostol for third stage of labor: A randomized placebo- controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Thiery M;Parewijck W;. Title: Local administration of (15 S)-15-methyl PGF2 alpha for management of hypotonic post-partum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Perinatologie. Year: 1985 Julnot an RCT
Authors: Tilton Z;Hodgson MI;Donoso E;Arteaga A;Rosso P;. Title: Complications and outcome of pregnancy in obese women. Journal Name: Nutrition. Year: 1989 Marnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Toppozada M;El-Bossaty M;El-Rahman HA;El-Din AH;. Title: Control of intractable atonic postpartum hemorrhage by 15-methyl prostaglandin F2 alpha. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1981 Sepnot an RCT
Authors: Van SM;Kanhai HH;Keirse MJ;. Title: Preventing the recurrence of atonic postpartum hemorrhage: a double-blind trial. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1995 Aprnot included in the systematic review included as evidence
Authors: Villar J;Gulmezoglu AM;Hofmeyr GJ;Forna F;. Title: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. [Review] [47 refs]. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002 DecIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Walley RL;Wilson JB;Crane JM;Matthews K;Sawyer E;Hutchens D;. Title: A double-blind placebo controlled randomised trial of misoprostol and oxytocin in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2000 Sepincluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Walraven G;Dampha Y;Bittaye B;Sowe M;Hofmeyr J;. Title: Misoprostol in the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in addition to routine management: a placebo randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2004 SepIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Wong SF;Ho LC;. Title: Labour outcome of low-risk multiparas of 40 years and older. A case-control study. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Ziadeh S;Yahaya A;. Title: Pregnancy outcome at age 40 and older. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 Marnon high-income OECD countries

Early versus delayed cord clamping

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Walsh SZ;. Title: Maternal effects of early and late clamping of the umbilical cord. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1968 Mayvery old 1968
Authors: B.Lainez Villabona et al. Title: Early or Late Umbilical cord clamping? A systematic review of the literature. Journal Name: An Pediatr (Barc). Year: 2005Foreign language
Authors: Khan GQ;John IS;Wani S;Doherty T;Sibai BM;. Title: Controlled cord traction versus minimal intervention techniques in delivery of the placenta: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997 OctNot relevant
Authors: Thomas IL;Jeffers TM;Brazier JM;Burt CL;Barr KE;. Title: Does cord drainage of placental blood facilitate delivery of the placenta?. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1990Not relevant
Authors: Nelle M, Kraus M.. Title: Effects of Leboyer childbirth on left- and right systolic time intervals in healthy term neonates. Journal Name: J. Perinat.Med. Year: 1996not relevant
Authors: Prendiville WJ;Elbourne D;McDonald S;. Title: Active versus expectant management in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005not relevant
Authors: Soltani H;Dickinson F;Symonds I;. Title: Placental cord drainage after spontaneous vaginal delivery as part of the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005not relevant
Authors: Maughan KL et al. Title: Preventing postpartum hemorrhage: managing the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Am Fam Physician. Year: 2006not relevant
Authors: Mercer JS et al. Title: Nuchal cord management and nurse-midwifery practice. Journal Name: J Midwifery Womens Health. Year: 2005not relevant
Authors: Mercer JS et al. Title: Neonatal transitional physiology: a new paradigm. Journal Name: J Perinat Neonat Nurs. Year: 2002not relevant
Authors: Mercer JS;. Title: Current best evidence: a review of the literature on umbilical cord clamping.. Journal Name: Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. Year: 2001 Novnot systematic review
Authors: Kemp J;. Title: A review of cord traction in the third stage of labour from 1963 to 1969. Journal Name: Medical Journal of Australia. Year: 1971 Apr 24not relevant
Authors: Pena-Marti G;Comunian-Carrasco G;. Title: Cord traction versus fundal pressure for the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2005protocol
Authors: Philip AGS et al. Title: Delayed cord clamping in preterm infants. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 2006pre term infants, commentary
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Bolton KD;Bowen DC;Govan JJ;. Title: Periventricular/intraventricular haemorrhage and umbilical cord clampings. Findings and hypothesis. Journal Name: South African Medical Journal. Year: 1988preterm infants
Authors: Judith S. Mercer et al. Title: Delayed Cord Clamping in Very Late Preterm Infants Reduces the Incidence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Late-Onset Sepsis: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 2006very preterm infants not relevant
Authors: . Title: A study of the relationship between the delivery to cord clamping interval and the time of cord separation. Oxford Midwives Research Group. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1991 Decnot relevant
Authors: Mercer JS et al. Title: Delayed cord clamping in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of intravascular hemorrhage and late onset sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 2006not relevant
Authors: Mercer JS et al. Title: Fetal to Neonate transition: first, do no harm. Journal Name: book normal birth. Year:book chapter
Authors: Van Rheenen PF et al. Title: A practical approach to timing cord clamping in resource poor setting. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 2006not relevant to high income setting
Authors: Letizia Capasso et al.. Title: Early cord clamping protects at-risk neonates from polycythemia. Journal Name: Biology of neonate. Year: 2003The study population is neonates at risk for developing polycythemia. Our study population is healthy term infants

24. What is the appropriate definition of retained placenta?

25. What is the effective management of delay in the third stage?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Kundodyiwa TW;Majoko F;Rusakaniko S;. Title: Misoprostol versus oxytocin in the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001the study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Kerekes L;Domokos N;. Title: The effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha on third stage labor. Journal Name: Prostaglandins. Year: 1979 Julthis has been reviewed and excluded from the systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Festin MR;Lumbiganon P;Tolosa JE;Finney KA;Ba-Thike K;Chipato T;Gaitan H;Xu L;Limpongsanurak S;Mittal S;Peedicayil A;Pramono N;Purwar M;Shenoy S;Dalyl. Title: International survey on variations in practice of the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Year: 2003this is a cross sectional survey on international variation of practice in the third stage management
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Walraven G;Gulmezoglu AM;Maholwana B;Alfirevic Z;Villar J;. Title: Misoprostol to treat postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review.. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2005 Maythis is treatment of PPH
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Misoprostol use during the third stage of labor (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of a systematic review
Authors: Dehbashi S;Honarvar M;Fardi FH;. Title: Manual removal or spontaneous placental delivery and postcesarean endometritis and bleeding. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2004 Julthis is about manual removal of placenta
Authors: Harding JE;Elbourne DR;Prendiville WJ;. Title: Views of mothers and midwives participating in the Bristol randomized, controlled trial of active management of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1989 Marthis study has been included in a systematic review that has been included
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Nikodem VC;de Jager M;Gelbart BR;. Title: A randomised placebo controlled trial of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 Septhis study ahs been included in the systematic review that has been reviewed
Authors: Mategrano VA;Gabay MP;. Title: Misoprostol in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.. Journal Name: Annals of Pharmacotherapy. Year: 2001 Decthis is a review paper
Authors: O'Brien P;El-Refaey H;. Title: The management of the third stage of labor using misoprostol in low risk women. Journal Name: Contemporary Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997this is a review paper
Authors: Pipingas A;Gulmezoglu AM;Mitri FF;Hofmeyr GJ;. Title: Umbilical vein injection for retained placenta: clinical feasibility study of a new technique. Journal Name: East African Medical Journal. Year: 1994 Junthis is a case-series of 9 patients
Authors: Van AH;Scanlan S;Truesdale A;Macfarlane A;Elbourne D;. Title: A placebo- controlled trial of oral ergometrine to reduce postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1997 Julthis is a letter
Authors: Weihong H;Hanrong C;Hong L;Linan C;. Title: Preventing of postpartum haemorrhage by carboprost methylate suppository administered through vagina or subslingually. Journal Name: Acta Academiae Medicinae Shanghai. Year: 1998this is only abstract
Authors: Bider D;Ben-Rafael Z;Dulitzky M;Menashe Y;Mashiach S;Barkai G;. Title: Effect of intraumbilical prostaglandin F(2alpha) injection on the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist. Year: 1992the study did not state if the allocation was done via randomisation or not.
Authors: Ackermann-Liebrich U;Voegeli T;Gunter-Witt K;Kunz I;Zullig M;Schindler C;Maurer M;. Title: Home versus hospital deliveries: Follow up study of matched pairs for procedures and outcome. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1996This cohort study investigating home birth in Switzerland was included in 983.
Authors: Dowswell T;Thornton JG;Hewison J;Lilford RJ;Raisler J;Macfarlane A;Young G;Newburn M;Dodds R;Settatree RS;. Title: Should there be a trial of home versus hospital delivery in the United Kingdom?. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1996 Mar 23This is an opinion article on home birth.
Authors: Berg D;Suss J;. Title: [Increased mortality in home delivery]. [German]. Journal Name: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde. Year: 1994 MarThis is a review article on increased mortality in home birth published in German language. Rejected as the methodology was not systematic.
Authors: Stotland NE;Declercq ER;. Title: Safety of out-of-hospital birth in industrialized nations: A review. Journal Name: Current Problems in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Fertility. Year: 2002This is a comprehensive but not systematic review on satefy of out-of-hospital birth.
Authors: Ladfors L;Eriksson M;Mattsson LA;Kyleback K;Magnusson L;Milsom I;. Title: A population based study of Swedish women's opinions about antenatal, delivery and postpartum care. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2001 FebThis is a cross-sectional study investigating women's perception towards home birth in Sweden. Rejected as of obvious week design.
Authors: Liabsuetrakul T;Choobun T;Islam M;Peeyananjarassri K;. Title: Prophylactic use of ergot alkaloids in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005this is a protocol
Authors: Ng PS;Chan AS;Sin WK;Tang LC;Cheung KB;Yuen PM;. Title: A multicentre randomized controlled trial of oral misoprostol and i.m. syntometrine in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Human Reproduction. Year: 2001 Janthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Bamigboye AA;Merrell DA;Hofmeyr GJ;Mitchell R;. Title: Randomized comparison of rectal misoprostol with Syntometrine for management of third stage of labor. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1998 Febthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Bider D;Dulitzky M;Goldenberg M;Lipitz S;Mashiach S;. Title: Intraumbilical vein injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha in retained placenta. [Review] [13 refs]. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996 Janthis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Boucher M;Nimrod CA;Tawagi GF;Meeker TA;Rennicks White RE;Varin J;. Title: Comparison of carbetocin and oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage following vaginal delivery:a double-blind randomized trial. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2004 Maythe trial is comparing oxytocin versus oxytocin agonist
Authors: bu-Omar AA;. Title: Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, safety and efficacy. Journal Name: Saudi Medical Journal. Year: 2001Not an RCT
Authors: Bugalho A;Daniel A;Faundes A;Cunha M;. Title: Misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 Aprthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Bullough CHW;. Title: Breast suckling or nipple stimulation: Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage?. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996this is only abtract
Authors: Caliskan E;Meydanli MM;Dilbaz B;Aykan B;Sonmezer M;Haberal A;. Title: Is rectal misoprostol really effective in the treatment of third stage of labor? A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002the study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Carroli G;Belizan JM;Grant A;Gonzalez L;Campodonico L;Bergel E;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein injection and retained placenta: evidence from a collaborative large randomised controlled trial. Grupo Argentino de Estudio de Placenta Retenida. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 Febthis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Choy CM;Lau WC;Tam WH;Yuen PM;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of intramuscular syntometrine and intravenous oxytocin in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2002 Febthis was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Chua S;Chew SL;Yeoh CL;Roy AC;Ho LM;Selamat N;Arulkumaran S;Ratnam SS;. Title: A randomized controlled study of prostaglandin 15-methyl F2 alpha compared with syntometrine for prophylactic use in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1995the study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Davies GA;Tessier JL;Woodman MC;Lipson A;Hahn PM;. Title: Maternal hemodynamics after oxytocin bolus compared with infusion in the third stage of labor: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2005 Febthis is comapring oxytocin bolus versus oxytocin infusion for the management in the third stage
Authors: de Groot AN;. Title: The role of oral (methyl)ergometrine in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage.[see comment]. [Review] [19 refs]. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1996 Octthis is a pharmacokinetic study
Authors: de Groot AN;Van RJ;van Dongen PW;Borm GF;. Title: A placebo-controlled trial of oral ergometrine to reduce postpartum hemorrhage.[see comment]. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1996 Maythis was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: El-Refaey H;Nooh R;O'Brien P;Abdalla M;Geary M;Walder J;Rodeck C;. Title: The misoprostol third stage of labour study: a randomised controlled comparison between orally administered misoprostol and standard management.[see comment]. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2000 Septhe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Fenton JJ;Baumeister LM;Fogarty J;. Title: Active management of the third stage of labor among American Indian women. Journal Name: Family Medicine. Year: 2005this is not an RCT
Authors: Gazvani MR;Luckas MJ;Drakeley AJ;Emery SJ;Alfirevic Z;Walkinshaw SA;. Title: Intraumbilical oxytocin for the management of retained placenta: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998 Febthis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Gerstenfeld TS;Wing DA;. Title: Rectal misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2001the study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Habek D;Hrgovic Z;Ivanisevic M;Delmis J;. Title: Treatment of a retained placenta with intraumbilical oxytocin injection. Journal Name: Zentralblatt fur Gynakologie. Year: 2001 JulThis is not an RCT
Authors: Huh WK;Chelmow D;Malone FD;. Title: A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of oxytocin at the beginning versus the end of the third stage of labor for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 2004the study is comparing differen timing of oxytocin administartion
Authors: Jackson KW;Allbert JR;Schemmer GK;Elliot M;Humphrey A;Taylor J;. Title: A randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin administration before and after placental delivery in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2001 Octthis study is comapring different timing of oxytocin infusion before or after placenta
Authors: Khan GQ;John IS;Chan T;Wani S;Hughes AO;Stirrat GM;. Title: Abu Dhabi third stage trial: oxytocin versus Syntometrine in the active management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1995 Febthis is an RCT included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Makkonen M;Suonio S;Saarikoski S;. Title: Intraumbilical oxytocin for management of retained placenta. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1995 Febthis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Nordstrom L;Fogelstam K;Fridman G;Larsson A;Rydhstroem H;. Title: Routine oxytocin in the third stage of labour: A placebo controlled randomised trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1997this was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Oboro VO;Tabowei TO;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of misoprostol versus oxytocin in the active management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2003 Janthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Penaranda WA;Arrieta OB;Yances BR;. Title: Active management of childbirth with sublingual misoprostol: a controlled clinical trial in the Hospital de Maternidad Rafael Calvo. Journal Name: Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecologia. Year: 2002Spanish language paper
Authors: Strand RT;Da SF;Jangsten E;Bergstrom S;. Title: Postpartum hemorrhage: A prospective, comparative study in Angola using a new disposable device for oxytocin administration. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2005not an RCT
Authors: Surbek DV;Fehr PM;Hosli I;Holzgreve W;. Title: Oral misoprostol for third stage of labor: A randomized placebo- controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999the study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Van SM;Kanhai HH;Keirse MJ;. Title: Preventing the recurrence of atonic postpartum hemorrhage: a double-blind trial. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1995 Aprthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Villar J;Gulmezoglu AM;Hofmeyr GJ;Forna F;. Title: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. [Review] [47 refs]. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002 Decthe systematic review is the same as the sysmatic review that we have included
Authors: Walley RL;Wilson JB;Crane JM;Matthews K;Sawyer E;Hutchens D;. Title: A double-blind placebo controlled randomised trial of misoprostol and oxytocin in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2000 Septhe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Walraven G;Dampha Y;Bittaye B;Sowe M;Hofmeyr J;. Title: Misoprostol in the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in addition to routine management: a placebo randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2004 Septhis is about treatment of PPH
Authors: Bamigboye AA;Hofmeyr GJ;Merrell DA;. Title: Rectal misoprostol in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage: a placebo-controlled trial.. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1998 Octthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Gulmezoglu AM;Villar J;Ngoc NT;Piaggio G;Carroli G;Adetoro L;Abdel- Aleem H;Cheng L;Hofmeyr G;Lumbiganon P;Unger C;Prendiville W;Pinol A;Elbourne D;el . Title: WHO multicentre randomised trial of misoprostol in the management of the third stage of labour.. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 2001 Sep 1the study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Lokugamage AU;Sullivan KR;Niculescu I;Tigere P;Onyangunga F;el Refaey H;Moodley J;Rodeck CH;. Title: A randomized study comparing rectally administered misoprostol versus Syntometrine combined with an oxytocin infusion for the cessation of primary post partum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2001 Septhis is about treatment of PPH
Authors: Lumbiganon P;Hofmeyr J;Gulmezoglu AM;Pinol A;Villar J;. Title: Misoprostol dose-related shivering and pyrexia in the third stage of labour. WHO Collaborative Trial of Misoprostol in the Management of the Third Stage of Labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1999 Aprthe study has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed
Authors: Rogers J;Wood J;McCandlish R;Ayers S;Truesdale A;Elbourne D;. Title: Active versus expectant management of third stage of labour: the Hinchingbrooke randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1998 Mar 7the RCT was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Bider D;Zolti M;Menashe Y;Dulitzky M;Mashiach S;Ben-Rafael Z;. Title: Oxytocin or saline injected intra-umbilically did not influence the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1991the study does not state the allocation was done via either randomisation or not
Authors: Diab KM;Ramy AR;Yehia MA;. Title: Use of rectal misoprostol as active pharmacological management of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. Year: 1999this is not an RCT
Authors: Elbourne D;Harding J;. Title: Routine management for the third stage of labour: evidence from two random controlled trials. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991this is a review paper
Authors: Frappell JM;Pearce JM;McParland P;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein oxytocin in the management of retained placenta: A random, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1988this was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Goodfellow CF;Studd C;. Title: The reduction of forceps in primagravidae with epidural analgesia - A controlled trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Clinical Practice. Year: 1979This is not an RCT, where there is an RCT
Authors: Hammar M;Bostrom K;Borgvall B;. Title: Comparison between the influence of methylergometrine and oxytocin on the incidence of retained placenta in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1990the study is not an RCT
Authors: Huber MG;Wildschut HI;Boer K;Kleiverda G;Hoek FJ;. Title: Umbilical vein administration of oxytocin for the management of retained placenta: is it effective?. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1991 Maythis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Irons DW;Sriskandabalan P;Bullough CH;. Title: A simple alternative to parenteral oxytocics for the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1994 Julthe RCT is looking at the effectiveness of nipple stimulation in the third stage of labour
Authors: Joy SD;Sanchez-Ramos L;Kaunitz AM;. Title: Misoprostol use during the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year:the study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Kristiansen FV;Frost L;Kaspersen P;Moller BR;. Title: The effect of oxytocin injection into the umbilical vein for the management of the retained placenta. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1987 Aprthis was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Lumbiganon P;Villar J;Piaggio G;Gulmezoglu AM;Adetoro L;Carroli G;. Title: Side effects of oral misoprostol during the first 24 hours after administration in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year:the study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: McDonald SJ;Prendiville WJ;Blair E;. Title: Randomised controlled trial of oxytocin alone versus oxytocin and ergometrine in active management of third stage of labour.[see comment][erratum appears in BMJ 1993 Dec 4;307(6917):1454]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1993 Nov 6This was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Mitchell GG;Elbourne DR;. Title: The Salford Third Stage Trial. Oxytocin plus ergometrine versus oxytocin alone in the active management of the third stage of labor. [Review] [13 refs]. Journal Name: Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials. Year: 1993 Aug 13this was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Moir DD;Amoa AB;. Title: Ergometrine or oxytocin? Blood loss and side- effects at spontaneous vertex delivery. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1979 Febthis is an old trial comparing ergometrine and oxytocin, This was exlcuded as this was not conisdered to add new information to an existing cochrane review
Authors: Ogunbode O;Obisesan K;Ayeni O;. Title: Methergin in the management of the third stage of labour: A comparative clinical trial with syntometrine and ergometrine. Journal Name: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental. Year: 1979This is an RCT comparing methylergotamine in Nigeria. It was excluded because it is too old and in a different setting.
Authors: Poeschmann RP;Doesburg WH;Eskes TKAB;. Title: A randomized comparison of oxytocin, sulprostone and placebo in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991the study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Prendiville WJ;Harding JE;Elbourne DR;Stirrat GM;. Title: The Bristol third stage trial: active versus physiological management of third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1988 Nov 19the RCT was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Selinger M;MacKenzie I;Dunlop P;James D;. Title: Intra-umbilical vein oxytocin in the management of retained placenta. A double blind placebo controlled study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986this was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Thilaganathan B;Cutner A;Latimer J;Beard R;. Title: Management of the third stage of labour in women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 1993 Janthe RCT was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Wilken-Jensen C;Strom V;Nielsen MD;Rosenkilde-Gram B;. Title: Removing a retained placenta by oxytocin - A controlled study. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1989this was included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Anderson T;. Title: Active versus expectant management of the third stage of labour. (Cochrane Review). Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 1999this is a critical apraisal of the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Begley CM;. Title: A comparison of 'active' and 'physiological' management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1990 Marthe RCT was included in the systematic review that we have included
Authors: Gyte GM;. Title: Evaluation of the meta-analyses on the effects, on both mother and baby, of the various components of 'active' management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 1994 Decthis is a review article looking at old systematic reviews, an updated version of which has been included.
Authors: Caliskan E;Dilbaz B;Meydanli MM;Ozturk N;Narin MA;Haberal A;. Title: Oral misoprostol for the third stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003the study has been included in a systematic review that we have included
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Ferreira S;Nikodem VC;Mangesi L;Singata M;Jafta Z;Maholwana B;Mlokoti Z;Walraven G;Gulmezoglu AM;. Title: Misoprostol for treating postpartum haemorrhage: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN72263357. Journal Name: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. Year: 2004this is about treatment of PPH
Authors: Abdel-Aleem H;bol-Oyoun EM;Moustafa SA;Kamel HS;bdel-Wahab HA;. Title: Carboprost trometamol in the management of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1993 Septhis has been included in a systematic review that we have reviewed

26. Are there effective ways of identifying women at increased risk of postpartum haemorrhage antenatally and during labour?

27. What is the effective management of women at increased risk of postpartum haemorrhage to minimise this risk?

28. What is the most effective way of managing postpartum haemorrhage?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Abdel-Aleem H;bol-Oyoun EM;Moustafa SA;Kamel HS;bdel-Wahab HA;. Title: Carboprost trometamol in the management of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1993 SepIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Abdel-Aleem H;El-Nashar I;bdel-Aleem A;. Title: Management of severe postpartum hemorrhage with misoprostol. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 Jannot an RCT
Authors: Abitbol MM;Castillo I;Udom-Rice I;Taylor U;Wang H;. Title: Maternal complications following prolonged or arrested labor. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal Investigation. Year: 1994no report on PPH
Authors: Al-Sibai MH;Rahman MS;Rahman J;. Title: Obstetric problems in the grand multipara: A clinical study of 1330 cases. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1987non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Ali AM;bu-Heija AT;. Title: Obstetric and perinatal outcome of women para >= 5 including one lower segment cesarean section. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. Year: 2002non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Amant F;Spitz B;Timmerman D;Corremans A;van Assche FA;. Title: Misoprostol compared with methylergometrine for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage: a double-blind randomised trial. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1999 OctIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Ananthasubramaniam L;Rao K;Sivaraman R;Raghavan KS;. Title: Management of intractable postpartum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony with intramuscular 15(S)15 methyl PGF(2alpha). Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Supplement. Year: 1988not an RCT
Authors: Anjaneyulu R;Devi PK;Jain S;Kanthamani CR;Vijaya R;Raghavan KS;. Title: Prophylactic use of 15(S)15 methyl PGF(2alpha) by intramuscular route - A controlled clinical trial. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Supplement. Year: 1988not an RCT
Authors: Appiah AK;. Title: Treatment of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage with a deproteinized hemodialysate. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2002not relevant question
Authors: Arumugam K;. Title: The use of sulprostone in postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony - a controlled trial. Journal Name: Medical Science Research. Year: 1991not an RCT
Authors: Bamigboye AA;Merrell DA;Hofmeyr GJ;Mitchell R;. Title: Randomized comparison of rectal misoprostol with Syntometrine for management of third stage of labor. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1998 FebIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Baskett TF;. Title: Emergency obstetric hysterectomy. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2003 Julnot relevant question
Authors: Baskett TF;O'Connell CM;. Title: Severe obstetric maternal morbidity: a 15- year population-based study. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2005 Jannot relevant question
Authors: Baskett TF;. Title: Surgical management of severe obstetric hemorrhage: experience with an obstetric hemorrhage equipment tray. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2004 Sepnot relevant question
Authors: Conde-Agudelo A;Belizan JM;Lammers C;. Title: Maternal-perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with adolescent pregnancy in Latin America: Cross-sectional study.[see comment]. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2005 Febnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Conde-Agudelo A;Belizan JM;Lindmark G;. Title: Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with multiple gestations. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000 Junnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Cotter A;Ness A;Tolosa J;. Title: Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Year: 2006Reviewed elsewhere.
Authors: Craig S;Chau H;Cho H;. Title: Treatment of severe postpartum hemorrhage by rectally administered gemeprost pessaries. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1999not relevant question
Authors: de Costa CM;. Title: Is grand multiparity an independent predictor of pregnancy risk? A retrospective observational study.. Journal Name: Medical Journal of Australia. Year: 2004 Feb 16letter
Authors: Devi PK;Sutaria UD;Raghavan KS;. Title: Prophylactic use of 15(S)15 methyl PGF(2alpha) for control of postpartum bleeding. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Supplement. Year: 1988Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Diab KM;Ramy AR;Yehia MA;. Title: Use of rectal misoprostol as active pharmacological management of the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. Year: 1999not an RCT
Authors: El-Refaey H;Nooh R;O'Brien P;Abdalla M;Geary M;Walder J;Rodeck C;. Title: The misoprostol third stage of labour study: a randomised controlled comparison between orally administered misoprostol and standard management.[see comment]. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2000 SepIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Evaldson GR;. Title: The grand multipara in modern obstetrics. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1990non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Bhattacharya P;Devi PK;Jain S;Kanthamani CR;Raghavan KS;. Title: Prophylactic use of 15(S)15 methyl PGF(2alpha) by intramuscular route for control of postpartum bleeding - A comparative trial with methylergometrine. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Supplement. Year: 1988Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Bider D;Ben-Rafael Z;Dulitzky M;Menashe Y;Mashiach S;Barkai G;. Title: Effect of intraumbilical prostaglandin F(2alpha) injection on the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist. Year: 1992not an RCT
Authors: Bigrigg A;Chissell S;Read MD;. Title: Use of intra myometrial 15-methyl prostaglandin F2 alpha to control atonic postpartum haemorrhage following vaginal delivery and failure of conventional therapy. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991 Julnot an RCT
Authors: Bodnar LM;Siega-Riz AM;Arab L;Chantala K;McDonald T;. Title: Predictors of pregnancy and postpartum haemoglobin concentrations in low-income women. Journal Name: Public Health Nutrition. Year: 2004low-income country
Authors: Bondagji N;. Title: The perinatal and neonatal outcome in grand-grand multiparous women, a comparative case control study. Journal Name: Bahrain Medical Bulletin. Year: 2005non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Bruce SL;Paul RH;Van Dorsten JP;. Title: Control of postpartum uterine atony by intramyometrial prostaglandin. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1982 Junnot an RCT
Authors: bu-Heija AT;Chalabi HE;. Title: Great grand multiparity: Is it a risk?. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1997non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Bugalho A;Daniel A;Faundes A;Cunha M;. Title: Misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 AprIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Buttino L;Garite TJ;. Title: The use of 15 methyl F2 alpha prostaglandin (Prostin 15M) for the control of postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1986 Julnot an RCT
Authors: Caliskan E;Meydanli MM;Dilbaz B;Aykan B;Sonmezer M;Haberal A;. Title: Is rectal misoprostol really effective in the treatment of third stage of labor? A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Caliskan E;Dilbaz B;Meydanli MM;Ozturk N;Narin MA;Haberal A;. Title: Oral misoprostol for the third stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Carpenter JP;. Title: Misoprostol for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in developing countries. Journal Name: Tropical Doctor. Year: 2003letter
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials (Structured abstract). Journal Name: The Cochrane Library. Year: 2005appraisal of a sr
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Misoprostol for women's health: a review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness. Year: 2006appraisal of a sr
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Misoprostol use during the third stage of labor (Structured abstract). Journal Name: . Year: 2005this is a critical appraisal of a systematic review
Authors: Chandhiok N;Dhillon BS;Datey S;Mathur A;Saxena NC;. Title: Oral misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage by paramedical workers in India. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2006this is a cluster RCT
Authors: Chandra S;Persad V;Young D;Baskett T;. Title: A preliminary study of cutaneous blood flow associated with postpartum use of oral misoprostol. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2004 Decnot an RCT
Authors: Chua S;Chew SL;Yeoh CL;Roy AC;Ho LM;Selamat N;Arulkumaran S;Ratnam SS;. Title: A randomized controlled study of prostaglandin 15-methyl F2 alpha compared with syntometrine for prophylactic use in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1995Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Feerasta SH;Motiei A;Motiwala S;Zuberi NF;. Title: Uterine atony at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan: a risk factor analysis. Journal Name: JPMA - Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. Year: 2000 Aprnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Few BJ;. Title: Prostaglandin F2alpha for treating severe postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. Year: 1987opinion paper
Authors: Fuchs K;Peretz BA;Marcovici R;Paldi E;Timor-Tritsh I;. Title: The 'grand multipara'--is it a problem? A review of 5785 cases. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1985 Sepnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Gerstenfeld TS;Wing DA;. Title: Rectal misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2001Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Goldberg CC;Kallen MA;McCurdy CM;Miller HS;. Title: Effect of intrapartum use of oxytocin on estimated blood loss and hematocrit change at vaginal delivery. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1996 Augalready reviewed elsewhere
Authors: Granstrom L;Ekman G;Ulmsten U;. Title: Intravenous infusion of 15 methyl- prostaglandin F2 alpha (Prostinfenem) in women with heavy post-partum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1989not an RCT
Authors: Gulmezoglu AM;Villar J;Ngoc NT;Piaggio G;Carroli G;Adetoro L;Abdel- Aleem H;Cheng L;Hofmeyr G;Lumbiganon P;Unger C;Prendiville W;Pinol A;Elbourne D;el . Title: WHO multicentre randomised trial of misoprostol in the management of the third stage of labour.. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 2001 Sep 1Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Hayashi RH;Castillo MS;Noah ML;. Title: Management of severe postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony using an analogue of prostaglandin F2 alpha. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1981 Octnot an RCT
Authors: Hayashi RH;Castillo MS;Noah ML;. Title: Management of severe postpartum hemorrhage with a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1984 Junnot an RCT
Authors: Hazra S;Chilaka VN;Rajendran S;Konje JC;. Title: Massive postpartum haemorrhage as a cause of maternal morbidity in a large tertiary hospital. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2004non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Nikodem VC;de Jager M;Gelbart BR;. Title: A randomised placebo controlled trial of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998 SepIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Ferreira S;Nikodem VC;Mangesi L;Singata M;Jafta Z;Maholwana B;Mlokoti Z;Walraven G;Gulmezoglu AM;. Title: Misoprostol for treating postpartum haemorrhage: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN72263357. Journal Name: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. Year: 2004Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Walraven G;Gulmezoglu AM;Maholwana B;Alfirevic Z;Villar J;. Title: Misoprostol to treat postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review.. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2005 Maythere is a newer systematic review, which has been included
Authors: Hofmeyr GJ;Nikodem VC;de JM;Drakely A;. Title: Side-effects of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour - A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Journal Name: South African Medical Journal. Year: 2001Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Ijaiya MA;Aboyeji AP;Abubakar D;. Title: Analysis of 348 consecutive cases of primary postpartum haemorrhage at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2003non high-income OECD countries
Authors: International Confederation of Midwives;International Federation of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians.;. Title: Joint statement: management of the third stage of labour to prevent post-partum haemorrhage.. Journal Name: Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. Year: 2004 Janpolicy statement
Authors: International Confederation of Midwives;International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics;Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.;. Title: Management of the third stage of labour to prevent postpartum hemorrhage.. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2003 Novreview
Authors: Jiun HL;Boon CT;Ahmad EJ;Symonds EM;. Title: Delivery of macrosomic babies: Management and outcomes of 330 cases. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2002non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Karkanis SG;Caloia D;Salenieks ME;Kingdom J;Walker M;Meffe F;Windrim R;. Title: Randomized controlled trial of rectal misoprostol versus oxytocin in third stage management. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC. Year: 2002 FebIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Kerekes L;Domokos N;. Title: The effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha on third stage labor. Journal Name: Prostaglandins. Year: 1979 JulIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Khan RU;El-Refaey H;. Title: Pharmacokinetics and adverse-effect profile of rectally administered misoprostol in the third stage of labor. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003 MayIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Kundodyiwa TW;Majoko F;Rusakaniko S;. Title: Misoprostol versus oxytocin in the third stage of labor. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Kupferminc MJ;Gull I;Bar-Am A;Daniel Y;Jaffa A;Shenhav M;Lessing JB;. Title: Intrauterine irrigation with prostaglandin F2-alpha for management of severe postpartum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1998 Maynot an RCT
Authors: Lazer S;Biale Y;Mazor M;Lewenthal H;Insler V;. Title: Complications associated with the macrosomic fetus. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Year: 1986 Junnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Ledee N;Ville Y;Musset D;Mercier F;Frydman R;Fernandez H;. Title: Management in intractable obstetric haemorrhage: an audit study on 61 cases.[see comment]. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 2001 Febnot relevant question
Authors: Lokugamage AU;Sullivan KR;Niculescu I;Tigere P;Onyangunga F;el Refaey H;Moodley J;Rodeck CH;. Title: A randomized study comparing rectally administered misoprostol versus Syntometrine combined with an oxytocin infusion for the cessation of primary post partum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2001 Sepalready in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Lumbiganon P;Villar J;Piaggio G;Gulmezoglu AM;Adetoro L;Carroli G;. Title: Side effects of oral misoprostol during the first 24 hours after administration in the third stage of labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year:Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Mathew M;Machado L;Al-Ghabshi R;Al-Haddabi R;. Title: Fetal macrosomia. Risk factors and outcome. Journal Name: Saudi Medical Journal. Year: 2005non high-income OECD countries
Authors: McDonald SJ;Abbott JM;. Title: Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes [protocol]. Journal Name: Cochrane Library. Year: 2003protocol
Authors: Mesleh R;. Title: The grand multipara - still an obstetric problem. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1986non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Mousa HA;Alfirevic Z;Elbourne D;Trusdale A;Toh CH;Haycox A;. Title: FAST study: factor seven for the treatment of primary major postpartum haemorrhage: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial [abstract]. Journal Name: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2002letter
Authors: Mwambingu FT;Al Meshari AA;Akiel A;. Title: The problem of grandmultiparity in current obstetric practice. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1988 Junnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Ng PS;Chan AS;Sin WK;Tang LC;Cheung KB;Yuen PM;. Title: A multicentre randomized controlled trial of oral misoprostol and i.m. syntometrine in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: Human Reproduction. Year: 2001 JanIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Oleen MA;Mariano JP;. Title: Controlling refractory atonic postpartum hemorrhage with Hemabate sterile solution. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1990not an RCT
Authors: Peyser MR;Kupferminc MJ;. Title: Management of severe postpartum hemorrhage by intrauterine irrigation with prostaglandin E2. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1990 Marnot an RCT
Authors: Phuapradit W;Saropala N;Rangsipragarn R;. Title: Treatment of atonic postpartum hemorrhage with a prostaglandin E2 analogue. Journal Name: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Year: 1993 Junnot an RCT
Authors: Ploeckinger B;Ulm MR;Chalubinski K;Gruber W;. Title: Epidural anaesthesia in labour: Influence on surgical delivery rates, intrapartum fever and blood loss. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1995already reviewed elsewhere
Authors: Poeschmann RP;Doesburg WH;Eskes TKAB;. Title: A randomized comparison of oxytocin, sulprostone and placebo in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1991Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Ramesh S;Bhatnagar B;Karna S;Ranjana.;. Title: Role of intramyometrial prostaglandin E2 in management of third stage of labour. Journal Name: Indian Journal of Medical Research. Year: 1983 Maynot an RCT
Authors: Selo-Ojeme DO;Bhattacharjee P;Izuwa-Njoku NF;Kadir RA;. Title: Emergency peripartum hysterectomy in a tertiary London hospital. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2005 Febnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Seror J;Allouche C;Elhaik S;. Title: Use of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube in massive postpartum hemorrhage: a series of 17 cases. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2005 Julcase-series
Authors: Sherman SJ;Greenspoon JS;Nelson JM;Paul RH;. Title: Identifying the obstetric patient at high risk of multiple-unit blood transfusions. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Year: 1992 Julnot relevant question
Authors: Surbek DV;Fehr PM;Hosli I;Holzgreve W;. Title: Oral misoprostol for third stage of labor: A randomized placebo- controlled trial. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999Included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Thiery M;Parewijck W;. Title: Local administration of (15 S)-15-methyl PGF2 alpha for management of hypotonic post-partum hemorrhage. Journal Name: Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Perinatologie. Year: 1985 Julnot an RCT
Authors: Tilton Z;Hodgson MI;Donoso E;Arteaga A;Rosso P;. Title: Complications and outcome of pregnancy in obese women. Journal Name: Nutrition. Year: 1989 Marnon high-income OECD countries
Authors: Toppozada M;El-Bossaty M;El-Rahman HA;El-Din AH;. Title: Control of intractable atonic postpartum hemorrhage by 15-methyl prostaglandin F2 alpha. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1981 Sepnot an RCT
Authors: Van SM;Kanhai HH;Keirse MJ;. Title: Preventing the recurrence of atonic postpartum hemorrhage: a double-blind trial. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1995 Aprnot included in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Villar J;Gulmezoglu AM;Hofmeyr GJ;Forna F;. Title: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. [Review] [47 refs]. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002 DecIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Walley RL;Wilson JB;Crane JM;Matthews K;Sawyer E;Hutchens D;. Title: A double-blind placebo controlled randomised trial of misoprostol and oxytocin in the management of the third stage of labour. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2000 Sepincluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Walraven G;Dampha Y;Bittaye B;Sowe M;Hofmeyr J;. Title: Misoprostol in the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in addition to routine management: a placebo randomised controlled trial. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2004 SepIncluded in the systematic review included as evidence.
Authors: Wong SF;Ho LC;. Title: Labour outcome of low-risk multiparas of 40 years and older. A case-control study. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998non high-income OECD countries
Authors: Ziadeh S;Yahaya A;. Title: Pregnancy outcome at age 40 and older. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2001 Marnon high-income OECD countries

29. What is the appropriate definition of perineal or genital trauma?

30. What is the effectiveness on perineal or genital trauma (including previous third or fourth degree trauma or female genital mutilation) of the following techniques?

31. Is there evidence that the type of assessment used to identify perineal or genital trauma affects outcomes?

32. Is there evidence that undertaking repair, the timing, analgesia and method and material of perineal repair affect outcomes?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: . Title: Relief of perineal pain after childbirth. Journal Name: ACOG Clinical Review. Year: 2002Outside scope (relief of longer-term postnatal perineal pain)
Authors: Aikins MP;Feinland JB;. Title: Perineal outcomes in a home birth setting. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1998 DecNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Albers L;Garcia J;Renfrew M;McCandlish R;Elbourne D;. Title: Distribution of genital tract trauma in childbirth and related postnatal pain. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 1999 MarDescriptive study - does not address clinical questions
Authors: Anderson FWJ;Johnson CT;. Title: Complementary and alternative medicine in obstetrics. Journal Name: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2005Outside scope (antenatal perineal massage)
Authors: Anthony S;Buitendijk SE;Zondervan KT;van Rijssel EJ;Verkerk PH;. Title: Episiotomies and the occurrence of severe perineal lacerations. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1994 DecNon-RCT research where RCT findings available
Authors: Avery MD;Burket BA;. Title: Effect of perineal massage on the incidence of episiotomy and perineal laceration in a nurse-midwifery service. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1986 MayOutside scope (antenatal perineal massage)
Authors: Avery MD;Van AL;. Title: Perineal massage. Effect on the incidence of episiotomy and laceration in a nulliparous population. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1987 MayOutside scope (antenatal perineal massage)
Authors: Aytan H;Tapisiz OL;Tuncay G;Avsar FA;. Title: Severe perineal lacerations in nulliparous women and episiotomy type. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 2005 Jul 1Non-RCT research where RCT findings available
Authors: Bek KM;Laurberg S;. Title: Intervention during labor: Risk factors associated with complete tear of the anal sphincter. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1992Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Bernard B;Kranzfelder D;Keil D;. Title: Episiotomy versus perineovaginal tear: A prospective study. Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 1993German language
Authors: Bodner-Adler B;Bodner K;Kimberger O;Lozanov P;Husslein P;Mayerhofer K;. Title: Risk factor analysis for spontaneous perineal injury in nulliparous women. Journal Name: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde. Year: 2005Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Bodner-Adler B;Bodner K;Kaider A;Wagenbichler P;Leodolter S;Husslein P;Mayerhofer K;. Title: Risk factors for third-degree perineal tears in vaginal delivery, with an analysis of episiotomy types. Journal Name: Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Year: 2001 AugNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Brink HT;Moller BK;Hedegaard M;Secher NJ;. Title: Episiotomy and perineal lesions in spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1992Non-RCT research where RCT findings available
Authors: Buekens P;Lagasse R;Dramaix M;Wollast E;. Title: Episiotomy and third- degree tears. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1985 AugNon-RCT research where RCT findings available
Authors: Carroll TG;Engelken M;Mosier MC;Nazir N;. Title: Epidural analgesia and severe perineal laceration in a community-based obstetric practice. Journal Name: Journal of the American Board of Family Practice. Year: 2003 JanDoes not answer clinical question
Authors: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.;. Title: Preventing perineal trauma during childbirth: a systematic review (Structured abstract). Journal Name: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Year: 2005Covered by Cochrane
Authors: Christianson LM;Bovbjerg VE;McDavitt EC;Hullfish KL;. Title: Risk factors for perineal injury during delivery. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003 JulNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: David M;Pachaly J;Vetter K;. Title: Episiotomy - Risk or protective factor for severe perineal trauma during vaginal delivery?. Journal Name: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde. Year: 2005English abstract only (German paper)
Authors: Fernando B;Leeves L;Greenacre J;Roberts G;. Title: Audit of the relationship between episiotomy and risk of major perineal laceration during childbirth. Journal Name: British Journal of Clinical Practice. Year: 1995 JanNon-RCT research where RCT findings available
Authors: Fischer SR;. Title: Factors associated with the occurrence of perineal lacerations. Journal Name: Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. Year: 1979 JanBased on outdated, US practice
Authors: Fitzpatrick M;Behan M;O'Connell PR;O'Herlihy C;. Title: A randomised controlled trial of primary repair of third degree perineal tears, comparing overlap and approximation techniques [abstract]. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Henriksen TB;Bek KM;Hedegaard M;Secher NJ;. Title: Episiotomy and perineal lesions in spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1992 DecNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Hudelist G;Gelle'n J;Singer C;Ruecklinger E;Czerwenka K;Kandolf O;Keckstein J;. Title: Factors predicting severe perineal trauma during childbirth: role of forceps delivery routinely combined with mediolateral episiotomy. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2005 MarNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Hueston WJ;. Title: Factors associated with the use of episiotomy during vaginal delivery. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996 JunNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Jander C;Lyrenas S;. Title: Third and fourth degree perineal tears: Predictor factors in a referral hospital. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2001Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Kalis V;Chaloupka P;Turek J;Rokyta Z;. Title: Risk factors of the 3rd and 4th degree tear during delivery. Journal Name: Ceska Gynekologie. Year: 2005English abstract only (Czech paper)
Authors: Kaufman SC;Kaufmann SC;. Title: Episiotomy. To cut or not to cut?[erratum appears in Online J Curr Clin Trials 1992 Aug 27;Doc No 17:[69 words; 2]. Journal Name: Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials. Year: 1992 Aug 20Non-research/opinion
Authors: Kettle C;Hills RK;Jones P;Darby L;Gray R;Johanson R;Roberts C;Reynolds M;. Title: Continuous sutures for perineal repair resulted in less perineal pain, compared to interrupted sutures. Journal Name: Evidence-based Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2003Full report of study included in review.
Authors: Kettle C;. Title: Perineal care -- following in Jennifer Sleep's footsteps. Journal Name: British Journal of Midwifery. Year: 1999Non-research/opinion
Authors: Kettle C;Johanson RB;. Title: Selected Cochrane systematic reviews. Absorbable synthetic versus catgut suture material for perineal repair. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 2000Full report included in review.
Authors: Kettle C;. Title: Suture materials used for perineal repair following childbirth. Journal Name: British Journal of Midwifery. Year: 1998Background to research in progress
Authors: Klein MC;Janssen PA;MacWilliam L;Kaczorowski J;Johnson B;. Title: Determinants of vaginal-perineal integrity and pelvic floor functioning in childbirth. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1997 FebNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Klein MC;Kaczorowski J;Robbins JM;Gauthier RJ;Jorgensen SH;Joshi AK;. Title: Physicians' beliefs and behaviour during a randomized controlled trial of episiotomy: consequences for women in their care.[see comment]. Journal Name: CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal. Year: 1995 Sep 15Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Larsson PG;Platz-Christensen JJ;Bergman B;Wallstersson G;. Title: Advantage or disadvantage of episiotomy compared with spontaneous perineal laceration. Journal Name: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. Year: 1991Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Lede RL;Belizan JM;Carroli G;. Title: Is routine use of episiotomy justified?. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1996Non-systematic review
Authors: Low LK;Seng JS;Murtland TL;Oakley D;. Title: Clinician-specific episiotomy rates: impact on perineal outcomes. Journal Name: Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. Year: 2000Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Macarthur AJ;MacArthur C;. Title: Incidence, severity, and determinants of perineal pain after vaginal delivery: a prospective cohort study. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2004 OctNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Martin S;Labrecque M;Marcoux S;Berube S;Pinault JJ;. Title: The association between perineal trauma and spontaneous perineal tears. Journal Name: Journal of Family Practice. Year: 2001 AprNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Nager CW;Helliwell JP;. Title: Episiotomy increases perineal laceration length in primiparous women. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2001 AugNot relevant to clinical questions
Authors: Nichols CM;Lahaye L;Hullfish KL;. Title: Chart documentation of surgical methods for severe perineal laceration repair. Journal Name: Journal of Pelvic Medicine and Surgery. Year: 2005Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Poen AC;Felt-Bersma RJF;Strijers RLM;Dekker GA;Cuesta MA;Meuwissen SGM;. Title: Third-degree obstetric perineal tear: Long-term clinical and functional results after primary repair. Journal Name: British Journal of Surgery. Year: 1998Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Reynolds JL;Yudkin PL;. Title: Changes in the management of labour: 2. Perineal management. Journal Name: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. Year: 1987Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Richter HE;Brumfield CG;Cliver SP;Burgio KL;Neely CL;Varner RE;. Title: Risk factors associated with anal sphincter tear: a comparison of primiparous patients, vaginal births after cesarean deliveries, and patients with previous vaginal delivery. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2002 NovNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Rieger N;Perera S;Stephens J;Coates D;Po D;. Title: Anal sphincter function and integrity after primary repair of third-degree tear: uncontrolled prospective analysis. Journal Name: ANZ Journal of Surgery. Year: 2004 MarNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Riskin-Mashiah S;O'Brian SE;Wilkins IA;. Title: Risk factors for severe perineal tear: can we do better?. Journal Name: American Journal of Perinatology. Year: 2002 JulNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Rizk DE;Abadir MN;Thomas LB;bu-Zidan F;. Title: Determinants of the length of episiotomy or spontaneous posterior perineal lacerations during vaginal birth. Journal Name: International Urogynecology Journal. Year: 2005 SepDoes not answer clinical question
Authors: Robinson JN;Norwitz ER;Cohen AP;McElrath TF;Lieberman ES;. Title: Episiotomy, operative vaginal delivery, and significant perinatal trauma in nulliparous women. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1999 NovNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Rockner G;Fianu-Jonasson A;. Title: Changed pattern in the use of episiotomy in Sweden. Journal Name: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1999 FebNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Rockner G;Wahlberg V;Olund A;. Title: Episiotomy and perineal trauma during childbirth. Journal Name: Journal of Advanced Nursing. Year: 1989 AprNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Rockner G;Jonasson A;Olund A;. Title: The effect of mediolateral episiotomy at delivery on pelvic floor muscle strength evaluated with vaginal cones. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 1991Does not answer clinical question
Authors: Samuelsson E;Ladfors L;Lindblom BG;Hagberg H;. Title: A prospective observational study on tears during vaginal delivery: occurrences and risk factors. Journal Name: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Year: 2002 JanNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Sartore A;De SF;Maso G;Pregazzi R;Grimaldi E;Guaschino S;. Title: The effects of mediolateral episiotomy on pelvic floor function after vaginal delivery. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2004 AprRetrospective cohort study where RCT evidence already exists
Authors: Shihadeh AS;Nawafleh AN;. Title: Third degree tears and episiotomy. Journal Name: Saudi Medical Journal. Year: 2001 MarNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Snooks SJ;Swash M;Henry MM;Setchell M;. Title: Risk factors in childbirth causing damage to the pelvic floor innervation. Journal Name: British Journal of Surgery. Year: 1985 SepNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Snooks SJ;Swash M;Henry MM;Setchell M;. Title: Risk factors in childbirth causing damage to the pelvic floor innervation. Journal Name: International Journal of Colorectal Disease. Year: 1986 JanNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Walsh CJ;Mooney EF;Upton GJ;Motson RW;. Title: Incidence of third-degree perineal tears in labour and outcome after primary repair.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Journal of Surgery. Year: 1996 FebNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Webb DA;Culhane J;. Title: Hospital variation in episiotomy use and the risk of perineal trauma during childbirth. Journal Name: Birth. Year: 2002 JunNot relevant to clinical question
Authors: Williams A;Adams E;Tincello D;Alfirevic Z;Richmond D;. Title: Quality of life assessment following a third degree perineal tear using the Manchester health questionnaire (Abstract). Journal Name: Proceedings of the International Continence Society United Kingdom 11th Annual Scientific Meeting, B. Year:Summary report - full report included in review
Authors: Williams A;Adams E;Tincello D;Alfirevic Z;Richmond D;. Title: Randomised controlled trial of third degree perineal tear repair: medium term outcome (Abstract). Journal Name: Proceedings of the International Continence Society United Kingdom 11th Annual Scientific Meeting, B. Year:Repair of third/fourth degree trauma - outside scope
Authors: Williams FLR;Florey CD;Mires GJ;Ogston SA;. Title: Episiotomy and perineal tears in low-risk UK primigravidae. Journal Name: Journal of Public Health Medicine. Year: 1998Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Wood J;Amos L;Rieger N;. Title: Third degree anal sphincter tears: Risk factors and outcome. Journal Name: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 1998Not relevant to clinical question
Authors: Woolley RJ;. Title: Benefits and risks of episiotomy: A review of the english- language literature since 1980. Part I. Journal Name: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Year: 1995Non-systematic review
Authors: Eason E;Labrecque M;Wells G;Feldman P;. Title: Preventing perineal trauma during childbirth: a systematic review.. Journal Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 2000 MarIncluded studies already included in Cochrane review or individual papers of RCTs
Authors: Eogan M;Daly L;O'Connell PR;O'Herlihy C;. Title: Does the angle of episiotomy affect the incidence of anal sphincter injury?. Journal Name: BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Year: 2006 FebNot relevant to clinical question

33. What is the evidence that different methods of initial neonatal assessment and examination influence outcomes?

35. Are there effective ways of encouraging mother–infant bonding following birth?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Mitchell M;. Title: The neonatal examination: a chance to provide health education and influence public health. (Role for midwives. 28 refs). Journal Name: Practising Midwife. Year: 2002review
Authors: Modanlou H;Yeh SY;Hon EH;Forsythe A;. Title: Fetal and neonatal biochemistry and Apgar scores. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1973 Dec 1unable to extract data
Authors: Molfese VJ;Thomson B;. Title: Optimality versus complications: assessing predictive values of perinatal scales. Journal Name: Child Development. Year: 1985 Augthis is out of our scope
Authors: Morrow WF;Myles TJ;. Title: Simplified scoring system for newborn. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1969 Jun 28letter
Authors: Moss GD;Cartlidge PH;Speidel BD;Chambers TL;. Title: Routine examination in the neonatal period.[see comment]. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1991 Apr 13this is about full exam
Authors: Nadler HL;. Title: Newer procedures in the preconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis of birth defects. Journal Name: Birth Defects: Original Article Series. Year: 1970 Maynot relevant question
Authors: Naeye RL;. Title: Underlying disorders responsible for the neonatal deaths associated with low Apgar Scores. Journal Name: Biology of the Neonate. Year: 1979skewed population
Authors: Nathoo KJ;Chimbira THK;Mtimavalye LAR;. Title: Mortality and immediate morbidity in term babies with low Apgar scores (Zimbabwe). Journal Name: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics. Year: 1990unable to extract data
Authors: Papile L;. Title: The Apgar score in the 21st century. Journal Name: New England Journal of Medicine. Year: 2001comment
Authors: Peebles TC;. Title: Evaluation of the routine physical examination of infants in the first year of life. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 1970 Junreview
Authors: Phillips B;Zideman D;Wyllie J;Richmond S;Van RP;. Title: European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2000 for Newly Born Life Support - A statement from the Paediatric Life Support Working Group and approved by the Executive Committee of the European Resuscitation Council. Journal Name: Resuscitation. Year: 2001consensus guideline
Authors: Poland RL;Erenberg A;Freeman JM;. Title: Use and abuse of the Apgar score. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 1986this is a review
Authors: Potts N;. Title: Assessment at birth and use of the Apgar score: an analysis of the limitation. (Review of latest evidence on the effectiveness of the Apgar score and alternative methods of birth assessment. 26 refs). Journal Name: J Neonatal Nursing. Year: 2003this is a review not SR
Authors: Queisser-Luft A;Stolz G;Wiesel A;Schlaefer K;Spranger J;. Title: Malformations in newborn: results based on 30,940 infants and fetuses from the Mainz congenital birth defect monitoring system (1990–1998). Journal Name: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Year: 2002 Jullow level evidence
Authors: Rani S;Kumari S;Paul S;Vohra S;Gujral VV;. Title: Neonatal outcome: correlation with Goodwin's High Risk Score. Journal Name: Indian Pediatrics. Year: 1980 Marthis is out of scope
Authors: Rose S;. Title: Physical examination of the full-term baby. Journal Name: Br J Midwifery. Year: 1994review
Authors: Rother M;Zwiener U;Eiselt M;Witte H;Zwacka G;Frenzel J;. Title: Differentiation of healthy newborns and newborns-at-risk by spectral analysis of heart rate fluctuations and respiratory movements. Journal Name: Early Human Development. Year: 1987out of scope
Authors: Saal HM;Rosenbaum KN;. Title: Screening the newborn for anatomic and metabolic defects. Journal Name: Pediatric Annals. Year: 1988this is out of our scope
Authors: Scanlon JW;. Title: How is the baby?: the Apgar score revisited. Journal Name: Clinical Pediatrics. Year: 1973 Febcommentary
Authors: St Clair KL;. Title: Neonatal assessment procedures: a historical review.. Journal Name: Child Development. Year: 1978 Junreview
Authors: Tahti E;Lind J;Osterlund K;Rylander E;. Title: Changes in skin temperature of the neonate at birth. A cine-thermographic study. Journal Name: Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica. Year: 1972 Marnot relevant question
Authors: Theorell K;Prechtl HF;Vos JE;. Title: A polygraphic study of normal and abnormal newborn infants. Journal Name: Neuropadiatrie. Year: 1974 Augthis is out of the scope
Authors: Thompson JE;Clark DA;. Title: Apgar challenge III. Delivery room dilemmas. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatology. Year: 1989 Junthis is out of our scope
Authors: Thummala MR;Raju TN;Langenberg P;. Title: Isolated single umbilical artery anomaly and the risk for congenital malformations: a meta-analysis. Journal Name: Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Year: 1998 Aprnot relevant
Authors: Townsend J;Wolke D;Hayes J;Dave C;Rogers C;Bloomfield L;Quist-Therson E;Tomlin M;Messer D;. Title: Routine examination of the newborn: the EMREN study. Evaluation of an extension of the midwife role including a randomised controlled trial of appropriately trained midwives and paediatric senior house officers. Journal Name: Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England). Year: 2004 Aprcompetency is out of scope, and this is about full exam
Authors: Ukraincik M;Koppel R;. Title: Detection of critical congenital cardiovascular malformations in the newborn nursery. Journal Name: Children's Hospital Quarterly. Year: 2000out of scope
Authors: Valman HB;. Title: The first year of life: Routine examination of the newborn. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1980review
Authors: Verma A;Weir A;Drummond J;Mitchell BF;. Title: Performance profile of an outcome measure: morbidity assessment index for newborns. Journal Name: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Year: 2005 Maynot in use
Authors: Vulliamy DG;. Title: Problems of the newborn. Less urgent problems and minor abnormalities. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1971 Nov 27review
Authors: Webb CH;. Title: Evaluation of the routine physical examination of infants in the first year of life. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 1970 Junthis is a review, not a SR
Authors: Weiss PM;Balducci J;Reed J;Klasko SK;Rust OA;. Title: Does centralized monitoring affect perinatal outcome?. Journal Name: Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Year: 1997 NovEFM
Authors: Williams JK;. Title: Evaluating the dysmorphic child. Journal Name: Pediatric Nursing. Year: 1983 Julreview
Authors: Yankauer A;. Title: Evaluation of the routine physical examination of infants in the first year of life: observations. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 1970 Junthis is a review, not SR
Authors: Avery GB;Kraybill EN;Mullick UC;. Title: Examination of the newborn infant. Journal Name: GP. Year: 1968 Aprreview
Authors: Barrie H;. Title: Examination of the newborn. Journal Name: Midwife, Health Visitor and Community Nurse. Year: 1981 Octreview
Authors: Boenisch H;Saling E;. Title: A combined clinical-biochemical scoring of the newborn: results of the past four years. Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Year: 1974unable to extract data
Authors: Brown MS;Alexander MM;. Title: Physical examination Part. 11. Examining the heart. Journal Name: Nursing. Year: 1974 Decreview
Authors: Callif-Daley FA;Huether CA;Edmonds LD;. Title: Evaluating false positives in two hospital discharge data sets of the Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Journal Name: Public Health Reports. Year: 1995 Marout of scope
Authors: Caravale B;Allemand F;Libenson MH;. Title: Factors predictive of seizures and neurologic outcome in perinatal depression. Journal Name: Pediatric Neurology. Year: 2003unable to extract data
Authors: Chadd MA;Elwood PC;Gray OP;Muxworthy SM;. Title: Hypoxic newborn infants. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1972 Jan 29letter
Authors: Chamberlain G;Banks J;. Title: Assessment of the Apgar score. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1974 Nov 23this is a study looking at a simplified assessment as an alternative to Apgar. This is not in use, though the study was done in 1974
Authors: Chan A;Foster BK;Cundy PJ;. Title: Problems in the diagnosis of neonatal hip instability. Journal Name: Acta Paediatrica. Year: 2001comment
Authors: Cordero L;. Title: Heart rate changes during the first hour of life. Journal Name: Biology of the Neonate. Year: 1972review
Authors: Crawford JS;Davies P;Pearson JF;. Title: Significance of the individual components of the Apgar score. Journal Name: British Journal of Anaesthesia. Year: 1973 Febnot relevant question
Authors: Divon MY;Winkler H;Yeh S;. Title: Diminished respiratory sinus arrhythmia in asphyxiated term infants. Journal Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Year: 1986out of scope
Authors: Dreier T;Wolff PH;. Title: Sucking, state, and perinatal distress in newborns. A preliminary report. Journal Name: Biology of the Neonate. Year: 1972not relevant question
Authors: Edwards N;. Title: The relationship between physical condition immediately after birth and mental and motor performance at age four. Journal Name: Genetic Psychology Monographs. Year: 1968 Novunable to extract data
Authors: Fischler B;Pettersson M;Hjern A;Nemeth A;. Title: Association between low Apgar score and neonatal cholestasis. Journal Name: Acta Paediatrica. Year: 2004not relevant question
Authors: Forfar JO;. Title: The normal baby: routine care. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1971 Oct 2review
Authors: Gardiner H;. Title: Perinatal cardiology - Getting it right from the start. Journal Name: British Journal of Cardiology. Year: 2000review
Authors: Gelfant BB;. Title: Asphyxia: a threat to the newborn. Journal Name: Point of View. Year: 1984review
Authors: Ginott N;Barnea E;Monosevitch M;Buncher R;. Title: New vacuum stethoscope for immediate monitoring and recording of resuscitation of the newborn. Journal Name: Israel Journal of Medical Sciences. Year: 1980not in use
Authors: Hayes J;Dave S;Rogers C;. Title: A national survey in England of the routine examination of the newborn baby. (Questionnaire research to identify current practices and the extent to which midwives examined neonates. 13 refs). Journal Name: Midwifery. Year: 2003about full exam
Authors: Ikonen RS;. Title: Apgar scoring and causes of neonatal death. Journal Name: Annals of Clinical Research. Year: 1969 Sepreviewed in another article
Authors: Ikonen RS;. Title: Apgar scoring and neonatal morbidity in full-sized newborn infants. Journal Name: Annals of Clinical Research. Year: 1973 Decreviewed in another article
Authors: Juretschke L;. Title: Apgar scoring: its use and meaning for today's newborn.. Journal Name: Neonatal Network. Year: 2000review
Authors: Karelitz S;Fisichelli VR;Davis J;Haber A;. Title: The role of crying activity in Apgar scoring. Intercomparisons among the signs of the Apgar scale. Journal Name: JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Year: 1966 Oct 17out of scope
Authors: Lam BC;Yeung CY;. Title: Perinatal features of birth asphyxia and neurologic outcome. Journal Name: Acta Paediatrica Japonica. Year: 1992 Febout of scope
Authors: Linhart Y;Bashiri A;Maymon E;Shoham-Vardi I;Furman B;Vardi H;Mazor M;. Title: Congenital anomalies are an independent risk factor for neonatal morbidity and perinatal mortality in preterm birth. Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Year: 2000out of scope
Authors: Meberg A;Otterstad JE;Froland G;Hals J;Sorland SJ;. Title: Early clinical screening of neonates for congenital heart defects: the cases we miss. Journal Name: Cardiology in the Young. Year: 1999 Marout of scope
Authors: Michaelides S;. Title: Examination of the newborn.. Journal Name: MIDIRS Midwifery Digest. Year: 1998review
Authors: Michaelides S;. Title: Newborn examination: whose responsibility? (5 refs). Journal Name: Br J Midwifery. Year: 1997comment
Authors: Paul Y;. Title: Examination of the newborn. Journal Name: Indian Journal of Pediatrics. Year: 1973 Febreview

34. What is the evidence that different methods of neonatal resuscitation influence outcomes?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Barrie H;. Title: Resuscitation of the newborn. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1968 May 11letter
Authors: Boyle EM;Stenson BJ;. Title: An update in neonatal resuscitation. Journal Name: Cpd Anaesthesia. Year: 2003review
Authors: Byrne S;. Title: Newborn resuscitation. Journal Name: Current Anaesthesia and Critical Care. Year: 2004review
Authors: Finer NN;Rich WD;. Title: Neonatal resuscitation: raising the bar.. Journal Name: Current Opinion in Pediatrics. Year: 2004 Aprreview
Authors: Ginsberg HG;Goldsmith JP;. Title: Controversies in neonatal resuscitation.[erratum appears in Clin Perinatol 1998 Sep;25(3):xii].. Journal Name: Clinics in Perinatology. Year: 1998 Marreview
Authors: Hamilton PA;. Title: Resuscitation of babies at birth: Who and how to do it. Journal Name: Current Paediatrics. Year: 1998review
Authors: Heinonen K;. Title: Focus on neonatal resuscitation - NOW. Journal Name: Acta Paediatrica. Year: 2005commentary
Authors: Kattwinkel J;Niermeyer S;Nadkarni V;Tibballs J;Phillips B;Zideman D;Van RP;Osmond M;. Title: Resuscitation of the newly born infant: An advisory statement from the pediatric working group of the international liaison committee on resuscitation. Journal Name: . Year: 1999intraduction of a consensus guideline
Authors: Kripke C;. Title: Room air vs. oxygen for resuscitating infants at birth.. Journal Name: American Family Physician. Year: 2005 Sep 1review
Authors: Lefkowitz W;. Title: Oxygen and resuscitation: beyond the myth. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 2002 Marreview
Authors: Levine CR;Davis JM;. Title: Resuscitation with 100% oxygen: Should we change our ways?. Journal Name: Pediatric Research. Year: 2001comment
Authors: Milner AD;. Title: Resuscitation of the newborn. Journal Name: Biology of the Neonate. Year: 1996review
Authors: Myers TR;. Title: Therapeutic gases for neonatal and pediatric respiratory care.. Journal Name: Respiratory Care. Year: 2003 Aprreview
Authors: Niermeyer S;Kattwinkel J;Van RP;Nadkarni V;Phillips B;Zideman D;Azzopardi D;Berg R;Boyle D;Boyle R;Burchfield D;Carlo W;Chameides L;Denson S;Fallat M;. Title: International Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation: An excerpt from the Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care: International Consensus on Science. Contributors and Reviewers for the Neonatal Resuscitation Gui. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 2000 Septhis is evidence based guideline, but old and most of them are not relevant questions in primary settings
Authors: Niermeyer S;Van RP;Kattwinkel J;Wiswell T;Burchfield D;Saugstad DD;Milner A;Knaebel S;Perlman J;Azzopardi D;Gunn A;Boyle R;Toce S;Solimano A;. Title: Resuscitation of newborns. Journal Name: Annals of Emergency Medicine. Year: 2001this is an introduction of a guideline
Authors: Paneth N;. Title: The evidence mounts against use of pure oxygen in newborn resuscitation. Journal Name: Journal of Pediatrics. Year: 2005comment
Authors: Parry-Jones OC;Hodges NG;. Title: Severe breathlessness, respiratory failure, and asphyxia. Journal Name: British Medical Journal Clinical Research Ed. Year: 1981 Feb 7review
Authors: Perlman JM;. Title: Resuscitation--air versus 100% oxygen. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 2002 Febletter
Authors: Price D;International G;. Title: New neonatal resuscitation program guidelines. Journal Name: Canadian Family Physician. Year: 2001 Juncomment
Authors: Ramji S;Rasaily R;Mishra PK;Narang A;Jayam S;Kapoor AN;Kambo I;Mathur A;Saxena BN;. Title: Resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns with room air or 100% oxygen at birth: a multicentric clinical trial.. Journal Name: Indian Pediatrics. Year: 2003 Junreviewed in a SR
Authors: Robertson NJ;. Title: Air or 100% oxygen for asphyxiated babies? Time to decide. Journal Name: Critical Care (London). Year: 2005coomentary
Authors: Samuels MP;Poets CF;Noyes JP;Hartmann H;Hewertson J;Southall DP;. Title: Diagnosis and management after life threatening events in infants and young children who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Journal Name: British Medical Journal. Year: 1993 Feb 20out of scope
Authors: Saugstad OD;. Title: Oxygen toxicity in the neonatal period. Journal Name: Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica. Year: 1990review
Authors: Saugstad OD;Rootwelt T;Aalen O;. Title: Resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants with room air or oxygen: an international controlled trial: the Resair 2 study. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 1998 Julreviewed in a SR
Authors: Saugstad OD;Ramji S;Irani SF;El-Meneza S;Hernandez EA;Vento M;Talvik T;Solberg R;Rootwelt T;Aalen OO;. Title: Resuscitation of newborn infants with 21% or 100% oxygen: follow-up at 18 to 24 months. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 2003 Augreviewed in a SR
Authors: Saugstad OD;. Title: Resuscitation of the asphyxic newborn infant: new insight leads to new therapeutic possibilities.. Journal Name: Biology of the Neonate. Year: 2001review
Authors: Saugstad OD;. Title: Resuscitation with room-air or oxygen supplementation.. Journal Name: Clinics in Perinatology. Year: 1998review
Authors: Saugstad OD;. Title: Room air resuscitation-two decades of neonatal research.. Journal Name: Early Human Development. Year: 2005 Janreview
Authors: Schumacher R;. Title: Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100% oxygen or air: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal Name: Journal of Pediatrics. Year: 2005appraisal
Authors: Scott JS;. Title: Resuscitation of the newborn. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1968 Jul 20letter
Authors: Tarnow-Mordi WO;. Title: Room air or oxygen for asphyxiated babies?. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1998 Aug 1comment
Authors: Thoresen M;Cowan F;Whitelaw A;. Title: Effect of tilting on oxygenation in newborn infants. Journal Name: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Year: 1988 Marout of scope
Authors: Upadhyay A;Singal A;Singh D;Locham KK;Sodhi M;Ramji S;Saxena NC;. Title: Resuscitation of Asphyxiated Newborns(1). Journal Name: Indian Pediatrics. Year: 2003letter
Authors: Vento M;Asensi M;Sastre J;Garcia-Sala F;Pallardo FV;Vin~a J.;. Title: Resuscitation with room air instead of 100% oxygen prevents oxidative stress in moderately asphyxiated term neonates. Journal Name: Pediatrics. Year: 2001reviewed in a SR
Authors: Whitehead MD;Halsall D;Pollitzer MJ;Delpy DT;Parker D;Reynolds EO;. Title: Transcutaneous estimation of arterial PO2 and PCO2 in newborn infants with a single electrochemical sensor. Journal Name: Lancet. Year: 1980 May 24out of scope
Authors: Wyckoff MH;Perlman JM;. Title: Effective Ventilation and Temperature Control Are Vital to Outborn Resuscitation. Journal Name: Prehospital Emergency Care. Year: 2004not relevant

36. Is there evidence that routine taking of cord blood gases influence outcomes?

Bibliographic InformationReason for rejecting study
Authors: Bryce RL;Halperin ME;Sinclair JC;. Title: Association between indicators of perinatal asphyxia and adverse outcome in the term infant: a methodological review.. Journal Name: Neuroepidemiology. Year: 1985review
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