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Helfand M, Freeman M. Assessment and Management of Acute Pain in Adult Medical Inpatients: A Systematic Review [Internet]. Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2008 Apr.

APPENDIX BInclusion/Exclusion Criteria

CodeInclude /ExcludeReason
I1IncludePublished primary research, systematic review, or meta-analysis of studies that
  1. Were conducted in inpatients with acute pain (including patients with impaired self-report; patients with prexisting opiate therapy; and patients with dependencies on tobacco, alcohol, opioids, or other substances)
  2. Report data on any of the following
    1. Association between timing and frequency of pain assessment, severity of pain, and choice of treatment (e.g. regional blocks, medications, or other therapies)
    2. Method of pain assessment (e.g. 11-point pain scale, visual analog scale, verbal descriptor scale
    3. Timing and route of administration of pain interventions (e.g. oral intermittent pharmacotherapy, intravenous therapy, psychological interventions, positioning, neural blockade, and patient-controlled analgesia); timeliness of enactment of treatment plans, changes in treatment plans
    4. Effect of coordination of care with the patient’s primary care physician or with a pain consultation service on choice of treatment, clinical outcomes, and safety
    5. Patient outcomes, including degree of pain relief, pain intensity, emotional well-being, patient satisfaction, physical function, and fitness for rehabilitation of the underlying condition
    6. Safety outcomes; severity and frequency of side effects (including somnolence, respiratory depression, confusion, constipation, ileus, vomiting, non-allergic itching, weakness/numbness, and use of naloxone)
    7. Length of stay
    8. Follow-up of pain
I3IncludeUnpublished research meeting I1 criteria
I4IncludeNon-systematic review or background article meeting I1 criteria
I5IncludeOther (specify)
X1ExcludeStudy outcome does not meet I1 criteria
X2ExcludeStudy population does not meet criteria (e.g. outpatients; inpatients hospitalized 10 days or longer)
X3ExcludeType of pain not within scope of review (e.g. post-operative pain, sickle cell disease, cancer pain, chronic pain in patients hospitalized 10 days or longer for whom pain is chronic or refractory)
X4ExcludePain intervention studied is not routinely available in the VA health system
X5ExcludeNon-English language, no abstract
X6ExcludeNon-human, animal
X7ExcludeOther (specify, e.g. off-topic)
X8ExcludeWrong study design; no data
Cover of Assessment and Management of Acute Pain in Adult Medical Inpatients
Assessment and Management of Acute Pain in Adult Medical Inpatients: A Systematic Review [Internet].
Helfand M, Freeman M.
Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2008 Apr.


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