Prevalence studies in the UK since 1997

Author/datePrevalence (%)(95% CI)FacilityTotal populationExclusion criteriaMethodsGrade 1 inclusionComments
Cockbill et al. 199913/22 (59%)
General hospital22None statedRetrospective audit using patient records, care plans and Waterlow scaleNot stated/unclearUnclear re. representativeness of sample
Small sample
Hanson 199769/639 (11%)
Community hospitals
Community nursing
Elderly mentally ill wards
Community units for mentally
Learning disability units
639Psychiatric institutionsAudit/questionnaire with Waterlow scaleYesFigures broken down by hospital type not reported here as denominator by hospital type not reported in article
Levett and Smith 2000229/3081 (7.4%)
Nursing home residents3081Nil statedSurvey using Thomas Gateway NHS Trust pressure ulcer prevalence audit tool and Waterlow scaleYes
Monaghan 200028 heel pressure ulcers/2314 (1.2%) 0.76–1.6%
Medical/elderly care = 10
Orthopaedics = 8
General medical = 3
Rehabilitation/palliative care = 1
General surgery = 6
Trust’s paediatric
Mental health hospital departments
2314Pressure ulcers above and on the ankle or on other areas of the footAudit of heel ulcers only using structured questionnaire and WaterlowYesHeel only
O’Dea 1999792/7924 (10%)
35 acute care hospitals in the UK7924Obstetric, psychiatric and day-stayAudit using Waterlow and ‘simple grading system’YesAuthor also reports figure of 18.6% in study she conducted six years before the study reported here
Shiels and Roe 1999124/1930 (6.4%)
101/1278 (7.9%)
23/652 (3.5%)
Nursing and residential homes in Liverpool Health
1930Nil statedPostal surveyYes‘significant block of missing data’
Validation of information received from staff not possible
Torrance and Maylor 1999127/1500 (8.5%)
NHS Trust1500Mental health and learning difficultiesOne-day prevalence in 1996 using ‘survey data-sheet’Unclear
Willock et al. 200012/183 (6.5%)
Royal Liverpool Children’s
NHS Trust
Paediatric intensive care
Medical nephrology and neurology
183Nil statedOne-day prevalence study using modified Torrance scaleYesThe denominators by specialty do not add up to 183 – they add up to 99. Hence, they are not reported in this table

From: Appendix 9, Epidemiology evidence table (updates existing review of UK epidemiological data by Kaltenthaler et al. 2001)

Cover of The Use of Pressure-Relieving Devices (Beds, Mattresses and Overlays) for the Prevention of Pressure Ulcers in Primary and Secondary Care
The Use of Pressure-Relieving Devices (Beds, Mattresses and Overlays) for the Prevention of Pressure Ulcers in Primary and Secondary Care.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 7.
National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (UK).
Copyright © 2004, Royal College of Nursing.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,without prior permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP.This publication may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by ways of trade in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published,without the prior consent of the Publishers.

PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.