Table 7.10Effectiveness of subcutaneous apomorphine injections (1+)

OutcomeBefore versus after treatment
Clinical rating scales
UPDRS (I, II, III, IV) scoresNS244
UPDRS motor (III) scoreAPO243
Columbia individual item (tremor, rigidity, gait, hypokinesia, stability) scoresAPO245*
Columbia total scoreAPO245*
Timed finger/foot tapping, walking and pinboard combined test scoresAPO245*
Patient diaries for hand-tapping testAPO243
Patient diaries for Webster step-seconds scoresP243
Motor complications
Mean daily duration of off periods (minutes/day)Staff ratingAPO244
Patient ratingAPO244
Mean daily numbers of off periodsStaff ratingP244
Patient ratingNS244
Distribution of severity of off periodsAPO244
Patient diaries (out of 10 parameters):
Off-state events aborted per patientAPO243
Onset latency (minutes)APO243
Total time off per dayAPO243
Incidence of dyskinesiaP243
Adverse events
Mean daily duration of involuntary movementsP243
Mean daily numbers of involuntary movementsP243

APO = favouring dopamine agonist (p<0.05);


p <0.001;

P = favouring placebo (p<0.05); – = not reported; NS = non-significant (p>0.05).

From: 7, Symptomatic pharmacological therapy in Parkinson’s disease

Cover of Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's Disease: National Clinical Guideline for Diagnosis and Management in Primary and Secondary Care.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 35.
National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK).
Copyright © 2006, Royal College of Physicians of London.

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