Table 45Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of cognitive decline

StudySample (n)FollowupExposureCase definitionConfounding adjustmentResults
Kang et al., 2005255Community cohort (13,338)2 yearsFruit and vegetable intake estimated from self-reported responses on food frequency questionnaire administered every 2 years for up to 5 time pointsDecline on cognitive measuresAge
High blood pressure
High cholesterol
Coronary heart disease
Hormone therapy
Age at menopause,
Antidepressant use
Alcohol intake
Physical activity
Total energy intake
Mental health and vitality indices
Vitamin supplementation
On global cognitive score:
Highest quintile of vegetable intake showed less decline than the lowest quintile (mean difference 0.04 (p trend < 0.01)
Highest quintile of green leafy vegetables showed less decline than lowest quintile (mean difference 0.05; p trend < 0.001)
Highest quintile of legumes showed less decline than lowest quintile (mean difference 0.03; p trend 0.02)
No differences in cognitive decline associated with fruit intake
Results for performance on a verbal memory test and on the TICS were similar to those for the global cognitive score
Morris et al., 2006256Community cohort (3718)Median 5.5 yearsEstimates of total intake of fruits and vegetables during the previous year were calculated from self-report responses on a modified Harvard food frequency questionnaire. Categorized by quintiles, range 0.8 to 4.1 servings per day of vegetables and 0.6 to 3.9 servings per/day of fruits.Cognitive decline on standardized composite measure from all testsAge
Educational level
Cognitive activities
Physical activities
Alcohol use
Higher intake of vegetables associated with less cognitive decline (trend p = 0.04).
Higher intake of fruit not associated with rate of cognitive decline (trend p = 0.55)
High intake of green leafy vegetables showed strongest association with reduction in cognitive decline (trend p = 0.03)

Abbreviations: BMI = body mass index; NSAID = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; TICS = Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status

From: 3, Results

Cover of Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline
Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 193.
Williams JW, Plassman BL, Burke J, et al.

PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.