Table 1Exposures/interventions evaluated in this report

Factors examined for Key Questions 1, 2, and 5Factors and interventions examined for Key Questions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5
  1. Vascular factors:
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Metabolic syndrome
    • Hypertension
    • Hyperlipidemia
    • Homocysteine
  2. Other medical factors
    • Sleep apnea
    • Obesity
    • Traumatic brain injury
  3. Psychological and emotional health
    • Depression
    • Anxiety
    • Resiliency
  1. Early childhood factors (e.g., early life environment, rural/urban upbringing)
  2. Education/occupation/IQ/intelligence
  3. Tobacco/nicotine use
  4. Alcohol use
Toxic environmental exposures, including pesticides, pollution, Gulf War Syndrome, and Agent Orange exposure

Nutritional and dietary factors:
  1. B vitamins and folate
  2. Other vitamins
  3. Gingko biloba
  4. Omega-3 fatty acids
  5. Other fats
  6. Trace metals
  7. Mediterranean diet
  8. Fruit and vegetable intake
  9. Total intake of calories, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
Prescription and nonprescription drugs:
  1. Statins
  2. Antihypertensives
  3. Anti-inflammatories
  4. Gonadal steroids
  5. Cholinesterase inhibitors
  6. Memantine
Social/economic/behavioral factors:
  1. Social engagement (social network size, social support, and marital status)
  2. Cognitive engagement (including games, puzzles, and cognitive training)
  3. Physical activities
  4. Other (non-cognitive, non-physical) leisure activities

From: 2, Methods

Cover of Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline
Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 193.
Williams JW, Plassman BL, Burke J, et al.

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