Table 19Smoking and Relative Risk of Head and Neck Cancerb in Swedish Men Ages 40–79 Yrs (Lewin et al, 1998(355))

Relative risk (95% confidence interval) adjusted for
SmokingNo. of casesNo. of referentsDesigncDesignc Alcohold
Never smoked441931.01.0
Ever smoked5014485.0 (3.5–7.0)4.0 (2.8–5.7)
Current smokers3852148.4 (5.8–12.2)6.5 (4.4–9.5)
Ex-smokers1162342.1 (1.4–3.1)1.9 (1.3–2.8)
Stopped smoking
1–10 yrs ago61753.5 (2.2–5.7)3.2 (2.0–5.2)
11–20 yrs ago32761.8 (1.1–3.1)1.7 (1.0–2.9)
=21 yrs ago23831.1 (0.6–2.0)0.9 (0.5–1.7)
Age at start
<15 yrs110776.5 (4.2–10.1)5.0 (3.2–7.9)
15–19 yrs2572205.2 (3.6–7.6)4.0 (2.7–5.9)
20–24 yrs1011024.4 (2.8–6.7)3.8 (2.4–5.9)
=25 yrs33492.8 (1.6–4.9)2.6 (1.5–4.6)
Duration of smoking
<30 yrs501561.3 (0.8–2.0)1.2 (0.7–1.9)
30–44 yrs1681484.9 (2.3–7.3)3.9 (2.6–5.9)
=45 yrs2831449.3 (6.3–13.8)7.2 (4.8–10.8)
Total consumption c
<125 kg tobacco531451.6 (1.0–2.5)1.5 (1.0–2.4)
125–250 kg tobacco1811465.5 (3.7–8.2)4.3 (2.9–6.5)
> 250 kg tobacco2671577.5 (5.1–11.0)5.9 (4.0–8.8)
Intensity of smokinge,f
<15 g tobacco/day2022114.1 (2.8–6.0)3.4 (2.3–5.1)
15–24 g tobacco/
 Day2301895.5 (3.8–8.1)4.4 (2.9–6.5)
=25 g tobacco/day69486.5 (4.0–10.7)4.8 (2.9–8.1)
Deep inhalersg
 Yes3411768.9 (6.1–13.0)6.7 (4.5–10.0)
 No41335.3 (3.0–9.3)3.9 (2.1–7.0)
a

Cigarettes, cigarillos, cigars, pipe.

b

Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oro- and hypopharynx, larynx, and esophagus.

c

Age (40–54, 55–64, 65–79 yrs) and region (Stockholm and the South Sweden healthcare area).

d

Four categories (<10, 10–19, 20–49, =50 g alcohol/day).

e

One cigarette or cigarillo = 1 g, 1 cigar = 5 g.

f

Total consumption divided by duration of smoking (g per day).

g

Among current smokers. Data missing for 3 cases and 5 referents.

From: 17, Head and Neck cancer

Cover of Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer in Adults and Children
Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer in Adults and Children [Internet].
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 27.
Clinical Governance Research and Development Unit (CGRDU), Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester.
Copyright © 2005, National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care.

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