Table 7CHW-participant interactions for maternal and child well-being

Author, Date of PublicationPlace of ServiceType of ServiceEducational and Other Materials ProvidedNumber of Sessions, Time per Session, and Length of Contact with ParticipantsIntensity—Low, Moderate, High
Barnes-Boyd et al., 200171HomeFamily-focused care plan; support, model problem-solving skills, promote self-development of mother, provide instruction in infant care; transportation; find community resourcesNRMonthly visits over 12 months (time per session NR)High
Barnes et al., 199968Home and telephoneInformation and assistance, referral, transportation to clinic if needed for childhood immunizationsNRUnspecified number of calls and visits over 6 months (time per session NR)High
Barth et al., 198873HomeTask-directed approach to reduce risk of parenting problems including transportation, support and assistance with participant needs, advocating on participant’s behalf, modeling positive parenting and homecare skillsNR2 visits per month, 4 hours per session, over 6 monthsHigh
Barth et al.,199174HomeTask-directed approach to reduce the risk of parenting problemsNROn average 11 visits (range 5–20) over 6 months (time per session not reported but 4 hours implied)High
Black et al., 199575
Hutcheson et al., 199776
HomeDevelop individualized family service plan with specific goals; support mother’s needs; promote maternal-child relationshipHandouts, developmental assessment toysWeekly visits ( 1 hour per visit) for 1 yearHigh
Caulfield et al., 199877Community (WIC clinics), home or telephoneOne-on-one counseling on participants’ attitudes toward infant feeding, correcting misconceptions, group support sessions on infant feedingBreastfeeding motivational video, posters and pamphlets3 or more meetings during pregnancy (from 24 weeks of gestation) and then weekly up to 16 weeks postpartum if they continued breast feeding (time per meeting NR)High
Conway et al., 200467Home and telephoneProblem-solving techniques to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure to childrenNR6 home and telephone visits over 4 months (time per session NR)High
Duggan et al., 199978
Duggan et al., 2000128
HomeBuilding relationships with families; active assistance to address existing crises; model problem-solving skills and effective parent-child interaction; link families with needed resources; provide parenting education; ensuring presence of medical home for childrenNR22 visits (1 hour each) over 2 yearsHigh
Graham et al., 199279HomePsychosocial support; educate family about pregnancy; advocate; link to community services for stress reduction; information on health risks during pregnancy and on nutritionNR4 visits (1 hour each) at 2–4 week intervals for 2–5 months (until birth of child)High
Nacion et al., 200072HomeIntensive home visits for assessment, problem-solving, emotional support, and informationNRNRHigh
Olds et al., 200280
Korfmacher et al., 199981
Olds et al., 200482
HomeIntensive home visitation: promoting healthy behaviors, competent child care, pregnancy planning, education, employment, linking to social and health services; promoting healthy family/friend relationshipsVisit-specific protocol, adapted to individual needs of motherEvery other week (except for weekly visits during the first 4 weeks after enrollment and the first 6 weeks after delivery) through the child’s 21st month, followed by monthly visits during the final 3 months, 75 minutes per sessionHigh
St. James et al., 199983NR (most likely home, based on activities like cooking)Counseling, meal planning, pregnancy education, shopping, discuss medical recommendationsNR20 sessions of 2 hours each (weekly in beginning then less frequently) throughout pregnancyHigh
Schuler et al., 200084HomeTeaching and counseling on infant development, health education, mother-infant interactionActivity sheetsWeekly visits (mean duration 30.1 minutes per visit) for 6 monthsHigh
Silver et al., 199785HomeCounseling; share information on child health and behavior; link families with existing community resourcesNR6 meetings (1 hour each) with at least biweekly telephone calls and 3 group social activities over 12 monthsHigh
Tessaro et al., 199786
Navaie-Waliser et al., 200087
HomeCounseling, assistance in applying for government benefits, housing, employment, education, general advocacy for familiesNROne visit per month (more if needed) for approximately 14 months (time per visit NR)High

≈, approximately; NR, not reported; WIC, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

From: 3, Results

Cover of Outcomes of Community Health Worker Interventions
Outcomes of Community Health Worker Interventions.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 181.
Viswanathan M, Kraschnewski J, Nishikawa B, et al.

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