Table 16CHW maternal and child interventions and child development

Author, Year
Population Setting
Sample Size
Intensity of CHW InterventionStudy GroupsResults
Black et al., 1995;75
Hutcheson et al., 199776

Low-income urban children with nonorganic failure to thrive

Baltimore, Maryland

N: 130

HighG1: Weekly CHW home visits with community health nurse supervision for 1 year, addressing various child health and development needs, nutrition intervention, and concerns raised by mothers

G2: Clinic-based multidisciplinary services; no CHW intervention
Smaller postintervention decline in cognitive and motor development for G1 vs. G2 only for children recruited in infancy

Bayley cognitive development (SD): G1: 96.9 (SD 15.8) to 89.3 (17.4)
G2: 96.2 (12.1) to 86.1 (18.7)

Bayley motor development: G1: 91.1 (18.7) to 92.0 (14.6)
G2: 95.3 (17.7) to 91.5 (18.7) (P = 0.02)

No significant differences between groups for language development
Korfmacher et al., 1999;81
Olds et al., 2002;80
Olds et al., 200482

Home Visitation 2000

Medicaid-eligible pregnant women

Denver, Colorado

N: 735

HighG1: Developmental screening plus intensive home visitation: promoting healthy behaviors, competent child care, pregnancy planning, education, employment; linking to social and health services; promoting healthy family/friend relationships; variable frequency from weekly to monthly up to 24 months of age

G2: Developmental screening plus nurse home visits

G3: Developmental screening and referrals
Preschool Language Scales at 21 months (G3 mean 99.49): G1 vs. G3 +0.40 (95% CI, −1.94 to +2.74)
G2 vs. G3 +1.73 (95% CI, −0.64 to +4.11)

Mental Development Index at 24 months (G3 mean 89.38): G1 vs. G3 +0.07 (95% CI, −2.39 to +2.53)
G2 vs. G3 +0.75 (95% CI, −1.77 to +3.28)
St. James et al., 199983

Mothers with PKU (PKU Resource Mothers Program)

New England

N: 69

HighG1: Historic control; women who completed pregnancy in the 5 years before project onset

G2: Resource mothers
Infant mental scale on Bayley Developmental Quotient was G1: 95
G2: 108 (P < 0.05)
Duggan et al., 1999;128
Duggan et al., 200078

Families at high risk for child maltreatment

Oahu, Hawaii

N: 730

HighG1: Home visiting with individualized service plans, child developmental screenings, and mother-child interaction assessments; family support plan within 45 days of initial visit, reviewed every 6 months, revised annually; periodic screening for developmental delays, observational assessment of parent-child interaction and home environment; ensure existence of medical home, link to other needed resources

G2: Control (details NR)
All outcome measures at 2 years postintervention

Bayley Scales of Infant
Development – Mental Development Index: G1: 90.0
G2: 89.2 (P = 0.60)

Psychomotor Development Index: G1: 92.1
G2: 90.4 (P = 0.12)

CHW, community health workers; CI, confidence interval; G, group; PKU, phenylketonuria; SD, standard deviation.

From: 3, Results

Cover of Outcomes of Community Health Worker Interventions
Outcomes of Community Health Worker Interventions.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 181.
Viswanathan M, Kraschnewski J, Nishikawa B, et al.

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