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Sharma M, Ansari MT, Soares-Weiser K, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Lipid-Modifying Agents [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2009 Sep. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 16.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Appendix BExcluded Studies

Excluded Studies - FullText Relevance

Do Not Directly Address the Key Questions

Aberg JA, Zackin RA, Brobst SW, et al. A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of fenofibrate versus pravastatin in HIV-infected subjects with lipid abnormalities: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 5087. AIDS Research & Human Retroviruses 2005;21(9):757–767.

ACCORD Study Group. Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial: design and methods. Am J Cardiol 2007;99(12A):21i–33i.

Adams RJ, Albers G, Alberts MJ, et al. Update to the AHA/ASA recommendations for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack. Stroke 2008; 39(5):1647–1652.

Afilalo J, Duque G, Steele R, et al. Statins for secondary prevention in elderly patients: a hierarchical bayesian meta-analysis [see comment]. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51(1):37–45.

Akoglu H, Yilmaz R, Kirkpantur A, et al. Combined organ failure with combination antihyperlipidemic treatment: a case of hepatic injury and acute renal failure. Ann Pharmacother 2007;41(1):143–147.

Alaupovic P, Fesmire JD, Hunnighake D, et al. The effect of aggressive and moderate lowering of LDL-cholesterol and low dose anticoagulation on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein families in post coronary artery bypass graft trial. Atherosclerosis 1999;146(2):369–379.

Alexandridis G, Pappas GA, Elisaf MS. Rhabdomyolysis due to combination therapy with cerivastatin and gemfibrozil [see comment]. Am J Med 2000;109(3):261–262.

Aligeti VR, Gandhi M, Braden R, et al. Effect of combination lipid-modifying therapy on the triglyceride lowering effect of fish oil. Am J Med Sci 2007;333(3):168–172.

Al-Olah Y H, Carr-Lopez S M. Rhabdomyolysis secondary to the concomitant use of simvastatin and gemfibrozil. Saudi Pharm J 2002;10(1–2):65–69.

Amarenco P, Lavallee PC, Mazighi M, et al. The role of statins in the prevention of stroke. Archives of Medical Science 2007; 3(4 SUPPL. A):S109–S114.

Andrade SE, Graham DJ, Staffa JA, et al. Health plan administrative databases can efficiently identify serious myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. J Clin Epidemiol 2005;58(2):171–174.

Anonymous. Case report: Combination therapy for metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Rev 2005;22(1):42.

Anonymous. Case report: Improved lipid levels with niacin-ER/lovastatin. Cardiol Rev 2003;20(11):38.

Anonymous. Combination therapy for mixed dyslipidemia in an elderly man with diabetes. Cardiol Rev 2007;24(4):28.

Anonymous. Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with lovastatin taken with gemfibrozil [comment]. JAMA 1990;264(23):2991–2992.

Anonymous. Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP): Final Protocol Version 4: 14 July 2003. National Research Register, UK [www 2004;nrr.nhs.uk/]. 2004.

Arambepola C, Farmer AJ, Perera R, et al. Statin treatment for children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis [review] [60 refs]. Atherosclerosis 2007;195(2):339–347.

Armstrong EP, Zachry WM, Malone DC. Cost-effectiveness analysis of simvastatin and lovastatin/extended- release niacin to achieve LDL and HDL goal using NHANES data.[see comment]. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy 2004;10(3):251–258.

Aronow WS. Treatment of high-risk older adults with lipid-lowering drug therapy. Geriatrics and Aging 2007;10(3):167–173.

Aronow WS. Treatment of high-risk older persons with lipid-lowering drug therapy [review] [34 refs]. Am J Ther 2008;15(2):102–107.

Arshad A, Mandava A, Kamath G, et al. Sudden cardiac death and the role of medical therapy [review] [146 refs]. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 50(6):420–438.

Asztalos B F, Batista M, Horvath KV, et al. Change in alpha1 HDL concentration predicts progression in coronary artery stenosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23(5):847–852.

Athyros VG, Papageorgiou AA, Hatzikonstandinou HA, et al. Safety and efficacy of long-term statin-fibrate combinations in patients with refractory familial combined hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol 1997;80(5):608–613.

Athyros VG, Papageorgiou AA, Kontopoulos A G. Statin-fibrate combinations in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis 2001;155(1):263–264.

Athyros V, Papageorgiou A, Athyrou V, et al. Long term safety and efficacy of atorvastatin versus four statin-fibrate combinations on lipid profile and plasma fibrinogen in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Atheroscler Suppl 1999;144(1):28.

Athyros VG, Kakafika AI, Koragiannis A, et al. Effects of simvastatin alone versus fenofibrate alone versus simvastatin plus fenofibrate on lipoprotein subparticle profiles in patients with diabetes mellitus and mixed dyslipidemia. Am J Cardiol 2008;101(11):1679–1680.

Athyros VG, Tziomalos K, Kakafika AI, et al. Effectiveness of ezetimibe alone or in combination with twice a week Atorvastatin (10 mg) for statin intolerant high-risk patients. Am J Cardiol 2008;101(4):483–485.

Aung PP, Maxwell HG, Jepson RG, et al. Lipid-lowering for peripheral arterial disease of the lower limb[update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000123; PMID: 10796489] [review] [91 refs]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4):CD000123.

Bach LA, Cooper ME, O’Brien RC, et al. The use of simvastatin, an HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, in older patients with hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;38(1):10–14.

Backman JT, Kyrklund C, Kivisto KT, et al. Plasma concentrations of active simvastatin acid are increased by gemfibrozil. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2000;68(2):122–129.

Badawy O, Wierzbicki AS, Hilton R. Combination fibrate-statin therapy for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridaemia in renal disease. Int J Clin Pract 2003;57(3):249–251.

Badger SA, Soong CV, Lee B, et al. Prescribing practice of general practitioners in Northern Ireland for peripheral arterial disease. Angiology 2008; 59(1):57–63.

Baldovi F, Galindo MJ, Alcacer F, et al. Acute renal failure and lipid-lowering therapy. Nutr Metab Disord HIV Infect 2004;3(2):437–439.

Ballantyne CM, Radovancevic B, Farmer JA, et al. Hyperlipidemia after heart transplantation: report of a 6-year experience, with treatment recommendations. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;19(6):1315–1321.

Bard JM, Dallongeville J, Hagen E, et al. Comparison of the effect of fluvastatin, an hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, and cholestyramine, a bile acid sequestrant, on lipoprotein particles defined by apolipoprotein composition. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental 1995;44(11):1447–1454.

Barkowski RS, Frishman WH. HDL metabolism and CETP inhibition. Cardiol Rev 2008; 16(3):154–162.

Bar-On P, Crews L, Koob AO, et al. Statins reduce neuronal alpha-synuclein aggregation in in vitro models of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurochem 2008;105(5):1656–1667.

Barter PJ, O’Brien RC. Achievement of target plasma cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolaemic patients being treated in general practice. Atherosclerosis 2000;149(1):199–205.

Barter P. Reconsidering the value of fibrates: Lessons from the trials. British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease 2003;3(3):162–167.

Bayes M, Rabasseda X, Prous JR. Gateways to clinical trials. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2007;29(9):625–655.

Bays H, Lansing AM. Fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids) in treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. A practical approach for the primary care physician. J Ky Med Assoc 1994;92(3):105–108.

Bays H, McKenney J, Davidson M. Torcetrapib/atorvastatin combination therapy. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 2005;3(5):789–820.

Bays H. Safety of niacin and simvastatin combination therapy [review] [26 refs]. Am J Cardiol 2008;101(8A):3B–8B.

bdul-Ghaffar NU, el-Sonbaty MR. Pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis associated with lovastatin-gemfibrozil therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol 1995;21(4):340–341.

Beggs P W, Clark DW, Williams SM, et al. A comparison of the use, effectiveness and safety of bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin in normal clinical practice using the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP). Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999;47(1):99–104.

Benatar JR, Stewart RA. Is it time to stop treating dyslipidaemia with fibrates? [review] [23 refs]. N Z Med J 2007;120(1261):U2706.

Bennett MT, Johns KW, Bondy GP. Ezetimibe is effective when added to maximally tolerated lipid lowering therapy in patients with HIV. Lipids in Health & Disease 2007;615.

Berger GM, Marais AD, Seftel HC, et al. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia with the HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, simvastatin. Cardiovascular Drugs & Therapy 1989;3(2):219–227.

Bergman AJ, Murphy G, Burke J, et al. Simvastatin does not have a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with fenofibrate in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 2004;44(9):1054–1062.

Bermingham RP, Whitsitt TB, Smart ML, et al. Rhabdomyolysis in a patient receiving the combination of cerivastatin and gemfibrozil. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57(5):461–464.

Bertolotti M, Zambianchi L, Carulli L, et al. Influence of newly synthesized cholesterol on bile acid synthesis during chronic inhibition of bile acid absorption. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003;38(4):939–946.

Bilheimer DW, Grundy SM, Brown MS, et al. Mevinolin and colestipol stimulate receptor-mediated clearance of low density lipoprotein from plasma in familial hypercholeserolemia heterozygotes. 1983. Atheroscler Suppl 2004;5(3):61–65.

Bilheimer DW, Grundy SM, Brown MS, et al. Mevinolin and colestipol stimulate receptor-mediated clearance of low density lipoprotein from plasma in familial hypercholesterolemia heterozygotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1983;80(13):4124–4128.

Bilz S, Wagner S, Schmitz M, et al. Effects of atorvastatin versus fenofibrate on apoB-100 and apoA-I kinetics in mixed hyperlipidemia. J Lipid Res 2004;45(1):174–185.

Birjmohun RS, Kastelein JJ, Poldermans D, et al. Safety and tolerability of prolonged-release nicotinic acid in statin-treated patients. Curr Med Res Opin 2007;23(7):1707–1713.

Bissonnette S, Habib R, Sampalis F, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of ezetimibe 10 mg/day coadministered with statins in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia who do not achieve target LDL-C while on statin monotherapy: A Canadian, multicentre, prospective study—the Ezetrol Add-On Study. Can J Cardiol 2006;22(12):1035–1044.

Black C, Jick H. Etiology and frequency of rhabdomyolysis. Pharmacotherapy 2002;22(12):1524–1526.

Blair SN, Capuzzi DM, Gottlieb SO, et al. Incremental reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing spread to statin therapy. Am J Cardiol 2000;86(1):46–52.

Blom DJ, Byrnes P, Jones S, et al. Dysbetalipoproteinaemia—clinical and pathophysiological features. S Afr Med J 2002; Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde. 92(11):892–897.

Blum S, Milman U, Shapira C, et al. Dual therapy with statins and antioxidants is superior to statins alone in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008;28(3):e18–e20.

Bonnet F, Balestre E, Thiebaut R, et al. Fibrates or statins and lipid plasma levels in 245 patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1999–2001. HIV Med 2004;5(3):133–139.

Bonovas S, Filioussi K, Sitaras NM. Statin use and the risk of prostate cancer: A metaanalysis of 6 randomized clinical trials and 13 observational studies. Int J Cancer 2008; 123(4):899–904.

Bonovas S, Filioussi K, Tsantes A, et al. Use of statins and risk of haematological malignancies: a meta-analysis of six randomized clinical trials and eight observational studies [review] [47 refs]. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 64(3):255–262.

Bouknight P, Mackler L, Heffington M. FPIN’s clinical inquiries. Best alternatives to statins for treating hyperlipidemia. [Review] [10 refs]. Am Fam Physician 2007; 76(7):1027–1029.

Bozbas H, Altin C, Yildirir A et al. Lipid profiles of patients with a transplanted heart before and after the operation. Transplant Proc 2008; 40(1):263–266.

Bright J. American Heart Association—Scientific Sessions 2007. Part 1. Idrugs 2008; 11(1):16–18.

Brophy JM, Costa V. Statin wars following coronary revascularization—evidence-based clinical practice? Can J Cardiol 2006;22(1):54–58.

Brown BG, Bardsley J, Poulin D, et al. Moderate dose, three-drug therapy with niacin, lovastatin, and colestipol to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dl in patients with hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1997;80(2):111–115.

Brown BG, Zambon A, Poulin D, et al. Use of niacin, statins, and resins in patients with combined hyperlipidemia [review] [20 refs]. Am J Cardiol 1998;81(4A):52B–59B.

Brown B G, Zhao X Q, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease [see comment][summary for patients in Curr Cardiol Rep. 2002 Nov;4(6):486; PMID: 12379170]. N Engl J Med 2001;345(22):1583–1592.

Brown BG, Zhao X-Q, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345(22):1583–1592.

Brown BG, Zhao X-Q, Cheung MC. Should both HDL-C and LDL-C be targets for lipid therapy? A review of current evidence. Journal of Clinical Lipidology 2007;1(1):88–94.

Bruno-Joyce J, Dugas JM, MacCausland OE. Cerivastatin and gemfibrozil-associated rhabdomyolysis [see comment]. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35(9):1016–1019.

Brunzell JD, Davidson M, Furberg CD, et al. Lipoprotein management in patients with cardiometabolic risk: consensus conference report from the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation [review] [93 refs]. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51(15):1512–1524.

Bulut D, Hanefeld C, Bulut-Streich N, et al. Endothelial function in the forearm circulation of patients with the metabolic syndrome—effect of different lipid-lowering regimens [see comment]. Cardiology 2005;104(4):176–180.

Burnett JR, Moses EA, Croft KD, et al. Clinical and biochemical features, molecular diagnosis and long-term management of a case of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Clin Chim Acta 2001;306(1–2):63–69.

Burnett JR. Torcetrapib + atorvastatin Pfizer. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2005;6(9):944–950.

Buse JB. Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Trial: Design and Methods. Am J Cardiol 2007;(12 SUPPL.):S21–S33.

Bush W. Preventing cardiovascular complications in renal transplant recipients. U 2007;S. Pharmacist. 32(1):HS3–HS17.

Caggiula AW, Watson JE, Kuller LH, et al. Cholesterol-lowering intervention program. Effect of the step I diet in community office practices [see comment]. Arch Intern Med 1996;156(11):1205–1213.

Cahoon Jr. WD, Crouch MA. Preprocedural statin therapy in percutaneous coronary intervention [review] [29 refs]. Ann Pharmacother 2007;41(10):1687–1693.

Campeau L, Knatterud. The effect of aggressive lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and low-dose anticoagulation on obstructive changes in saphenous-vein coronary-artery bypass grafts. N Engl J Med 1997;(3):153–162.

Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, et al. Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes [see comment]. N Engl J Med 2004;350(15):1495–1504.

Capps N. Case study 1. Familial hyperlipidaemia. British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease 2004;4(Suppl 1):S26–S27.

Capps N. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol responses to ezetimibe in clinical practice. Int J Clin Pract 2006;60(7):867–869.

Capuzzi DM, Morgan JM, Weiss R, et al. Effects of rosuvastatin alone and combined with extended-release niacin on Apo B- and Apo A-containing lipoproteins and triglycerides in atherogenic dyslipidemia. Atheroscler Suppl 2002;3(2):82.

Carmena R, De Oya M, Gomez-Gerique J, et al. Pravastatin, cholestyramine, and bezafibrate in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: The Spanish Multicenter Pravastatin Study. Cardiovascular Risk Factors 1996;6(1):55–61.

Caroli-Bosc FX, Le Gall P, Pugliese P, et al. Role of fibrates and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in gallstone formation: epidemiological study in an unselected population. Digestive Diseases & Sciences 2001;46(3):540–544.

Carrero JJ, Lopez-Huertas E, Salmeron LM, et al. Simvastatin and supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins improves claudication distance in a randomized PILOT study in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Nutrition Research 2006; 26(12):637–643.

Carrington M, Stewart S. Is fenofibrate a cost-saving treatment for middle-aged individuals with type II diabetes? An economic analysis of the FIELD Study. Int J Cardiol 2008;127(1):51–56.

Carvalho AA, Lima UW, Valiente RA. Statin and fibrate associated myopathy: study of eight patients. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2004;62(2A):257–261.

Castro Cabezas M, Erkelens DW, Kock LA, et al. Postprandial apolipoprotein B100 and B48 metabolism in familial combined hyperlipidaemia before and after reduction of fasting plasma triglycerides. Eur J Clin Invest 1994;24(10):669–678.

Chang JT, Staffa JA, Parks M, et al. Rhabdomyolysis with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and gemfibrozil combination therapy [see comment]. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2004;13(7):417–426.

Chatley P, Badyal DK, Calton R, et al. Combination therapy of low-dose atorvastatin and fenofibrate in mixed hyperlipidemia. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2007;29(3):217–221.

Cheng AY, Leiter LA. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines [review] [15 refs]. Curr Opin Cardiol 2006;21(4):400–404.

Chironi G, Simon A, Gariepy J, et al. Differential associations of statin and fibrate treatment with carotid arterial remodeling. Am J Hypertens 2005;18(11):1476–1481.

Chodorowski Z, Sein Anand J, Madaliski M, et al. Enzymatic examination of potential interaction between statins or fibrates and consumed Tricholoma equestre. Przegl Lek 2005;62(6):468–470.

Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) Collaborators, Kearney PM, Blackwell L, et al. Efficacy of cholesterol-lowering therapy in 18,686 people with diabetes in 14 randomised trials of statins: a meta-analysis [see comment]. Lancet 2008;371(9607):117–125.

Chrysant SG, Ibrahim M. Niacin-ER/statin combination for the treatment of dyslipidemia: focus on low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [review] [49 refs]. J Clin Hypertens 2006;8(7):493–499.

Chrysanthopoulos C, Kounis N. Rhabdomyolysis due to combined treatment with lovastatin and cholestyramine. BMJ 1992;304(6836):1225.

Chuang P, Langone AJ. Ezetimibe reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in renal transplant patients resistant to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Am J Ther 2007;14(5):438–441.

Chucrallah A, De Girolami U, Freeman R, et al. Lovastatin/gemfibrozil myopathy: a clinical, histochemical, and ultrastructural study. Eur Neurol 1992;32(5):293–296.

Chuo JY, Wiens M, Etminan M, et al. Use of lipid-lowering agents for the prevention of age-related macular degeneration: a meta-analysis of observational studies [review] [61 refs]. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2007;14(6):367–374.

Cobb MM, Salen G, Tint GS, et al. Sitosterolemia: opposing effects of cholestyramine and lovastatin on plasma sterol levels in a homozygous girl and her heterozygous father. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental 1996;45(6):673–679.

Codario RA. Hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease management. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2007;19(12 Suppl 2):7–10.

Coleman CI, Reinhart K, Kluger J, et al. The effect of statins on the development of new-onset type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [review] [10 refs]. Curr Med Res Opin 2008;24(5):1359–1362.

Conforti A, Leone. Spontaneous reporting of drug-related hepatic reactions from two Italian regions [Lombardy and Veneto]. Dig Liver Dis 2000;(8):716–723.

Conforti A, Magro L, Moretti U, et al. Fluvastatin and hepatic reactions: a signal from spontaneous reporting in Italy. Drug Saf 2006;29(12):1163–1172.

Contacos C, Barter PJ, Sullivan DR. Effect of pravastatin and omega-3 fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Arteriosclerosis & Thrombosis 1993;13(12):1755–1762.

Cook JR, Yin D, Alemao E, et al. Development and validation of a model to project the long-term benefit and cost of alternative lipid-lowering strategies in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Pharmacoeconomics 2004;22(Suppl 3):37–48.

Corbelli JC, Bullano MF, Willey VJ, et al. Effects of gemfibrozil conversion to fenofibrate on lipids in patients on statin therapy. Am J Cardiol 2002;90(12):1388–1391.

Corrao G, Zambon A, Bertu L, et al. Lipid lowering drugs prescription and the risk of peripheral neuropathy: an exploratory case-control study using automated databases. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2004;58(12):1047–1051.

Cramariuc D, Rieck AE, Staal EM, et al. Factors influencing left ventricular structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis (a SEAS Substudy). Am J Cardiol 2008;101(4):510–515.

Crook MA, Lynas J, Wray R. A paradoxical severe decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol after treatment with a fibrate [see comment]. J Clin Pathol 2000;53(10):796–797.

Cross J, Donovan JL, Silva MA, et al. Pharmacologic management of post-acute coronary syndrome. U 2007;S. Pharmacist. 32(2)

Cubeddu LX, Cubeddu RJ, Heimowitz T, et al. Comparative lipid-lowering effects of policosanol and atorvastatin: a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am Heart J 2006;152(5):982–985.

Curtin PO, Jones WN. Therapeutic rationale of combining therapy with gemfibrozil and simvastatin. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash) 2007;47(2):140–146.

Cuthbert JA, East CA, Lipsky PE. Normalization of LDL receptor function by lymphocytes of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia after treatment with plasma cholesterol lowering agents. Am J Med Sci 1989;298(3):152–160.

Da Col PG, Fonda M, Fisicaro M, et al. Tolerability and efficacy of combination therapy with simvastatin plus gemfibrozil in type IIb refractory familial combined hyperlipidemia. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1993;53(5):473–483.

Danchin N, Cambou JP, Hanania G, et al. Impact of combined secondary prevention therapy after myocardial infarction: data from a nationwide French registry. Am Heart J 2005;150(6):1147–1153.

Darling GM, Johns JA, McCloud PI, et al. Concurrent use of simvastatin and estrogen—progestin therapy compared with each therapy alone for hypercholesterolemia in postmenopausal women. Climacteric 1999;2(3):181–188.

Davidson MH, Ballantyne CM, Kerzner B, et al. Efficacy and safety of ezetimibe coadministered with statins: randomised, placebo-controlled, blinded experience in 2382 patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Int J Clin Pract 2004;58(8):746–755.

Davidson MH. Combination therapy for dyslipidemia: safety and regulatory considerations. Am J Cardiol 2002;90(10B):50K–60K.

Davidson MH. Efficacy of simvastatin and ezetimibe in treating hypercholesterolemia [comment]. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42(2):398–399.

Davignon JX. Lovastatin 5-year safety and efficacy study. Arch Intern Med 1993;(9):1079–1087.

Davignon J, Roederer G, Montigny M, et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of pravastatin, nicotinic acid and the two combined in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol 1994;73(5):339–345.

Davis M. Case study. A woman with high lipid levels and poor drug tolerance. British Journal of Cardiology 2004;11(Suppl 3):S28–S29.

Davis TM, Yeap BB, Davis WA, et al. Lipid-lowering therapy and peripheral sensory neuropathy in type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study. Diabetologia 2008;51(4):562–566.

de Alava E, Sola JJ, Lozano MD, et al. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in a heart transplant recipient treated with hypolipemiants. Nephron 1994;66(2):242–243.

De Buyzere ML, Clement DL. Management of hypertension in peripheral arterial disease [review] [157 refs]. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 50(4):238–263.

Dedhia V, Munsi SC. Myopathy caused by a combination rosuvastatin and fenofibrate. J Assoc Physicians India 2007;55152–153.

Denke MA, Grundy SM. Efficacy of low-dose cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in men with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Arch Intern Med 1995;155(4):393–399.

Derosa G, Mugellini A, Ciccarelli L, et al. Efficacy of fluvastatin together with fenofibrate in hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetic subjects compared to monotherapy. Atheroscler Suppl 2002;3(2):100.

Derosa G, Mugellini A, Ciccarelli L, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of the action of orlistat, fluvastatin, or both an anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and lipid profile in obese patients with hypercholesterolemia prescribed a standardized diet. Clin Ther 2003;25(4):1107–1122.

Desager JP, Horsmans Y, Harvengt C. Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in familial hypercholesterolemia treated with simvastatin and simvastatin plus low-dose colestipol. J Clin Pharmacol 1991;31(6):537–542.

Devroey D, Betz W. An analysis of first authorizations for lipid-lowering drugs in Belgium [comment]. Acta Clin Belg 2003;58(3):152–158.

DeWilde S, Carey IM, Richards N, et al. Trends in secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease in the UK 1994 2005: use of individual and combination treatment [see comment]. Heart 2008;94(1):83–88.

Diepeveen SH, Verhoeven GW, Van Der, et al. Effects of atorvastatin and vitamin E on lipoproteins and oxidative stress in dialysis patients: a randomised-controlled trial. J Intern Med 2005;257(5):438–445.

Diercks GF, Janssen WM, van Boven AJ, et al. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of a trial of prevention of cardiovascular and renal disease with fosinopril and pravastatin in nonhypertensive, nonhypercholesterolemic subjects with microalbuminuria (the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENdstage Disease Intervention Trial [PREVEND IT]). Am J Cardiol 2000;86(6):635–638.

Dorval JF, Anderson T, Buithieu J, et al. Reaching recommended lipid and blood pressure targets with amlodipine/atorvastatin combination in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 2005;95(2):249–253.

Dotti MT, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, et al. Normalisation of serum cholestanol concentration in a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis by combined treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid, simvastatin and LDL apheresis. Shinkei Kenkyu No Shimpo 2004;25(4):185–191.

Dourakis SP. Statins and hepatotoxicity. Annals of Gastroenterology 2006;19(4):311–312.

Drazen JM, Jarcho JA, Morrissey S et al. Cholesterol lowering and ezetimibe [comment]. N Engl J Med 2008;358(14):1507–1508.

Drugs for lipids [review] [36 refs]. Treat Guidel Med Lett 2008;6(66):9–16.

Duell PB, Connor WE, Illingworth DR. Rhabdomyolysis after taking atorvastatin with gemfibrozil. Am J Cardiol 1998;81(3):368–369.

Dujovne CA. The lovastatin-niacin trial: adverse events [abstract]. Arteriosclerosis and thrombosis: a journal of vascular biology. American Heart Association 1991;11(5):1458A.

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Zhao XQ, Phan BA, Chu B, et al. Testing the hypothesis of atherosclerotic plaque lipid depletion during lipid therapy by magnetic resonance imaging: study design of Carotid Plaque Composition Study. Am Heart J 2007;154(2):239–246.

Ziajka PE, Reis M, Kreul S, et al. Initial low-density lipoprotein response to statin therapy predicts subsequent low-density lipoprotein response to the addition of ezetimibe. Am J Cardiol 2004;93(6):779–780.

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Systematic Reviews

Aldridge MA, Ito MK. Colesevelam hydrochloride: a novel bile acid-binding resin [review] [37 refs]. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35(7–8):898–907.

Anonymous. Ezetimibe: new preparation. A cholesterol-lowering drug with no clinical advantage. Prescrire Int 2004;13(73):176–179.

Backes JM, Gibson CA, Howard PA. Optimal lipid modification: the rationale for combination therapy [review] [141 refs]. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2005;1(4):317–331.

Bang LM, Goa KL. Pravastatin: a review of its use in elderly patients [review] [119 refs]. Drugs Aging 2003;20(14):1061–1082.

Birjmohun RS, Hutten BA, Kastelein JJ, et al. Increasing HDL cholesterol with extended-release nicotinic acid: from promise to practice [review] [33 refs]. Neth J Med 2004;62(7):229–234.

Cheng JW. Rosuvastatin in the management of hyperlipidemia [review] [61 refs]. Clin Ther 2004;26(9):1368–1387.

Jeu L, Cheng JW. Pharmacology and therapeutics of ezetimibe (SCH 58235), a cholesterol-absorption inhibitor [review] [87 refs]. Clin Ther 2003;25(9):2352–2387.

Kashani A, Sallam T, Bheemreddy S, et al. Review of side-effect profile of combination ezetimibe and statin therapy in randomized clinical trials [review] [31 refs]. Am J Cardiol 2008;101(11):1606–1613.

Keating GM, Croom KF. Fenofibrate: a review of its use in primary dyslipidaemia, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus [review] [194 refs]. Drugs 2007;67(1):121–153.

Kinlay S. Low-density lipoprotein-dependent and -independent effects of cholesterol-lowering therapies on C-reactive protein: a meta-analysis [see comment]. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49(20):2003–2009.

Langtry HD, Markham A. Fluvastatin: a review of its use in lipid disorders [erratum appears in Drugs 1999 Sep;58(3):404] [review] [107 refs]. Drugs 1999;57(4):583–606.

Law M, Rudnicka AR. Statin safety: A systematic review. Am J Cardiol 2006;97(8 Suppl 1):S52–S60.

Mauro VF, Tuckerman CE. Ezetimibe for management of hypercholesterolemia [review] [64 refs]. Ann Pharmacother 2003;37(6):839–848.

McPherson R, Frohlich J, Fodor G, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society position statement - recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Can J Cardiol 2006;22(11):913–927.

Mikhailidis DP, Sibbring GC, Ballantyne CM, et al. Meta-analysis of the cholesterol-lowering effect of ezetimibe added to ongoing statin therapy. Curr Med Res Opin 2007;23(8):2009–2026.

Omar MA, Wilson JP, Cox TS. Rhabdomyolysis and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors [erratum appears in Ann Pharmacother 2001 Oct;35(10):1296] [review] [109 refs]. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35(9):1096–1107.

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Psaty BM, Furberg CD, Ray WA, et al. Potential for conflict of interest in the evaluation of suspected adverse drug reactions: use of cerivastatin and risk of rhabdomyolysis [see comment] [review] [64 refs]. JAMA 2004;292(21):2622–2631.

Sudlow C, Lonn E, Pignone M, et al. Secondary prevention of ischaemic cardiac events [update in Clin Evid 2002 Dec;(8):129–68;PMID: 12603875] [eview] [133 refs]. Clinic Evid 2002;(7):124–160.

Thompson PD, Clarkson P, Karas RH. Statin-associated myopathy [see comment] [review] [100 refs]. JAMA 2003;289(13):1681–1690.

Verges B. Diabetic dyslipidaemia: insights for optimizing patient management [review] [89 refs]. Curr Med Res Opin 2005;21(Suppl 1):S29–S40.

Weffald LA, Flach LA. Myopathy associated with atorvastatin-ezetimibe combination therapy. Pharmacotherapy 2007;27(2):309–311.

Yim BT, Chong PH. Niacin-ER and lovastatin treatment of hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia [review] [56 refs]. Ann Pharmacother 2003;37(1):106–115.

Not Able To Retrieve

Al-Olah YH, Carr-Lopez S M. Rhabdomyolysis secondary to the concomitant use of simvastatin and gemfibrozil. Saudi Pharm J 2002;10(1–2):65–69.

Anonymous. Bile acid sequestrant-fibrate combination effective for mixed hyperlipidemia. Cardiol Rev 2005;22(11):6.

Anonymous. FDA approves Vytorin (ezetimibe/simvastatin) - cholesterol reduction through dual inhibition of the two sources of cholesterol in one tablet. S Afr Med J 2004;94(9):741.

Anonymous. Guidelines address management of lipid disorders associated with antiretroviral therapy. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57(14):1309–1310.

Anonymous. Zocor tabs—MSD. Pharmindex 1992;34(4):5–7.

Antihypercholesterolaemic aminophosphate derivatives. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 1994;(4):453–454.

Athyros V, Papageorgiou A, Athyrou V, et al. Long term safety and efficacy of atorvastatin versus four statin-fibrate combinations on lipid profile and plasma fibrinogen in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Atheroscler Suppl 1999;144(1):28.

Bagley JL. Drugs that touch the heart. American Druggist 1988;198(1):48–50.

Barber PG. Cholesterol solutions. American Druggist 1989;82(3):45–50.

Bays HE, Dujovne CA. Drug therapy for hyperlipidemia: When reducing cardiovascular risk is a priority. Postgrad Med 1992;91(5):162–193.

Berg K. Lp(a) lipoprotein and atherosclerosis. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1995;(4):245–251.

Bohannon NJV. Lipid metabolism in type II diabetes. Postgrad Med 1992;92(2):105–113.

Capella D, Bosch. Statins: Benefit or risk? Med Clin (Barc) 2002;(9):335–336.

Dedhia V, Munsi SC. Myopathy caused by a combination rosuvastatin and fenofibrate. J Assoc Physicians India 2007;55152–153.

First reports of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in recent weeks. Drugs and Therapy Perspectives 2001;(13):15.

Glueck CJO. Using two-drug therapy safely for refractory mixed hyperlipidemia. Cardiology Board Review 1993;(6):56–59.

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 1996;(1):77–78.

Hsia J. Bile acid sequestrants play important role in cholesterol reduction. Cardiology Review 2002;(11 Suppl):2–3.

Issac TT, Dokainish H, Lakkis NM. Role of inflammation in initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review of the published data [review] [65 refs]. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;50(21):2021–2028.

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Krahn M. Prevastatin versus gemfibrozil for primary hypercholesterolemia. Ann Intern Med 1991;114(Suppl 3):77.

Laker MF, Neely RDG. The investigation and management of dyslipidaemia: An update. Cpd Bulletin Clinical Biochemistry 2003;5(3):75–79.

Lin T-H, Voon W-C, Yen H-W, et al. Randomized comparative study of the effects of treatment with once-daily, niacin extended-release/lovastatin and with simvastatin on lipid profile and fibrinolytic parameters in Taiwan. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2006;22(6):257–265.

Mancini GBJ. Clinical evidence for atherosclerotic lesion regression. J Drug Dev 1992;4(4):21–27.

Mann RD. Executive summary gemfibrozil. J Drug Eval: Cardiovasc Med 2002;1(1):9.

Manson JE. Treating women to new lipid goals. Cardiology Review 2002;(11 Suppl):1+4.

Mason JC. The role of statins in vascular protection. Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology 2007;5(5):352–354.

Merchante Alfaro AA. Novelties in the treatment of dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients. Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders in HIV Infection 2007;6(4):1181–1187.

Mrazik TJ. Dietary and drug treatment of high blood cholesterol. American Druggist 1989;200(5):43–52.

Narain VS, Puri A, Ahuja A. 10 Years of clinical trials in diabetic patient with coronary artery disease. Journal of Internal Medicine of India 2006;9(1):20–26.

Nichols AW. Probiotics and athletic performance: A systematic review. Current Sports Medicine Reports 2007;6(4):269–273.

Oliver MA. Medical management of diabetic vascular disease. J Vasc Ultrasound 2006;30(4):199–201.

Pardo J, Romero R, Torres M, et al. Necrotizing myopathy associated with atorvastatin therapy. Acta Myol 1999;(3):74.

Pierce LR, Wysowski DK, Gross TP. Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with lovastatin taken with gemfibrozil (Reply). JAMA 1990;264(23):2992.

Poli D, Pecci A, Noris P, et al. Peripheral arteriopathy of the lower limbs in a patient with severe congenital thrombocytopenia. Intern Emerg Med 2006;1(1):83–85.

Ross A. Questions over cholesterol’s causative role in coronary artery disease. British Journal of Cardiology 2005;12(5):338.

Rychlik R, Nelles S. Statins - A differentiated view. A systematic literature comparison of atorvastatin with fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin. Perfusion 2004;17(9):306–315.

Shi XZ, Ye ZR. Journal of Qiqihar Medical College with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Journal of Qiqihar Medical College 2002;23(6):604–605.

Shviro I, Leitersdorf E. The patient at risk: who should we be treating? [review] [25 refs]. Br J Clin Pract 1996;(Suppl 77A):24–27.

Singh S, Bahl VK. Plaque passivation: role of statins in acute coronary syndromes. Indian Heart J 2003;55(6):605–610.

Stoy DB. Diet and drug therapy for hypercholesterolemia. AAOHN J 1990;38(5):222–229.

Tsalamandris C, Panagiotopoulos S, Sinha A, et al. Complementary effects of pravastatin and nicotinic acid in the treatment of combined hyperlipidaemia in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. J Cardiovasc Risk 1994;1(3):231–239.

Van Lente F, Cornell W. Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with lovastatin taken with gemfibrozil (II). JAMA 1990;264(23):2991–2992.

Watts GF, Burnett JR. An ABC of HDL: A paradigm shift in managing lipid disorders. Med Today 2003;4(10):44–53.

Zhou B, Teramukai S, Fukushima M. Prevention and treatment of dementia or Alzheimer’s disease by statins: a meta-analysis. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2007;23(3):194–201.

Investigational Fibrate

Goldberg A, Bays H, Ballantyne C, et al. Efficacy and Safety of a Novel fibrate, ABT-335, in Combination with Atorvastatin in Patients with Mixed Dyslipidemia; a 12-week Phase 3 Study. JACC 2008;51(Suppl 1):A327.

Jones P, Buttler S, Davidson M, et al. Efficacy and Safety of ABT-335 (Fenofibric Acid) in Combination with Rosuvastatin in Patients with Mixed Dyslipidemia: a Phase 3 Study [NLA Abstract 214]. J Clin Lipidol 2008;2(3):218.

Excluded Studies - Evidence Synthesis

Non-Randomized Studies

Cziraky MJ, Willey VJ, McKenney JM, et al. Statin safety: an assessment using an administrative claims database. Am J Cardiol 2006;97(8A):61C–68C.

Da Col PG, Cattin L, Valenti M, et al. Efficacy of simvastatin plus cholestyramine in the two-year treatment of heterozygous hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1990;48(5):798–808.

Graham DJ, Staffa JA, Shatin D, et al. Incidence of hospitalized rhabdomyolysis in patients treated with lipid-lowering drugs. JAMA 2004;292(21):2585–2590.

Jacotot B, Banga JD, Waite R, et al. Long-term efficacy with fluvastatin as monotherapy and combined with cholestyramine (a 156-week multicenter study). French-Dutch Fluvastatin Study Group. Am J Cardiol 1995;76(2):41A–46A.

LaFleur J, Thompson CJ, Joish VN, et al. Adherence and persistence with single-dosage form extended-release niacin/lovastatin compared with statins alone or in combination with extended-release niacin. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40(7–8):1274–1279.

McClure DL, Valuck RJ, Glanz M, et al. Statin and statin-fibrate use was significantly associated with increased myositis risk in a managed care population. J Clin Epidemiol 2007;60(8):812–818.

McIvor ME, Witt JR, King HM, et al. Lipid lowering therapy is safe in the elderly: The LifeHelp 80–80 analysis. Am J Geriatr Cardiol 2000;9(5):281–285.

Molgaard J, Lundh BL, von Schenck H, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of simvastatin alone and in combination therapy in treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis 1991;91(Suppl):S21–S28.

Schech S, Graham D, Staffa J, et al. Risk factors for statin-associated rhabdomyolysis. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2007;16(3):352–358.

Tirkkonen T, Ryynanen A, Vahlberg T, et al. Frequency and clinical relevance of drug interactions with lovastatin and simvastatin: an observational database study. Drug Saf 2008;31(3):231–240.

Drug(s) Not Marketed in the United States

Avisar I, Brook JG, Wolfovitz E. Atorvastatin monotherapy vs. combination therapy in the management of patients with combined hyperlipidemia. EUR 2008;19(3):203–208.

Cortellaro M, Cofrancesco E, Boschetti C, et al. Effects of fluvastatin and bezafibrate combination on plasma fibrinogen, t-plasminogen activator inhibitor and C reactive protein levels in coronary artery disease patients with mixed hyperlipidaemia (FACT study). Fluvastatin Alone and in Combination Treatment. Thromb Haemost 2000;83(4):549–53.

Kontopoulos AG, Athyros VG, Papageorgiou AA, et al. Effects of simvastatin and ciprofibrate alone and in combination on lipid profile, plasma fibrinogen and low density lipoprotein particle structure and distribution in patients with familial combined hyperlipidaemia and coronary artery disease. Coron Artery Dis 1996;7(11):843–850.

Pauciullo P, Borgnino C, Paoletti R, et al. Efficacy and safety of a combination of fluvastatin and bezafibrate in patients with mixed hyperlipidaemia (FACT study) [see comment]. Atherosclerosis 2000;150(2):429–436.

Tasaki H, Miyamoto M, Kubara T, et al. Cross-over trial of intensive monotherapy with atorvastatin and combined therapy with atorvastatin and colestimide for Japanese familial hypercholesterolemia. Circ J 2006;70(1):14–20.

Randomized Crossover Designs - Appropriate Data Not Reported

Balestrieri GP, Maffi V, Sleiman I, et al. Fish oil supplementation in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Recenti Prog Med 1996;87(3):102–105.

Hansen JB, Lyngmo V, Svensson B, et al. Inhibition of exercise-induced shortening of bleeding time by fish oil in familial hypercholesterolemia (type IIa). Arterioscler Thromb 1993;13(1):98–104.

Koh KK, Quon MJ, Han SH, et al. Additive beneficial effects of fenofibrate combined with atorvastatin in the treatment of combined hyperlipidemia. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2005;45(10):1649–1653.

McKenney JM, Swearingen D, Di Spirito M, et al. Study of the pharmacokinetic interaction between simvastatin and prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2006;46(7):785–791.

Morgan TO, Anderson A, Morgan O, et al. Effect of pravastatin, cholestyramine or their combination in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia in elderly hypertensive patients. Clin Drug Investig 1995;9(6):314–323.

Smit JW, Van Erpecum KJ, Portincasa P, et al. Effects of simvastatin and cholestyramine on bile lipid composition and gall bladder motility in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Gut 1995;37(5):654–659.

Tasaki H, Miyamoto M, Kubara T, et al. Cross-over trial of intensive monotherapy with atorvastatin and combined therapy with atorvastatin and colestimide for Japanese familial hypercholesterolemia. Circ J 2006;70(1):14–20.

Vega GL, Ma PT, Cater NB, et al. Effects of adding fenofibrate (200 mg/day) to simvastatin (10 mg/day) in patients with combined hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome. American Journal of Cardiology 2003;91(8):956–986.

Randomized Parallel, Non-Crossover Design - Analyzable Data Not Reported

Assmann G, Kannenberg F, Ramey DR, et al. Effects of ezetimibe, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and ezetimibe-statin therapies on non-cholesterol sterols in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Curr Med Res Opin 2008;24(1):249–259.

May HT, Anderson JL, Pearson RR, et al. Comparison of effects of simvastatin alone versus fenofibrate alone versus simvastatin plus fenofibrate on lipoprotein subparticle profiles in diabetic patients with mixed dyslipidemia (from the Diabetes and Combined Lipid Therapy Regimen study). Am J Cardiol 2008;101(4):486–489.

Reyderman, L, Kosoglou T, Cutler DL, et al. The effect of fluvastatin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ezetimibe. Curr Med Res Opin 2005;21(8):1171–1179.

Weinstock RS, Goldberg RB, Guyton JR, et al. Effect of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin versus Atorvastatin on Lowering Levels of LDL-C and Non- HDL-C, Apo B and hsCRP in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Clinical Lipidology 2008;2(1):25–35.

Cover of Comparative Effectiveness of Lipid-Modifying Agents
Comparative Effectiveness of Lipid-Modifying Agents [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 16.
Sharma M, Ansari MT, Soares-Weiser K, et al.

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