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Wilt TJ, Carlson KF, Goldish GD, et al. Carbohydrate and Lipid Disorders and Relevant Considerations in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2008 Jan. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 163.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Appendix D: List of Excluded Studies


Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 23-1998. Tachypnea, changed mental status, and pancytopenia in an elderly man with treated lymphoma. N Engl J Med 1998;339(4):254–61. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9687245]
Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 8-2001. A 61-year-old man with transient quadriplegia and apnea. N Engl J Med 2001;344(11):832–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11248161]
Prevention of venous thromboembolism in the acute treatment phase after spinal cord injury: a randomized, multicenter trial comparing low-dose heparin plus intermittent pneumatic compression with enoxaparin. J Trauma 2003 Jun;54(6):1116–24; discussion 25–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 12813332]
Prevention of venous thromboembolism in the rehabilitation phase after spinal cord injury: prophylaxis with low-dose heparin or enoxaparin. J Trauma 2003 Jun;54(6):1111–5. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 12813331]
Abel R, Schablowski M, Rupp R, Gerner HJ. Gait analysis on the treadmill - monitoring exercise in the treatment of paraplegia. Spinal Cord. 2002;40(1):17–22. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11821965]
Abel T, Schneider S, Platen P, Struder HK. Performance diagnostics in handbiking during competition. Spinal Cord. 2006;44(4):211–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16172621]
Adams MM, Ditor DS, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM, McCartney N, Hicks AL. The effect of body weight-supported treadmill training on muscle morphology in an individual with chronic, motor-complete spinal cord injury: A case study. J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(2):167–71. No relevant outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC1864805] [PubMed: 16739562]
Adkins VK, Mathewson C, Ayllon T, Jones ML. The ethics of using contingency management to reduce pressure ulcers: data from an exploratory study. Ostomy Wound Management. 1999;45(3):56–8. No relevant data. [PubMed: 10347520]
Agarwal S, Kobetic R, Nandurkar S, Marsolais EB. Functional electrical stimulation for walking in paraplegia: 17-year follow-up of 2 cases. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003;26(1):86–91. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12830975]
Agarwal S, Triolo RJ, Kobetic R, Miller M, Bieri C, Kukke S. et al. Long-term user perceptions of an implanted neuroprosthesis for exercise, standing, and transfers after spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2003;40(3):241–52. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14582528]
Alaedeen DI, Jasper J. Gastric bypass surgery in a paraplegic morbidly obese patient. Obesity Surgery. 2006;16(8):1107–8. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 16901370]
Algood SD, Cooper RA, Fitzgerald SG, Cooper R, Boninger ML. Impact of a pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchair on the metabolic demands, stroke frequency, and range of motion among subjects with tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(11):1865–71. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15520983]
al-Mahroos S, Malik AK, Sangam K, Burashid K. Progressive neurological symptoms in a diabetic patient. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1998;74(877):699–700. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PMC free article: PMC2431616] [PubMed: 10197205]
Ampil FL, Chin HW. Radiotherapy alone for extradural compression by spinal myeloma. Radiat Med. 1995 May–Jun;13(3):129–31. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 7569004]
Andersen JL, Mohr T, Biering-Sorensen F, Galbo H, Kjaer M. Myosin heavy chain isoform transformation in single fibres from m. vastus lateralis in spinal cord injured individuals: effects of long-term functional electrical stimulation (FES) Pflugers Arch. 1996;431(4):513–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8596693]
Andersen JT, Bradley WE. Neuro-urological investigation in urinary bladder dysfunction. International Urology & Nephrology. 1977;9(2):133–43. No relevant data. [PubMed: 591241]
Anonymous. Spinal cord injury and obesity. Nephrology News & Issues 2005;19(3):23. No relevant data. [PubMed: 15882040]
Apstein MD, George BC. Serum lipids during the first year following acute spinal cord injury. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 1998;47(4):367–70. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9550531]
Attal N, Gaude V, Brasseur L, Dupuy M, Guirimand F, Parker F. et al. Intravenous lidocaine in central pain: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, psychophysical study. Neurology. 2000 Feb 8;54(3):564–74. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10680784]
Averill A, Cotter AC, Nayak S, Matheis RJ, Shiflett SC. Blood pressure response to acupuncture in a population at risk for autonomic dysreflexia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Nov;81(11):1494–7. Not eligible exposure. [PubMed: 11083354]
Ayas NT, Epstein LJ, Lieberman SL, Tun CG, Larkin EK, Brown R. et al. Predictors of loud snoring in persons with spinal cord injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2001;24(1):30–4. No relevant data. [PubMed: 11587432]
Ayas NT, Garshick E, Lieberman SL, Wien MF, Tun C, Brown R. Breathlessness in spinal cord injury depends on injury level. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 1999;22(2):97–101. No relevant data. [PubMed: 10826265]
Badami JP, Hinck VC. Symptomatic deposition of epidural fat in a morbidly obese woman. Ajnr: American Journal of Neuroradiology. 1982;3(6):664–5. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 6816044]
Bailes JE, Miele VJ. The science of sports medicine. Clinical Neurosurgery. 2004;51:91–101. No relevant data. [PubMed: 15571132]
Baker HW. Reproductive effects of nontesticular illness. Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America. 1998;27(4):831–50. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 9922910]
Baliga RR, Catz AB, Watson LD, Short DJ, Frankel HL, Mathias CJ. Cardiovascular and hormonal responses to food ingestion in humans with spinal cord transection. Clin Auton Res. 1997 Jun;7(3):137–41. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 9232358]
Ball R. Effect of severity, time to recompression with oxygen, and re-treatment on outcome in forty-nine cases of spinal cord decompression sickness. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1993 Jun;20(2):133–45. Case-series. [PubMed: 8329940]
Barlascini CO, Schmitt JK, Adler RA. Insulin pump treatment of type I diabetes mellitus in a patient with C6 quadriplegia. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1989;70(1):58–60. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 2916920]
Barstow TJ, Scremin AM, Mutton DL, Kunkel CF, Cagle TG, Whipp BJ. Changes in gas exchange kinetics with training in patients with spinal cord injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28(10):1221–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8897377]
Barstow TJ, Scremin AM, Mutton DL, Kunkel CF, Cagle TG, Whipp BJ. Peak and kinetic cardiorespiratory responses during arm and leg exercise in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2000;38(6):340–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10889562]
Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Waters RL, Kemp B, Herbert V. Levels of plasma homocysteine in persons with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2001 Summer;24(2):81–6. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 11587423]
Bauman WA, Raza M, Chayes Z, Machac J. Tomographic thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging after intravenous dipyridamole in asymptomatic subjects with quadriplegia. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 1993;74(7):740–4. Case-series. [PubMed: 8328897]
Bauman WA, Raza M, Spungen AM, Machac J. Cardiac stress testing with thallium-201 imaging reveals silent ischemia in individuals with paraplegia. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1994;75(9):946–50. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 8085927]
Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Metabolic changes in persons after spinal cord injury. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 2000;11(1):109–40. Review. [PubMed: 10680161]
Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Adkins RH, Kemp BJ. Metabolic and endocrine changes in persons aging with spinal cord injury. Assistive Technology. 1999;11(2):88–96. Review. [PubMed: 11010069]
Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Raza M, Rothstein J, Zhang RL, Zhong YG. et al. Coronary artery disease: metabolic risk factors and latent disease in individuals with paraplegia. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine. 1992;59(2):163–8. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 1574072]
Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Zhong YG, Mobbs CV. Plasma leptin is directly related to body adiposity in subjects with spinal cord injury. Hormone & Metabolic Research. 1996;28(12):732–6. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 9013753]
Beaujeux R, Dietemann JL, Allal R, Wolfram-Gabel R. Posterior epidural adipose tissue and the narrow lumbar canal: replacement tissue or cause of impingement? Journal of Neuroradiology. 1995;22(2):63–70. Not english language. [PubMed: 7629571]
Beck LA. Morbid obesity and spinal cord injury: a case study. Sci Nursing. 1998;15(1):3–5. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 9883184]
Beck LA, Lovlien CA, Twedell DM. Care of morbidly obese people with spinal cord injury. [Review] [24 refs] Journal of Trauma Nursing. 1996;3(4):98–107. quiz 8–9. No relevant data. [PubMed: 9214978]
Bednar MM, Gross CE, Howard DB, Lynn M. Neutrophil activation in acute human central nervous system injury. Neurol Res. 1997 Dec;19(6):588–92. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 9427957]
Beekman CE, Miller-Porter L, Schoneberger M. Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries. Phys Ther. 1999;79(2):146–58. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10029055]
Begley S. IV. Genes, cells, drugs. Cures for the future. Fountains of youth. Newsweek. 2001;138(11A):84–6. No relevant data. [PubMed: 11586859]
Begley S, Glick D. Eying the fetal future. In the shadows, a controversial search for cures. Newsweek. 1998;132(24):54–5. No relevant data. [PubMed: 10338865]
Berenson JR, Lichtenstein A, Porter L, Dimopoulos MA, Bordoni R, George S. et al. Efficacy of pamidronate in reducing skeletal events in patients with advanced multiple myeloma. Myeloma Aredia Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996 Feb 22;334(8):488–93. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8559201]
Beres-Jones JA, Harkema SJ. The human spinal cord interprets velocity-dependent afferent input during stepping. Brain. 2004;127:2232–46. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15289272]
Bernard PL, Mercier J, Varray A, Prefaut C. Influence of lesion level on the cardioventilatory adaptations in paraplegic wheelchair athletes during muscular exercise. Spinal Cord. 2000;38(1):16–25. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10762193]
Betz R, Boden B, Triolo R, Mesgarzadeh M, Gardner E, Fife R. Effects of functional electrical stimulation on the joints of adolescents with spinal cord injury. Paraplegia. 1996;34(3):127–36. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8668353]
Bhambhani Y, Tuchak C, Burnham R, Jeon J, Maikala R. Quadriceps muscle deoxygenation during functional electrical stimulation in adults with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2000;38(10):630–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11093325]
Bhardwaj A, Long DM, Ducker TB, Toung TJ. Neurologic deficits after cervical laminectomy in the prone position. Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology. 2001;13(4):314–9. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 11733663]
Biering-Sorensen F, Schroder AK, Wilhelmsen M, Lomberg B, Nielsen H, Hoiby N. Bacterial contamination of bath-water from spinal cord lesioned patients with pressure ulcers exercising in the water. Spinal Cord. 2000;38(2):100–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10762183]
Biering-Sorensen M, Norup PW, Jacobsen E, Biering-Sorensen F. Treatment of sleep apnoea in spinal cord injured patients. Paraplegia. 1995;33(5):271–3. No relevant data. [PubMed: 7630653]
Biesek D, Ksiazkiewicz B, Wanat-Slupska E. Conus medullaris and cauda equina infarct in the course of thrombosis of deep veins of lower extremities. Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski. 2004;17(99):273–4. Not english language. [PubMed: 15628057]
Bizzarini E, Saccavini M, Lipanje F, Magrin P, Malisan C, Zampa A. Exercise prescription in subjects with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86(6):1170–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15954056]
Bjerkefors A, Jansson A, Thorstensson A. Shoulder muscle strength in paraplegics before and after kayak ergometer training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;97(5):613–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16767434]
Bjerkefors A, Thorstensson A. Effects of kayak ergometer training on motor performance in paraplegics. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27(10):824–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16586329]
Blackmer J, Marshall S. Obesity and spinal cord injury: an observational study. Spinal Cord. 1997;35(4):245–7. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 9143088]
Blankenship LD, Strommen JA. 27-year-old man with a swollen leg. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75(9):977–80. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10994835]
Bloomfield SA, Mysiw WJ, Jackson RD. Bone mass and endocrine adaptations to training in spinal cord injured individuals. Bone. 1996;19(1):61–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8830990]
Bode RK, Heinemann AW. Course of functional improvement after stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Jan;83(1):100–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11782839]
Bodley R, Jamous A, Short D. Ultrasound in the early diagnosis of heterotopic ossification in patients with spinal injuries. Paraplegia. 1993 Aug;31(8):500–6. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8414633]
Boot CR, Binkhorst RA, Hopman MT. Body temperature responses in spinal cord injured individuals during exercise in the cold and heat. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27(8):599–604. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16874585]
Bostom AG, Toner MM, McArdle WD, Montelione T, Brown CD, Stein RA. Lipid and lipoprotein profiles relate to peak aerobic power in spinal cord injured men. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1991;23(4):409–14. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 2056897]
Boudaoud L, Roussi J, Lortat-Jacob S, Bussel B, Dizien O, Drouet L. Endothelial fibrinolytic reactivity and the risk of deep venous thrombosis after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1997 Mar;35(3):151–7. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 9076865]
Bougenot MP, Tordi N, Betik AC, Martin X, Le Foll D, Parratte B. et al. Effects of a wheelchair ergometer training programme on spinal cord-injured persons. Spinal Cord. 2003;41(8):451–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12883543]
Bowsher D. Central pain: clinical and physiological characteristics. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1996 Jul;61(1):62–9. Not eligible target population. [PMC free article: PMC486461] [PubMed: 8676164]
Brandt RA. Chronic spinal subdural haematoma. Surgical Neurology. 1980;13(2):121–3. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 7355373]
Brenes G, Dearwater S, Shapera R, LaPorte RE, Collins E. High density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in physically active and sedentary spinal cord injured patients. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1986;67(7):445–50. No relevant data. [PubMed: 3729689]
Britt LD, Zolfaghari D, Kennedy E, Pagel KJ, Minghini A. Incidence and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis in a high risk trauma population. Am J Surg. 1996 Jul;172(1):13–4. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8686794]
Brock MV, Redmond JM, Ishiwa S, Johnston MV, Baumgartner WA, Laschinger JC. et al. Clinical markers in CSF for determining neurologic deficits after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repairs. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997 Oct;64(4):999–1003. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 9354517]
Bronner G. Female sexual function and chronic disease. Harefuah. 2006;145(2):114–6. Not english language. [PubMed: 16509415]
Buchholz AC, Bugaresti JM. A review of body mass index and waist circumference as markers of obesity and coronary heart disease risk in persons with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2005;43(9):513–8. Review. [PubMed: 15824757]
Buchholz AC, McGillivray CF, Pencharz PB. Physical activity levels are low in free-living adults with chronic paraplegia. Obes Res. 2003;11(4):563–70. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12690086]
Buchholz AC, Pencharz PB. Energy expenditure in chronic spinal cord injury. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. 2004;7(6):635–9. Review. [PubMed: 15534431]
Burns SP, Kapur V, Yin KS, Buhrer R. Factors associated with sleep apnea in men with spinal cord injury: a population-based case-control study. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(1):15–22. No relevant data. [PubMed: 11224009]
Burns SP, Nelson AL, Bosshart HT, Goetz LL, Harrow JJ, Gerhart KD. et al. Implementation of clinical practice guidelines for prevention of thromboembolism in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28(1):33–42. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 15832902]
Burstein R, Zeilig G, Royburt M, Epstein Y, Ohry A. Insulin resistance in paraplegics—effect of one bout of acute exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1996;17(4):272–6. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 8814509]
Buss A, Brook GA, Kakulas B, Martin D, Franzen R, Schoenen J. et al. Gradual loss of myelin and formation of an astrocytic scar during Wallerian degeneration in the human spinal cord. Brain. 2004 Jan;127(Pt 1):34–44. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 14534158]
Buss A, Pech K, Merkler D, Kakulas BA, Martin D, Schoenen J. et al. Sequential loss of myelin proteins during Wallerian degeneration in the human spinal cord. Brain. 2005 Feb;128(Pt 2):356–64. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 15634734]
Butler JE, Ribot-Ciscar E, Zijdewind I, Thomas CK. Increased blood pressure can reduce fatigue of thenar muscles paralyzed after spinal cord injury. Muscle Nerve. 2004;29(4):575–84. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15052623]
Cambria RP, Davison JK, Zannetti S, L'Italien G, Atamian S. Thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair: perspectives over a decade with the clamp-and-sew technique. Ann Surg. 1997 Sep;226(3):294–303. discussion -5. Not eligible target population. [PMC free article: PMC1191027] [PubMed: 9339936]
Cameron T, Broton JG, Needham-Shropshire B, Klose KJ. An upper body exercise system incorporating resistive exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMS) J Spinal Cord Med. 1998;21(1):1–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9541880]
Canto M, Casas A, Sanchez MJ, Lorenzo A, Bataller L. Thoracic epidurals in heart valve surgery: neurologic risk evaluation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2002 Dec;16(6):723–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 12486653]
Capodaglio P, Bazzini G. Predicting endurance limits in arm cranking exercise with a subjectively based method. Ergonomics. 1996;39(7):924–32. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8690009]
Cardol M, de Jong BA, van den Bos GA, Beelem A, de Groot IJ, de Haan RJ. Beyond disability: perceived participation in people with a chronic disabling condition. Clin Rehabil. 2002 Feb;16(1):27–35. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 11841066]
Carhart MR, He J, Herman R, D'Luzansky S, Willis WT. Epidural spinal-cord stimulation facilitates recovery of functional walking following incomplete spinal-cord injury. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2004;12(1):32–42. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15068185]
Cariga P, Ahmed S, Mathias CJ, Gardner BP. The prevalence and association of neck (coat-hanger) pain and orthostatic (postural) hypotension in human spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2002;40(2):77–82. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11926419]
Carlson AP, Yonas HM, Turner PT. Disorders of tumoral calcification of the spine: illustrative case study and review of the literature. Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques. 2007;20(1):97–103. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 17285062]
Carvalho DC, de Cassia Zanchetta M, Sereni JM, Cliquet A. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses of tetraplegic subjects during treadmill walking using neuromuscular electrical stimulation and partial body weight support. Spinal Cord. 2005;43(7):400–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15753963]
Carver RT, Boysel LC, Marciniak CM, Nussbaum SB. Myotonic dystrophy presenting as new-onset hand weakness and recurrent pneumonia in a patient with paraplegia: a case report. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2004;85(11):1896–8. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 15520988]
Catz A, Thaleisnik M, Fishel B, Ronen J, Spasser R, Fredman B. et al. Survival following spinal cord injury in Israel. Spinal Cord. 2002 Nov;40(11):595–8. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 12411967]
Chalmers D, Morrison L. Epidemiology of non-submersion injuries in aquatic sporting and recreational activities. [Review] [114 refs] Sports Medicine. 2003;33(10):745–70. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 12895131]
Chao CY, Cheing GL. The effects of lower-extremity functional electric stimulation on the orthostatic responses of people with tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Jul;86(7):1427–33. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 16003676]
Chen CJ, Fang W, Chen CM, Wan YL. Spontaneous spinal epidural haematomas with repeated remission and relapse. Neuroradiology. 1997 Oct;39(10):737–40. Case report. [PubMed: 9351113]
Chen CJ, Hsu WC. Imaging findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. J Formos Med Assoc. 1997 Apr;96(4):283–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 9136517]
Chen JT, Chen CC, Kao KP, Wu ZA, Liao KK. Conditioning effect on the long latency potentials in the lower limb to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Acta Neurol Scand. 1998 Dec;98(6):412–21. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 9875620]
Chen SC, Lai CH, Chan WP, Huang MH, Tsai HW, Chen JJ. Increases in bone mineral density after functional electrical stimulation cycling exercises in spinal cord injured patients. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27(22):1337–41. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16321917]
Chen Y, Devivo MJ, Jackson AB. Pressure ulcer prevalence in people with spinal cord injury: age-period-duration effects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Jun;86(6):1208–13. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 15954061]
Chen Y, Henson S, Jackson AB, Richards JS. Obesity intervention in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44(2):82–91. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 16103891]
Chilibeck PD, Jeon J, Weiss C, Bell G, Burnham R. Histochemical changes in muscle of individuals with spinal cord injury following functional electrical stimulated exercise training. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(4):264–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10338346]
Chiou-Tan FY, Garza H, Chan KT, Parsons KC, Donovan WH, Robertson CS. et al. Comparison of dalteparin and enoxaparin for deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in patients with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Sep;82(9):678–85. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 12960909]
Chistyakov AV, Soustiel JF, Hafner H, Kaplan B, Feinsod M. The value of motor and somatosensory evoked potentials in evaluation of cervical myelopathy in the presence of peripheral neuropathy. Spine. 2004;29(12):E239–47. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 15187647]
Chuang TY, Robinson LR, Nelson MR, Moss F, Chiou-Tan FY. Effect of isometric contraction on threshold somatosensory evoked potentials. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;78(1):2–6. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9923421]
Cikajlo I, Matjacic Z, Bajd T. Development of a gait re-education system in incomplete spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Med. 2003;35(5):213–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14582552]
Claydon VE, Elliott SL, Sheel AW, Krassioukov A. Cardiovascular responses to vibrostimulation for sperm retrieval in men with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(3):207–16. Case-series. [PMC free article: PMC1864810] [PubMed: 16859224]
Claydon VE, Hol AT, Eng JJ, Krassioukov AV. Cardiovascular responses and postexercise hypotension after arm cycling exercise in subjects with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87(8):1106–14. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16876557]
Claydon VE, Krassioukov AV. Orthostatic hypotension and autonomic pathways after spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2006 Dec;23(12):1713–25. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 17184183]
Clinchot DM, Colachis SC 3rd. An unusual cause of traumatic spinal cord injury: case report. Spinal Cord. 1997;35(3):181–2. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9076871]
Cohen AT. Venous thromboembolic disease management of the nonsurgical moderate- and high-risk patient. Seminars in Hematology. 2000;37(3 Suppl 5):19–22. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 11055892]
Colachis SC 3rd, Clinchot DM. The association between deep venous thrombosis and heterotopic ossification in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury. Paraplegia. 1993 Aug;31(8):507–12. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8414634]
Colgan R, Nicolle LE, McGlone A, Hooton TM. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults. American Family Physician. 2006;74(6):985–90. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 17002033]
Collins HL, Rodenbaugh DW, DiCarlo SE. Spinal cord injury alters cardiac electrophysiology and increases the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. Progress in Brain Research. 2006;152:275–88. No relevant data. [PubMed: 16198707]
Conrad MF, Crawford RS, Davison JK, Cambria RP. Thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair: a 20-year perspective. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007 Feb;83(2):S856–61. discussion S90–2. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 17257941]
Cooper RA, Baldini FD, Boninger ML, Cooper R. Physiological responses to two wheelchair-racing exercise protocols. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2001;15(3):191–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11944740]
Corfman TA, Cooper RA, Boninger ML, Koontz AM, Fitzgerald SG. Range of motion and stroke frequency differences between manual wheelchair propulsion and pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchair propulsion. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003;26(2):135–40. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12828290]
Cosman BC, Eastman DA, Perkash I, Stone JM. Hemorrhoidal bleeding in chronic spinal cord injury: results of multiple banding. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1994;9(4):174–6. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 7876717]
Cosman BC, Vu TT. Lidocaine anal block limits autonomic dysreflexia during anorectal procedures in spinal cord injury: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005 Aug;48(8):1556–61. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 15991060]
Courtois F, Geoffrion R, Landry E, Belanger M. H-reflex and physiologic measures of ejaculation in men with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Jun;85(6):910–8. Case-series. [PubMed: 15179644]
Croxford JL. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease. [Review] [219 refs] CNS Drugs. 2003;17(3):179–202. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 12617697]
Cruse JM, Lewis RE Jr, Bishop GR, Kliesch WF, Gaitan E, Britt R. Decreased immune reactivity and neuroendocrine alterations related to chronic stress in spinal cord injury and stroke patients. Pathobiology. 1993;61(34):183–92. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8216840]
Curtis KA, McClanahan S, Hall KM, Dillon D, Brown KF. Health, vocational, and functional status in spinal cord injured athletes and nonathletes. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1986;67(12):862–5. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 3800613]
Curtis KA, Tyner TM, Zachary L, Lentell G, Brink D, Didyk T. et al. Effect of a standard exercise protocol on shoulder pain in long-term wheelchair users. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(6):421–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10432262]
Dallmeijer AJ, Hopman MT, van As HH, van der Woude LH. Physical capacity and physical strain in persons with tetraplegia; the role of sport activity. Spinal Cord. 1996;34(12):729–35. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8961431]
Dallmeijer AJ, van der Woude LH, Hollander AP, van As HH. Physical performance during rehabilitation in persons with spinal cord injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(9):1330–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10487376]
Dallmeijer AJ, van der Woude LH, Hollander PA, Angenot EL. Physical performance in persons with spinal cord injuries after discharge from rehabilitation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(8):1111–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10449012]
Dallmeijer AJ, Zentgraaff ID, Zijp NI, van der Woude LH. Submaximal physical strain and peak performance in handcycling versus handrim wheelchair propulsion. Spinal Cord. 2004;42(2):91–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14765141]
Daniel WW, Coogler CE. Statistical applications in physical medicine. part II. American Journal of Physical Medicine. 1975;54(1):25–47. No relevant data. [PubMed: 1089361]
Davis R, Patrick J, Barriskill A. Development of functional electrical stimulators utilizing cochlear implant technology. Med Eng Phys. 2001;23(1):61–8. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 11344009]
Davoodi R, Andrews BJ, Wheeler GD, Lederer R. Development of an indoor rowing machine with manual FES controller for total body exercise in paraplegia. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2002;10(3):197–203. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12503785]
de Carvalho DC, Cliquet A Jr. Energy expenditure during rest and treadmill gait training in quadriplegic subjects. Spinal Cord. 2005;43(11):658–63. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15968300]
de Groot PC, Poelkens F, Kooijman M, Hopman MT. Preserved flow-mediated dilation in the inactive legs of spinal cord-injured individuals. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004 Jul;287(1):H374–80. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 14988075]
de Groot S, Dallmeijer AJ, Kilkens OJ, van Asbeck FW, Nene AV, Angenot EL. et al. Course of gross mechanical efficiency in handrim wheelchair propulsion during rehabilitation of people with spinal cord injury: a prospective cohort study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86(7):1452–60. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16003680]
De Mello MT, Esteves AM, Tufik S. Comparison between dopaminergic agents and physical exercise as treatment for periodic limb movements in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2004;42(4):218–21. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15060518]
de Mello MT, Lauro FA, Silva AC, Tufik S. Incidence of periodic leg movements and of the restless legs syndrome during sleep following acute physical activity in spinal cord injury subjects. Spinal Cord. 1996;34(5):294–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8963978]
De Mello MT, Silva AC, Esteves AM, Tufik S. Reduction of periodic leg movement in individuals with paraplegia following aerobic physical exercise. Spinal Cord. 2002;40(12):646–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12483498]
de Seze J, Delalande S, Fauchais AL, Hachulla E, Stojkovic T, Ferriby D. et al. Myelopathies secondary to Sjogren's syndrome: treatment with monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide associated with corticosteroids. J Rheumatol. 2006;33(4):709–11. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 16583474]
Dela F, Stallknecht B, Biering-Sorensen F. An intact central nervous system is not necessary for insulin-mediated increases in leg blood flow in humans. Pflugers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology. 2000;441(23):241–50. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 11211109]
Demirel S, Demirel G, Tukek T, Erk O, Yilmaz H. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients with spinal cord injury in Turkey. Spinal Cord. 2001 Mar;39(3):134–8. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 11326322]
DeVivo MJ, Rutt RD, Black KJ, Go BK, Stover SL. Trends in spinal cord injury demographics and treatment outcomes between 1973 and 1986. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992 May;73(5):424–30. Nto eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 1580768]
DeVivo MJ, Shewchuk RM, Stover SL, Black KJ, Go BK. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between age and current health status for persons with spinal cord injuries. Paraplegia. 1992 Dec;30(12):820–7. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 1287535]
DeVivo MJ, Stover SL, Black KJ. Prognostic factors for 12-year survival after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992 Feb;73(2):156–62. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 1543411]
Diego MA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Hart S, Brucker B, Field T. et al. Spinal cord patients benefit from massage therapy. Int J Neurosci. 2002;112(2):133–42. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12325402]
Dietz V, Colombo G, Muller R. Single joint perturbation during gait: neuronal control of movement trajectory. Exp Brain Res. 2004;158(3):308–16. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 15112120]
Dihlmann SW, Mayer HM. Lumbar epidural lipomatosis. Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie. 1995;54(6):417–23. Not english language. [PubMed: 8578893]
Dimond B. Mental capacity requirements and a patient's right to die. Br J Nurs. 2006 Nov 9–22;15(20):1130–1. Legal Cases. [PubMed: 17170663]
Dishman RK, Berthoud HR, Booth FW, Cotman CW, Edgerton VR, Fleshner MR. et al. Neurobiology of exercise. Obesity. 2006;14(3):345–56. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 16648603]
Ditor DS, Kamath MV, MacDonald MJ, Bugaresti J, McCartney N, Hicks AL. Effects of body weight-supported treadmill training on heart rate variability and blood pressure variability in individuals with spinal cord injury. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98(4):1519–25. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15563629]
Ditor DS, Latimer AE, Ginis KA, Arbour KP, McCartney N, Hicks AL. Maintenance of exercise participation in individuals with spinal cord injury: effects on quality of life, stress and pain. Spinal Cord. 2003;41(8):446–50. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12883542]
Ditor DS, Macdonald MJ, Kamath MV, Bugaresti J, Adams M, McCartney N. et al. The effects of body-weight supported treadmill training on cardiovascular regulation in individuals with motor-complete SCI. Spinal Cord. 2005;43(11):664–73. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15968298]
Do Ouro S, Esteban S, Sibirceva U, Whittenberg B, Portenoy R, Cruciani RA. Safety and tolerability of high doses of intrathecal fentanyl for the treatment of chronic pain. Journal of Opioid Management. 2006;2(6):365–8. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 17326599]
Dobkin B, Apple D, Barbeau H, Basso M, Behrman A, Deforge D. et al. Weight-supported treadmill vs over-ground training for walking after acute incomplete SCI. Neurology. 2006;66(4):484–93. No relevant outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC4102098] [PubMed: 16505299]
Doita M, Sakai H, Harada T, Nishida K, Miyamoto H, Kaneko T. et al. Evaluation of impairment of hand function in patients with cervical myelopathy. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2006;19(4):276–80. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 16778663]
Donato V, Bonfili P, Bulzonetti N, Santarelli M, Osti MF, Tombolini V. et al. Radiation therapy for oncological emergencies. Anticancer Res. 2001 May–Jun;21(3C):2219–24. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11501850]
Douglas H, Swanson C, Gee T, Bellamy N. Outcome measurement in Australian rehabilitation environments. J Rehabil Med. 2005 Sep;37(5):325–9. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 16208867]
Dubras P. Predictors of physical activity among individuals with spinal cord injuries. Ottawa: National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada; 2002.
Ducker TB. C6 cervical radiculopathy and assymptomatic large C3/4 central disc herniation. Journal of Spinal Disorders. 1994;7(4):361–2. discussion 2–4. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 7949706]
Duckworth WC, Jallepalli P, Solomon SS. Glucose intolerance in spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1983;64(3):107–10. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 6338859]
Duckworth WC, Solomon SS, Jallepalli P, Heckemeyer C, Finnern J, Powers A. Glucose intolerance due to insulin resistance in patients with spinal cord injuries. Diabetes. 1980;29(11):906–10. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 7429029]
Dudgeon BJ, Tyler EJ, Rhodes LA, Jensen MP. Managing usual and unexpected pain with physical disability: a qualitative analysis. Am J Occup Ther. 2006;60(1):92–103. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 16541988]
Dudra J, Shiiya N, Matsui Y, Sakuma M, Ishii K, Asada M. et al. Operative results of thoracoabdominal repair for chronic type B aortic dissection. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1997 Apr;38(2):147–51. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 9201125]
Dujardin L, Marcelli C, Herisson C, Simon L. Epidural lipomatosis: complication of long-term corticotherapy. Apropos of 2 cases. Revue de Medecine Interne. 1996;17(7):563–7. Not english language. [PubMed: 8881382]
Edwards CC 2nd, Heller JG, Silcox DH 3rd. T-Saw laminoplasty for the management of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: clinical and radiographic outcome. Spine. 2000;25(14):1788–94. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 10888947]
Effing TW, van Meeteren NL, van Asbeck FW, Prevo AJ. Body weight-supported treadmill training in chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot study evaluating functional health status and quality of life. Spinal Cord. 2006;44(5):287–96. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16186857]
Elder CP, Apple DF, Bickel CS, Meyer RA, Dudley GA. Intramuscular fat and glucose tolerance after spinal cord injury—a cross-sectional study. Spinal Cord. 2004;42(12):711–6. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 15303112]
Elokda AS, Nielsen DH, Shields RK. Effect of functional neuromuscular stimulation on postural related orthostatic stress in individuals with acute spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2000 Sep–Oct;37(5):535–42. Not eligible target population. [PMC free article: PMC3142658] [PubMed: 11322152]
El-Sayed MS, Younesian A. Lipid profiles are influenced by arm cranking exercise and training in individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2005;43(5):299–305. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 15583706]
El-Sayed MS, Younesian A, Rahman K, Ismail FM, El-Sayed A. The effects of arm cranking exercise and training on platelet aggregation in male spinal cord individuals. Thromb Res. 2004;113(2):129–36. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15115668]
El-Zaatari MM, Hulten K, Fares Y, Baassiri A, Balkis M, Almashhrawi A. et al. Successful treatment of Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the spine with fluconazole and surgical debridement: case report. Journal of Chemotherapy. 2002;14(6):627–30. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 12583556]
Epstein N. Thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, ossification of the yellow ligament from T9–T12 with superimposed acute T10/T11 disc herniation: controversies in surgical management. Journal of Spinal Disorders. 1996;9(5):446–7. discussion 7–50. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 8938616]
Epstein SK, Singh N. Respiratory acidosis. Respiratory Care. 2001;46(4):366–83. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 11262556]
Eser PC, Donaldson Nde N, Knecht H, Stussi E. Influence of different stimulation frequencies on power output and fatigue during FES-cycling in recently injured SCI people. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2003;11(3):236–40. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14518786]
Esmail Z, Shalansky KF, Sunderji R, Anton H, Chambers K, Fish W. Evaluation of captopril for the management of hypertension in autonomic dysreflexia: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 May;83(5):604–8. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 11994798]
Excoffon SG, Wallace H. Chiropractic and rehabilitative management of a patient with progressive lumbar disk injury, spondylolisthesis, and spondyloptosis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2006;29(1):66–71. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 16396733]
Faghri PD, Yount J. Electrically induced and voluntary activation of physiologic muscle pump: a comparison between spinal cord-injured and able-bodied individuals. Clin Rehabil. 2002 Dec;16(8):878–85. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 12501950]
Faghri PD, Yount JP, Pesce WJ, Seetharama S, Votto JJ. Circulatory hypokinesis and functional electric stimulation during standing in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Nov;82(11):1587–95. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 11689980]
Faist M, Ertel M, Berger W, Dietz V. Impaired modulation of quadriceps tendon jerk reflex during spastic gait: differences between spinal and cerebral lesions. Brain. 1999 Mar;122( Pt 3):567–79. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10094263]
Fedoroff JP, Lipsey JR, Starkstein SE, Forrester A, Price TR, Robinson RG. Phenomenological comparisons of major depression following stroke, myocardial infarction or spinal cord lesions. J Affect Disord. 1991 May–Jun;22(12):83–9. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 1880312]
Felici F, Bernardi M, Radio A, Marchettoni P, Castellano V, Macaluso A. Rehabilitation of walking for paraplegic patients by means of a treadmill. Spinal Cord. 1997;35(6):383–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9194261]
Fiedler RC, Granger CV. Uniform data system for medical rehabilitation: report of first admissions for 1996. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Jan–Feb;77(1):69–75. Not eliglble target population. [PubMed: 9482382]
Field-Fote EC. Combined use of body weight support, functional electric stimulation, and treadmill training to improve walking ability in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(6):818–24. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11387589]
Field-Fote EC, Tepavac D. Improved intralimb coordination in people with incomplete spinal cord injury following training with body weight support and electrical stimulation. Phys Ther. 2002;82(7):707–15. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12088467]
Fitzgerald SG, Cooper RA, Thorman T, Cooper R, Guo S, Boninger ML. The GAME(Cycle) exercise system: comparison with standard ergometry. J Spinal Cord Med. 2004;27(5):453–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15648800]
Fletcher DJ, Taddonio RF, Byrne DW, Wexler LM, Cayten CG, Nealon SM. et al. Incidence of acute care complications in vertebral column fracture patients with and without spinal cord injury. Spine. 1995 May 15;20(10):1136–46. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 7638656]
Flores J, Kunihara T, Shiiya N, Yoshimoto K, Matsuzaki K, Yasuda K. Extensive deployment of the stented elephant trunk is associated with an increased risk of spinal cord injury. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006 Feb;131(2):336–42. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 16434262]
Flores J, Shiiya N, Kunihara T, Matsuzaki K, Yasuda K. Risk of spinal cord injury after operations of recurrent aneurysms of the descending aorta. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 Apr;79(4):1245–9. discussion 9. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 15797056]
Fogel GR, Cunningham PY 3rd, Esses SI. Spinal epidural lipomatosis: case reports, literature review and meta-analysis. Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society. 2005;5(2):202–11. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 15795966]
Fornusek C, Davis GM. Maximizing muscle force via low-cadence functional electrical stimulation cycling. J Rehabil Med. 2004;36(5):232–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15626164]
Franco JC, Perell KL, Gregor RJ, Scremin AM. Knee kinetics during functional electrical stimulation induced cycling in subjects with spinal cord injury: a preliminary study. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1999;36(3):207–16. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10659804]
Franga DL, Hawkins ML, Medeiros RS, Adewumi D. Recurrent asystole resulting from high cervical spinal cord injuries. Am Surg. 2006 Jun;72(6):525–9. Case-series. [PubMed: 16808207]
Frank E. Endoscopic suction decompression of idiopathic epidural lipomatosis. Surgical Neurology. 1998;50(4):333–5. discussion 5. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 9817455]
Freedman G, Entero H, Brem H. Practical treatment of pain in patients with chronic wounds: pathogenesis-guided management. American Journal of Surgery. 2004;188(1A Suppl):31–5. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 15223500]
Frey GC, McCubbin JA, Dunn JM, Mazzeo RS. Plasma catecholamine and lactate relationship during graded exercise in men with spinal cord injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(4):451–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9107626]
Friedman D, Flanders A, Thomas C, Millar W. Vertebral artery injury after acute cervical spine trauma: rate of occurrence as detected by MR angiography and assessment of clinical consequences. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995 Feb;164(2):443–7. discussion 8–9. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 7839986]
Frisbie JH. Microvascular instability in tetraplegic patients: preliminary observations. Spinal Cord. 2004 May;42(5):290–3. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 14968102]
Frisbie JH. Fibrinogen metabolism in patients with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(5):507–10. Not eligible outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC1949030] [PubMed: 17274489]
Frisbie JH, Sharma GV. Circadian rhythm of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute spinal cord injury. Am J Cardiol. 1992 Sep 15;70(7):827–8. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 1519543]
Frisbie JH, Sharma GV. Pulmonary embolism manifesting as acute disturbances of behavior in patients with spinal cord injury. Paraplegia. 1994 Aug;32(8):570–2. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 7970863]
Fujii Y, Mammen EF, Farag A, Muz J, Salciccioli GG, Weingarden ST. Thrombosis in spinal cord injury. Thromb Res. 1992 Dec;68(45):357–68. Case-series. [PubMed: 1290164]
Fukui MB, Swarnkar AS, Williams RL. Acute spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Aug;20(7):1365–72. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10472999]
Fukuoka Y, Endo M, Kagawa H, Itoh M, Nakanishi R. Kinetics and steady-state of VO2 responses to arm exercise in trained spinal cord injury humans. Spinal Cord. 2002;40(12):631–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12483496]
Fuller DA, Mark A, Keenan MA. Excision of heterotopic ossification from the knee: a functional outcome study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005 Sep;438:197–203. Case report. [PubMed: 16131891]
Galea M, Tumminia J, Garback LM. Telerehabilitation in spinal cord injury persons: a novel approach. Telemedicine Journal & E-Health. 2006;12(2):160–2. No relevant data. [PubMed: 16620171]
Galla JD, Ergin MA, Lansman SL, McCullough JN, Nguyen KH, Spielvogel D. et al. Use of somatosensory evoked potentials for thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic resections. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999 Jun;67(6):1947–52. discussion 53–8. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10391346]
Gandevia SC, Petersen N, Butler JE, Taylor JL. Impaired response of human motoneurones to corticospinal stimulation after voluntary exercise. J Physiol. 1999;521(Pt 3):749–59. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PMC free article: PMC2269689] [PubMed: 10601504]
Gao CG, Ge JP, Chen LS. The situation of sildenafil in the treatment of men with erectile dysfunction. Zhong Hua Nan Ke Xue. 2002;8(4):302–4. Not english language. [PubMed: 12491702]
Gardner MB, Holden MK, Leikauskas JM, Richard RL. Partial body weight support with treadmill locomotion to improve gait after incomplete spinal cord injury: a single-subject experimental design. Phys Ther. 1998;78(4):361–74. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9555919]
Garland DE, Adkins RH, Stewart CA, Ashford R, Vigil D. Regional osteoporosis in women who have a complete spinal cord injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001 Aug;83-A(8):1195–200. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 11507128]
Gass EM, Gass GC. Thermoregulatory responses to repeated warm water immersion in subjects who are paraplegic. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(3):149–55. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11326325]
Gass EM, Gass GC, Pitetti K. Thermoregulatory responses to exercise and warm water immersion in physically trained men with tetraplegia. Spinal Cord. 2002;40(9):474–80. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12185609]
Gates PE, Campbell IG, George KP. Absence of training-specific cardiac adaptation in paraplegic athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(11):1699–704. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12439071]
Gazzani F, Bernardi M, Macaluso A, Coratella D, Ditunno JF Jr, Castellano V. et al. Ambulation training of neurological patients on the treadmill with a new Walking Assistance and Rehabilitation Device (WARD) Spinal Cord. 1999;37(5):336–44. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10369170]
Geist RA. Onset of chronic illness in children and adolescents: psychotherapeutic and consultative intervention. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1979;49(1):4–23. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 281878]
Gerrits HL, de Haan A, Sargeant AJ, Dallmeijer A, Hopman MT. Altered contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle in people with spinal cord injury following functional electrical stimulated cycle training. Spinal Cord. 2000;38(4):214–23. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10822391]
Gerrits HL, de Haan A, Sargeant AJ, van Langen H, Hopman MT. Peripheral vascular changes after electrically stimulated cycle training in people with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(6):832–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11387591]
Gerrits HL, Hopman MT, Offringa C, Engelen BG, Sargeant AJ, Jones DA. et al. Variability in fibre properties in paralysed human quadriceps muscles and effects of training. Pflugers Arch. 2003;445(6):734–40. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12632195]
Gerrits HL, Hopman MT, Sargeant AJ, Jones DA, De Haan A. Effects of training on contractile properties of paralyzed quadriceps muscle. Muscle Nerve. 2002;25(4):559–67. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11932974]
Gfohler M, Lugner P. Dynamic simulation of FES-cycling: influence of individual parameters. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2004;12(4):398–405. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15614995]
Giangregorio LM, Hicks AL, Webber CE, Phillips SM, Craven BC, Bugaresti JM. et al. Body weight supported treadmill training in acute spinal cord injury: impact on muscle and bone. Spinal Cord. 2005;43(11):649–57. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15968302]
Giangregorio LM, Webber CE, Phillips SM, Hicks AL, Craven BC, Bugaresti JM. et al. Can body weight supported treadmill training increase bone mass and reverse muscle atrophy in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006;31(3):283–91. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16770357]
Gibberd FB. The neurogenic bladder. Clinics in Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 1981;8(1):149–60. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 6266732]
Ginis KA, Latimer AE, Hicks AL, Craven BC. Development and evaluation of an activity measure for people with spinal cord injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(7):1099–111. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16015125]
Godin LM. Physical self-perceptions and physical activity participation of adult males with acquired spinal cord injuries [Dissertation/Thesis]; 2002.
Golden MA, Donaldson MC, Whittemore AD, Mannick JA. Evolving experience with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair at a single institution. J Vasc Surg. 1991 Jun;13(6):792–6. discussion 6–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 2038102]
Goldstein I, Kim E, Steers WD, Pryor JL, Wilde DW, Natanegara F. et al. Efficacy and safety of tadalafil in men with erectile dysfunction with a high prevalence of comorbid conditions: results from MOMENTUS: multiple observations in men with erectile dysfunction in National Tadalafil Study in the US. Journal of Sexual Medicine. 2007;4(1):166–75. No relevant data. [PubMed: 17233782]
Gonzalez F, Chang JY, Banovac K, Messina D, Martinez-Arizala A, Kelley RE. Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in patients with orthostatic hypotension after spinal cord injury. Paraplegia. 1991 Jan;29(1):1–7. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 2023766]
Gordon IL, Kohl CA, Arefi M, Complin RA, Vulpe M. Spinal cord injury increases the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Am Surg. 1996 Mar;62(3):249–52. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8607588]
Grange CC, Bougenot MP, Groslambert A, Tordi N, Rouillon JD. Perceived exertion and rehabilitation with wheelchair ergometer: comparison between patients with spinal cord injury and healthy subjects. Spinal Cord. 2002;40(10):513–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12235533]
Grasso R, Ivanenko YP, Zago M, Molinari M, Scivoletto G, Castellano V. et al. Distributed plasticity of locomotor pattern generators in spinal cord injured patients. Brain. 2004;127:1019–34. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14988161]
Grasso R, Ivanenko YP, Zago M, Molinari M, Scivoletto G, Lacquaniti F. Recovery of forward stepping in spinal cord injured patients does not transfer to untrained backward stepping. Exp Brain Res. 2004;157(3):377–82. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15221178]
Greco S, Auriti A, Fiume D, Gazzeri G, Gentilucci G, Antonini L. et al. Spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of refractory angina pectoris: a two-year follow-up. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1999;22(1):26–32. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9990597]
Green D, Chen D, Chmiel JS, Olsen NK, Berkowitz M, Novick A. et al. Prevention of thromboembolism in spinal cord injury: role of low molecular weight heparin. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Mar;75(3):290–2. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8129581]
Green D, Lee MY, Lim AC, Chmiel JS, Vetter M, Pang T. et al. Prevention of thromboembolism after spinal cord injury using low-molecular-weight heparin. Ann Intern Med. 1990 Oct 15;113(8):571–4. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 2169216]
Green D, Twardowski P, Wei R, Rademaker AW. Fatal pulmonary embolism in spinal cord injury. Chest. 1994 Mar;105(3):853–5. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8131550]
Greydanus DE, Demarest DS, Sears JM. Sexual dysfunction in adolescents. Seminars in Adolescent Medicine. 1985;1(3):177–87. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 2958922]
Griepp RB, Ergin MA, Galla JD, Lansman S, Khan N, Quintana C. et al. Looking for the artery of Adamkiewicz: a quest to minimize paraplegia after operations for aneurysms of the descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996 Nov;112(5):1202–13. discussion 13–5. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8911316]
Grigorenko A, Bjerkefors A, Rosdahl H, Hultling C, Alm M, Thorstensson A. Sitting balance and effects of kayak training in paraplegics. J Rehabil Med. 2004;36(3):110–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15209453]
Grimm DR, Almenoff PL, Bauman WA, De Meersman RE. Baroreceptor sensitivity response to phase IV of the Valsalva maneuver in spinal cord injury. Clin Auton Res. 1998 Apr;8(2):111–8. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 9613801]
Grossman S. How can nurses use limit setting to facilitate spinal cord patients' independence? SCI Nurs. 1997;14(3):105–7. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 9355616]
Grote EH. The CNS control of glucose metabolism. Acta Neurochirurgica - Supplementum. 1981;31:1–160. Review. [PubMed: 6114617]
Guihan M, Simmons B, Nelson A, Bosshart HT, Burns SP. Spinal cord injury providers' perceptions of barriers to implementing selected clinical practice guideline recommendations. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003 Spring;26(1):48–58. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 12830970]
Gunduz S, Ogur E, Mohur H, Somuncu I, Acjksoz E, Ustunsoz B. Deep vein thrombosis in spinal cord injured patients. Paraplegia. 1993 Sep;31(9):606–10. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8247603]
Gurney AB, Robergs RA, Aisenbrey J, Cordova JC, McClanahan L. Detraining from total body exercise ergometry in individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(11):782–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9848487]
Gutterman P. Acute spinal subdural hematoma following lumbar puncture. Surgical Neurology. 1977;7(6):355–6. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 882907]
Hagerman F, Jacobs P, Backus D, Dudley GA. Exercise responses and adaptations in rowers and spinal cord injury individuals. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(5):958–62. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16672851]
Hagisawa S, Ferguson-Pell M, Cardi M, Miller SD. Assessment of skin blood content and oxygenation in spinal cord injured subjects during reactive hyperemia. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1994;31(1):1–14. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8035356]
Hagobian TA, Jacobs KA, Kiratli BJ, Friedlander AL. Foot cooling reduces exercise-induced hyperthermia in men with spinal cord injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(3):411–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15076782]
Haldeman S, Bradley WE, Bhatia N. Evoked responses from the pudendal nerve. Journal of Urology. 1982;128(5):974–80. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 7176063]
Haldi PA. Double trouble: diabetes and SCI. Sci Nursing. 2003;20(2):106–8. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 14626032]
Halliday SE, Zavatsky AB, Hase K. Can functional electric stimulation-assisted rowing reproduce a race-winning rowing stroke? Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(8):1265–72. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15295751]
Hansen NL, Conway BA, Halliday DM, Hansen S, Pyndt HS, Biering-Sorensen F. et al. Reduction of common synaptic drive to ankle dorsiflexor motoneurons during walking in patients with spinal cord lesion. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94(2):934–42. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15800077]
Harris S, Chen D, Green D. Enoxaparin for thromboembolism prophylaxis in spinal injury: preliminary report on experience with 105 patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1996 Sep–Oct;75(5):326–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8873697]
Hart KA, Rintala DH, Fuhrer MJ. Educational interests of individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community: medical, sexuality, and wellness topics. Rehabil Nurs. 1996;21(2):82–90. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 8701099]
Hartkopp A, Harridge SD, Mizuno M, Ratkevicius A, Quistorff B, Kjaer M. et al. Effect of training on contractile and metabolic properties of wrist extensors in spinal cord-injured individuals. Muscle Nerve. 2003;27(1):72–80. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12508298]
Harvey L, de Jong I, Goehl G, Mardwedel S. Twelve weeks of nightly stretch does not reduce thumb web-space contractures in people with a neurological condition: a randomised controlled trial. Aust J Physiother. 2006;52(4):251–8. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 17132119]
Harvey LA, McQuade L, Hawthorne S, Byak A. Quantifying the magnitude of torque physiotherapists apply when stretching the hamstring muscles of people with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84(7):1072–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12881837]
Hashimoto H, Iida J, Shin Y, Hironaka Y, Sakaki T. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Clin Neurosci. 2000;7(1):64–6. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 10847656]
Hautvast RW, Blanksma PK, DeJongste MJ, Pruim J, van der Wall EE, Vaalburg W. et al. Effect of spinal cord stimulation on myocardial blood flow assessed by positron emission tomography in patients with refractory angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol. 1996;77(7):462–7. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 8629585]
Hautvast RW, Brouwer J, DeJongste MJ, Lie KI. Effect of spinal cord stimulation on heart rate variability and myocardial ischemia in patients with chronic intractable angina pectoris—a prospective ambulatory electrocardiographic study. Clin Cardiol. 1998;21(1):33–8. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9474464]
Hautvast RW, DeJongste MJ, Staal MJ, van Gilst WH, Lie KI. Spinal cord stimulation in chronic intractable angina pectoris: a randomized, controlled efficacy study. Am Heart J. 1998;136(6):1114–20. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9842028]
He Q, Li J, Bettiol E, Jaconi ME. Embryonic stem cells: new possible therapy for degenerative diseases that affect elderly people. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences. 2003;58(3):279–87. No relevant data. [PubMed: 12634295]
Healy ME, Hesselink JR, Ostrup RC, Alksne JF. Demonstration by magnetic resonance of symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis. Neurosurgery. 1987;21(3):414–5. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 3670587]
Heilbrun MP, Davis DO. Spastic paraplegia secondary to cord constriction by the dura. Case report. Journal of Neurosurgery. 1973;39(5):645–7. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 4743571]
Heimbach RD. Hyperbaric medicine—demonstration cases. Transactions of the Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors of America 67:126–34, 1985 1985;67:126–34. No relevant data. [PubMed: 4071879]
Henderson CE. Application of ventilatory strategies to enhance functional activities for an individual with spinal cord injury. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2005;29(2):107–11. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16386167]
Henriksen JD. Part V: secondary health problems: Specialized care of the spinal cord injured patient. Journal of Practical Nursing. 1976;26(10):21. No relevant data. [PubMed: 1048973]
Hicks AL, Adams MM, Martin Ginis K, Giangregorio L, Latimer A, Phillips SM. et al. Long-term body-weight-supported treadmill training and subsequent follow-up in persons with chronic SCI: effects on functional walking ability and measures of subjective well-being. Spinal Cord. 2005;43(5):291–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15685260]
Hicks AL, Martin KA, Ditor DS, Latimer AE, Craven C, Bugaresti J. et al. Long-term exercise training in persons with spinal cord injury: effects on strength, arm ergometry performance and psychological well-being. Spinal Cord. 2003;41(1):34–43. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12494319]
Higuchi Y, Kitamura S, Kawashima N, Nakazawa K, Iwaya T, Yamasaki M. Cardiorespiratory responses during passive walking-like exercise in quadriplegics. Spinal Cord. 2006;44(8):480–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16317423]
Hirsh EH, Brandenburg D, Hersh T, Brooks WS Jr. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 1981;3(3):247–54. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 6793659]
Hjeltnes N, Aksnes AK, Birkeland KI, Johansen J, Lannem A, Wallberg-Henriksson H. Improved body composition after 8 wk of electrically stimulated leg cycling in tetraplegic patients. Am J Physiol. 1997;273(3):R1072–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9321888]
Hjeltnes N, Wallberg-Henriksson H. Improved work capacity but unchanged peak oxygen uptake during primary rehabilitation in tetraplegic patients. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(10):691–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9800273]
Ho MH, Bhatia NN, Khorram O. Physiologic role of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase in female lower urinary tract. [Review] [42 refs] Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2004;16(5):423–9. No relevant data. [PubMed: 15353953]
Ho RM, Freed MM. Persistent hypertension in young spinal cord injured individuals resulting from aortic repair. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1991 Sep;72(10):743–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 1929798]
Hopman MT, Groothuis JT, Flendrie M, Gerrits KH, Houtman S. Increased vascular resistance in paralyzed legs after spinal cord injury is reversible by training. J Appl Physiol. 2002;93(6):1966–72. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12433934]
Hopman MT, Houtman S, Groothuis JT, Folgering HT. The effect of varied fractional inspired oxygen on arm exercise performance in spinal cord injury and able-bodied persons. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(2):319–23. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14966720]
Hopman MT, Monroe M, Dueck C, Phillips WT, Skinner JS. Blood redistribution and circulatory responses to submaximal arm exercise in persons with spinal cord injury. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1998;30(3):167–74. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9782544]
Hopman MT, van der Woude LH, Dallmeijer AJ, Snoek G, Folgering HT. Respiratory muscle strength and endurance in individuals with tetraplegia. Spinal Cord. 1997;35(2):104–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9044518]
Hornby TG, Zemon DH, Campbell D. Robotic-assisted, body-weight-supported treadmill training in individuals following motor incomplete spinal cord injury. Phys Ther. 2005;85(1):52–66. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15623362]
Houtman S, Colier WN, Oeseburg B, Hopman MT. Systemic circulation and cerebral oxygenation during head-up tilt in spinal cord injured individuals. Spinal Cord. 2000 Mar;38(3):158–63. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10795936]
Houtman S, Thielen JJ, Binkhorst RA, Hopman MT. Effect of a pulsating anti-gravity suit on peak exercise performance in individual with spinal cord injuries. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1999;79(2):202–4. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10029343]
Hubault A. Nervous arthropathies. Revue Neurologique. 1982;138(12):1009–17. Not english language. [PubMed: 6763287]
Hunt KJ, Ferrario C, Grant S, Stone B, McLean AN, Fraser MH. et al. Comparison of stimulation patterns for FES-cycling using measures of oxygen cost and stimulation cost. Med Eng Phys. 2006;28(7):710–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16298543]
Huntoon E, Sinaki M. Thoracic osteoporotic fracture without upper back pain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;83(9):729. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 15314538]
Hutzler Y, Ochana S, Bolotin R, Kalina E. Aerobic and anaerobic arm-cranking power outputs of males with lower limb impairments: relationship with sport participation intensity, age, impairment and functional classification. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(3):205–12. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9554023]
Hwang WS, Roh SI, Lee BC, Kang SK, Kwon DK, Kim S. et al. Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SCNT blastocysts. Science. 2005;308(5729):1777–83. No relevant data. [PubMed: 15905366]
Ide M, Ogata H, Kobayashi M, Wada F. Muscle damage occurring in wheelchair sports people. Spinal Cord. 1997;35(4):234–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9143086]
Ide M, Tajima F, Furusawa K, Mizushima T, Ogata H. Wheelchair marathon racing causes striated muscle distress in individuals with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Mar;80(3):324–7. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10084442]
Iida H, Tachibana S, Kitahara T, Horiike S, Ohwada T, Fujii K. Association of head trauma with cervical spine injury, spinal cord injury, or both. J Trauma. 1999 Mar;46(3):450–2. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10088849]
Iles JF, Ali A, Pardoe J. Task-related changes of transmission in the pathway of heteronymous spinal recurrent inhibition from soleus to quadriceps motor neurones in man. Brain. 2000;123( Pt 11):2264–72. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 11050026]
Illman A, Stiller K, Williams M. The prevalence of orthostatic hypotension during physiotherapy treatment in patients with an acute spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2000 Dec;38(12):741–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11175374]
Iseli E, Cavigelli A, Dietz V, Curt A. Prognosis and recovery in ischaemic and traumatic spinal cord injury: clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999 Nov;67(5):567–71. Not eligible target population. [PMC free article: PMC1736605] [PubMed: 10519858]
Israel JF, Campbell DD, Kahn JH, Hornby TG. Metabolic costs and muscle activity patterns during robotic- and therapist-assisted treadmill walking in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury. Phys Ther. 2006;86(11):1466–78. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 17079746]
Iversen PO, Groot PD, Hjeltnes N, Andersen TO, Mowinckel MC, Sandset PM. Impaired circadian variations of haemostatic and fibrinolytic parameters in tetraplegia. Br J Haematol. 2002 Dec;119(4):1011–6. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 12472582]
Jacobs PL, Johnson B, Mahoney ET. Physiologic responses to electrically assisted and frame-supported standing in persons with paraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003;26(4):384–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14992341]
Jacobs PL, Johnson B, Somarriba GA, Carter AB. Reliability of upper extremity anaerobic power assessment in persons with tetraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28(2):109–13. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15889698]
Jacobs PL, Mahoney ET. Peak exercise capacity of electrically induced ambulation in persons with paraplegia. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(10):1551–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12370554]
Jacobs PL, Mahoney ET, Johnson B. Reliability of arm Wingate Anaerobic Testing in persons with complete paraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003;26(2):141–4. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12828291]
Jacobs PL, Mahoney ET, Nash MS, Green BA. Circuit resistance training in persons with complete paraplegia. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2002;39(1):21–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11926325]
Jacobs PL, Nash MS. Modes, benefits, and risks of voluntary an delectrically induced exercise in persons with spinal cord injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2001;24(1):10–8. No relevant data. [PubMed: 11587428]
Jacobs PL, Nash MS, Klose KJ, Guest RS, Needham-Shropshire BM, Green BA. Evaluation of a training program for persons with SCI paraplegia using the Parastep 1 ambulation system: part 2. Effects on physiological responses to peak arm ergometry. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(8):794–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9344295]
Jaconi M. Embryonic stem cells: new possible therapy of degenerative diseases. Therapeutische Umschau. 2002;59(11):588–95. Not english language. [PubMed: 12498051]
Jaeger-Denavit O, Lacert P, Pannier S, Grossiord A. Study of cutaneous blood flow as a function of local skin temperature in paraplegia and guadraplegia due to spinal cord lesions. Revue Europeenne d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques. 1972;17(5):518–24. Not english language. [PubMed: 4675131]
Jain NB, Brown R, Tun CG, Gagnon D, Garshick E. Determinants of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC in chronic spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2006;87(10):1327–33. No relevant data. [PMC free article: PMC1896316] [PubMed: 17023241]
Jamieson WR, Janusz MT, Gudas VM, Burr LH, Fradet GJ, Henderson C. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: third decade of experience. Am J Surg. 2002 May;183(5):571–5. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 12034396]
Janosky VJ. Stem cells: potential cures or abortion lures? DePaul Journal of Health Care Law. 2002;6(1):111–57. No relevant data. [PubMed: 15069977]
Janssen TW, Dallmeijer AJ, van der Woude LH. Physical capacity and race performance of handcycle users. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(1):33–40. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11322469]
Janssen TW, Dallmeijer AJ, Veeger DJ, van der Woude LH. Normative values and determinants of physical capacity in individuals with spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2002;39(1):29–39. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11930906]
Janssen TW, van Oers CA, Rozendaal EP, Willemsen EM, Hollander AP, van der Woude LH. Changes in physical strain and physical capacity in men with spinal cord injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28(5):551–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9148083]
Janssen TW, van Oers CA, van Kamp GJ, TenVoorde BJ, van der Woude LH, Hollander AP. Coronary heart disease risk indicators, aerobic power, and physical activity in men with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997 Jul;78(7):697–705. Case-control with <50 cases. [PubMed: 9228871]
Jaworski TM, Richards JS, Lloyd LK. Retrospective review of sexual and marital satisfaction of spinal cord injury and diabetic males post penile injection or implant. Urology. 1992;40(2):127–31. No relevant data. [PubMed: 1502747]
Jeon JY, Weiss CB, Steadward RD, Ryan E, Burnham RS, Bell G. et al. Improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after electrical stimulation-assisted cycling in people with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2002;40(3):110–7. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 11859437]
Jeremic B, Grujicic D, Cirovic V, Djuric L, Mijatovic L. Radiotherapy of metastatic spinal cord compression. Acta Oncol. 1991;30(8):985–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 1777249]
Jesel M. Anomalies of conduction of the distal segment of nerve fibers in slowly developing neuritic and radiculo-neuritic diseases. Revue Neurologique. 1968;118(6):411–8. Not english language. [PubMed: 5724638]
Jessurun GA, DeJongste MJ, Hautvast RW, Tio RA, Brouwer J, van Lelieveld S. et al. Clinical follow-up after cessation of chronic electrical neuromodulation in patients with severe coronary artery disease: a prospective randomized controlled study on putative involvement of sympathetic activity. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1999;22(10):1432–9. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 10588144]
Jezernik S, Scharer R, Colombo G, Morari M. Adaptive robotic rehabilitation of locomotion: a clinical study in spinally injured individuals. Spinal Cord. 2003;41(12):657–66. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14639444]
Johnson RH, Spaulding JM. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system. Chapter 10. Sweating. Contemporary Neurology Series 1974(11):179–98. No relevant data. [PubMed: 4375553]
Jones EA, Manaster BJ, May DA, Disler DG. Neuropathic osteoarthropathy: diagnostic dilemmas and differential diagnosis. Radiographics 2000 2000 Oct;20(Spec No):S279–93. No relevant data. [PubMed: 11046179]
Jones LM, Legge M, Goulding A. Intensive exercise may preserve bone mass of the upper limbs in spinal cord injured males but does not retard demineralisation of the lower body. Spinal Cord. 2002;40(5):230–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11987005]
Jones LM, Legge M, Goulding A. Healthy body mass index values often underestimate body fat in men with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2003;84(7):1068–71. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 12881836]
Jones LM, Legge M, Goulding A. Factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome in spinal cord-injured men. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental. 2004;53(10):1372–7. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 15375797]
Jones T, Ugalde V, Franks P, Zhou H, White RH. Venous thromboembolism after spinal cord injury: incidence, time course, and associated risk factors in 16,240 adults and children. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Dec;86(12):2240–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 16344018]
Jonsson B, Annertz M, Sjoberg C, Stromqvist B. A prospective and consecutive study of surgically treated lumbar spinal stenosis. Part I: Clinical features related to radiographic findings. Spine. 1997 Dec 15;22(24):2932–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 9431629]
Jozsa L, Kannus P, Jarvinen TA, Balint J, Jarvinen M. Number and morphology of mechanoreceptors in the myotendinous junction of paralysed human muscle. J Pathol. 1996 Feb;178(2):195–200. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8683389]
Kabalin JN, Lennon S, Gill HS, Wolfe V, Perkash I. Incidence and management of autonomic dysreflexia and other intraoperative problems encountered in spinal cord injury patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy without anesthesia on a second generation lithotriptor. J Urol. 1993 May;149(5):1064–7. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8483211]
Kadyan V, Clinchot DM, Mitchell GL, Colachis SC. Surveillance with duplex ultrasound in traumatic spinal cord injury on initial admission to rehabilitation. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003 Fall;26(3):231–5. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 14997964]
Kahn NN. Platelet-stimulated thrombin and PDGF are normalized by insulin and Ca2+ channel blockers. Am J Physiol. 1999 May;276(5 Pt 1):E856–62. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10329979]
Kahn NN, Bauman WA, Sinha AK. Demonstration of a novel circulating anti-prostacyclin receptor antibody. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Aug 5;94(16):8779–82. Not eligible outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC23126] [PubMed: 9238054]
Kahn NN, Bauman WA, Sinha AK. Circulating heavy chain IgG, a pathological mediator for coronary artery disease, recognizes platelet surface receptors of both prostacyclin and insulin. Platelets. 2003 Jun;14(4):203–10. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 12850828]
Kahn NN, Bauman WA, Sinha AK. Appearance of a novel prostacyclin receptor antibody and duration of spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28(2):97–102. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 15889696]
Kameyama J, Handa Y, Hoshimiya N, Sakurai M. Restoration of shoulder movement in quadriplegic and hemiplegic patients by functional electrical stimulation using percutaneous multiple electrodes. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1999 Apr;187(4):329–37. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10503605]
Kapidzic-Durakovic S, Zonic-Imamovic M, Mulaosmanovic A. Family participation in determination of FIM and Barthel indices. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2006 May;6(2):51–3. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 16879114]
Karlsson AK. Insulin resistance and sympathetic function in high spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(7):494–500. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 10438116]
Karlsson AK, Attvall S, Jansson PA, Sullivan L, Lonnroth P. Influence of the sympathetic nervous system on insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue metabolism: a study in spinal cord-injured subjects. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental. 1995;44(1):52–8. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 7854166]
Karlsson AK, Elam M, Friberg P, Biering-Sorensen F, Sullivan L, Lonnroth P. Regulation of lipolysis by the sympathetic nervous system: a microdialysis study in normal and spinal cord-injured subjects. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental. 1997;46(4):388–94. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 9109841]
Katz PG, Greenstein A. Urinary incontinence associated with neurologic disorders. [Review] [29 refs] Seminars in Urology. 1989;7(2):133–8. No relevant data. [PubMed: 2690252]
Kawashima N, Nakazawa K, Ishii N, Akai M, Yano H. Potential impact of orthotic gait exercise on natural killer cell activities in thoracic level of spinal cord-injured patients. Spinal Cord. 2004;42(7):420–4. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15124001]
Kawashima N, Sone Y, Nakazawa K, Akai M, Yano H. Energy expenditure during walking with weight-bearing control (WBC) orthosis in thoracic level of paraplegic patients. Spinal Cord. 2003;41(9):506–10. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12934091]
Kerslake RW, Jaspan T, Worthington BS. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal trauma. Br J Radiol. 1991 May;64(761):386–402. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 2036560]
Kerstin W, Gabriele B, Richard L. What promotes physical activity after spinal cord injury? An interview study from a patient perspective. Disabil Rehabil. 2006;28(8):481–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16513581]
Kesiktas N, Paker N, Erdogan N, Gulsen G, Bicki D, Yilmaz H. The use of hydrotherapy for the management of spasticity. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2004;18(4):268–73. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15537997]
Ketover SR, Ansel HJ, Goldish G, Roche B, Gebhard RL. Gallstones in chronic spinal cord injury: is impaired gallbladder emptying a risk factor? Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1996;77(11):1136–8. No relevant data. [PubMed: 8931524]
Keyser RE, Rasch EK, Finley M, Rodgers MM. Improved upper-body endurance following a 12-week home exercise program for manual wheelchair users. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2003;40(6):501–10. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15077662]
Khan SH, Hattingh S, Griebel RW. Spinal epidural abscess. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 2001;28(3):254–5. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 11513345]
Khoynezhad A, Donayre CE, Bui H, Kopchok GE, Walot I, White RA. Risk factors of neurologic deficit after thoracic aortic endografting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007 Feb;83(2):S882–9. discussion S90–2. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 17257946]
Kilkens OJ, Dallmeijer AJ, De Witte LP, Van Der Woude LH, Post MW. The Wheelchair Circuit: Construct validity and responsiveness of a test to assess manual wheelchair mobility in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(3):424–31. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15031828]
Kim V, Spandorfer J. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolic disease. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 2001;19(4):839–59. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 11762274]
King ML, Lichtman SW, Pellicone JT, Close RJ, Lisanti P. Exertional hypotension in spinal cord injury. Chest. 1994 Oct;106(4):1166–71. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 7924491]
Kishi Y, Robinson RG, Kosier JT. Suicidal ideation among patients with acute life-threatening physical illness: patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury, myocardial infarction, and spinal cord injury. Psychosomatics. 2001 Sep–Oct;42(5):382–90. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11739904]
Kishi Y, Robinson RG, Kosier JT. Suicidal ideation among patients during the rehabilitation period after life-threatening physical illness. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2001 Sep;189(9):623–8. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 11580007]
Kjaer M, Dela F, Sorensen FB, Secher NH, Bangsbo J, Mohr T. et al. Fatty acid kinetics and carbohydrate metabolism during electrical exercise in spinal cord-injured humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281(5):R1492–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11641120]
Kjaer M, Mohr T, Biering-Sorensen F, Bangsbo J. Muscle enzyme adaptation to training and tapering-off in spinal-cord-injured humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;84(5):482–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11417439]
Kjaer M, Pollack SF, Mohr T, Weiss H, Gleim GW, Bach FW. et al. Regulation of glucose turnover and hormonal responses during electrical cycling in tetraplegic humans. Am J Physiol. 1996;271(1):R191–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8760220]
Kjaer M, Pott F, Mohr T, Linkis P, Tornoe P, Secher NH. Heart rate during exercise with leg vascular occlusion in spinal cord-injured humans. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86(3):806–11. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10066689]
Klokker M, Mohr T, Kjaer M, Galbo H, Pedersen BK. The natural killer cell response to exercise in spinal cord injured individuals. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1998;79(1):106–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10052669]
Knechtle B, Hardegger K, Muller G, Odermatt P, Eser P, Knecht H. Evaluation of sprint exercise testing protocols in wheelchair athletes. Spinal Cord. 2003;41(3):182–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12612621]
Knechtle B, Kopfli W. Treadmill exercise testing with increasing inclination as exercise protocol for wheelchair athletes. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(12):633–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11781859]
Knechtle B, Muller G, Knecht H. Optimal exercise intensities for fat metabolism in handbike cycling and cycling. Spinal Cord. 2004;42(10):564–72. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 15289799]
Knechtle B, Muller G, Willmann F, Eser P, Knecht H. Comparison of fat oxidation in arm cranking in spinal cord-injured people versus ergometry in cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;90(5):614–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12923642]
Knoller N, Auerbach G, Fulga V, Zelig G, Attias J, Bakimer R. et al. Clinical experience using incubated autologous macrophages as a treatment for complete spinal cord injury: phase I study results. J Neurosurg Spine. 2005 Sep;3(3):173–81. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 16235699]
Kocina P. Body composition of spinal cord injured adults. Sports Medicine. 1997;23(1):48–60. Review. [PubMed: 9017859]
Kondo T, Saito K, Nishigami J, Ohshima T. Fatal injuries of the brain stem and/or upper cervical spinal cord in traffic accidents: nine autopsy cases. Sci Justice. 1995 Jul–Sep;35(3):197–201. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 7663992]
Konz KR, Chia JK, Kurup VP, Resnick A, Kelly KJ, Fink JN. Comparison of latex hypersensitivity among patients with neurologic defects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995 May;95(5 Pt 1):950–4. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 7751515]
Kooijman M, Rongen GA, Smits P, Hopman MT. Preserved alpha-adrenergic tone in the leg vascular bed of spinal cord-injured individuals. Circulation. 2003 Nov 11;108(19):2361–7. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 14557353]
Krassioukov AV, Furlan JC, Fehlings MG. Autonomic dysreflexia in acute spinal cord injury: an under-recognized clinical entity. J Neurotrauma. 2003 Aug;20(8):707–16. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 12965050]
Krause JS, Broderick L. Patterns of recurrent pressure ulcers after spinal cord injury: identification of risk and protective factors 5 or more years after onset. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(8):1257–64. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 15295750]
Kucukdeveci AA, Yavuzer G, Tennant A, Suldur N, Sonel B, Arasil T. Adaptation of the modified Barthel Index for use in physical medicine and rehabilitation in Turkey. Scand J Rehabil Med. 2000 Jun;32(2):87–92. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10853723]
Kunihara T, Matsuzaki K, Shiiya N, Saijo Y, Yasuda K. Naloxone lowers cerebrospinal fluid levels of excitatory amino acids after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Oct;40(4):681–90. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 15472595]
Kuo HC. Therapeutic effects of suburothelial injection of botulinum a toxin for neurogenic detrusor overactivity due to chronic cerebrovascular accident and spinal cord lesions. Urology. 2006 Feb;67(2):232–6. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 16442605]
Lagerquist O, Zehr EP, Docherty D. Increased spinal reflex excitability is not associated with neural plasticity underlying the cross-education effect. J Appl Physiol. 2006;100(1):83–90. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 16357081]
Langmayr JJ, Ortler M, Dessl A, Twerdy K, Aichner F, Felber S. Management of spontaneous extramedullary spinal haematomas: results in eight patients after MRI diagnosis and surgical decompression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995 Oct;59(4):442–7. Not eligible target population. [PMC free article: PMC486085] [PubMed: 7561928]
Lanza GA, Sestito A, Sandric S, Cioni B, Tamburrini G, Barollo A. et al. Spinal cord stimulation in patients with refractory anginal pain and normal coronary arteries. Ital Heart J. 2001;2(1):25–30. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 11214698]
Lapides J, Diokno AC, Lowe BS, Kalish MD. Followup on unsterile intermittent self-catheterization. Journal of Urology. 1974;111(2):184–7. No relevant data. [PubMed: 4810761]
Lassau-Wray ER, Ward GR. Varying physiological response to arm-crank exercise in specific spinal injuries. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2000;19(1):5–12. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10979244]
Lawton MT, Porter RW, Heiserman JE, Jacobowitz R, Sonntag VK, Dickman CA. Surgical management of spinal epidural hematoma: relationship between surgical timing and neurological outcome. J Neurosurg. 1995 Jul;83(1):1–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 7782824]
Leaf DA, Bahl RA, Adkins RH. Risk of cardiac dysrhythmias in chronic spinal cord injury patients. Paraplegia. 1993 Sep;31(9):571–5. Case-series. [PubMed: 8247599]
Lecouvet F, Richard F, Vande Berg B, Malghem J, Maldague B, Jamart J. et al. Long-term effects of localized spinal radiation therapy on vertebral fractures and focal lesions appearance in patients with multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol. 1997 Mar;96(4):743–5. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 9074416]
Leduc BE, Dagher JH, Mayer P, Bellemare F, Lepage Y. Estimated prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome after cervical cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2007;88(3):333–7. No relevant data. [PubMed: 17321826]
Lee CS, Lu YH, Lee ST, Lin CC, Ding HJ. Evaluating the prevalence of silent coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients with spinal cord injury. Int Heart J. 2006 May;47(3):325–30. Case-series. [PubMed: 16823238]
Lee MY, Myers J, Hayes A, Madan S, Froelicher VF, Perkash I. et al. C-reactive protein, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in individuals with spinal cord injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2005;28(1):20–5. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 15832900]
Leist M, Ghezzi P, Grasso G, Bianchi R, Villa P, Fratelli M. et al. Derivatives of erythropoietin that are tissue protective but not erythropoietic. Science. 2004;305(5681):239–42. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 15247477]
Leite CC, Escobar BE, Bazan C 3rd, Jinkins JR. MRI of cervical facet dislocation. Neuroradiology. 1997 Aug;39(8):583–8. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 9272497]
Lena P, Teboul J, Mercier B, Bonnet F. Motor deficit of the lower limbs and urinary incontinence following peridural anesthesia. Annales Francaises d Anesthesie et de Reanimation. 1998;17(9):1144–7. Not english language. [PubMed: 9835985]
Leroux A, Fung J, Barbeau H. Postural adaptation to walking on inclined surfaces: II. Strategies following spinal cord injury. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;117(6):1273–82. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16644275]
Levi L, Wolf A, Belzberg H. Hemodynamic parameters in patients with acute cervical cord trauma: description, intervention, and prediction of outcome. Neurosurgery. 1993 Dec;33(6):1007–16. discussion 16–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8133985]
Levi R, Hultling C, Nash MS, Seiger A. The Stockholm spinal cord injury study: 1. Medical problems in a regional SCI population. Paraplegia. 1995 Jun;33(6):308–15. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 7644255]
Linden D, Berlit P. Magnetic motor evoked potentials (MEP) in diseases of the spinal cord. Acta Neurol Scand. 1994 Nov;90(5):348–53. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 7887135]
Lischke V, Westphal K, Behne M, Wilke HJ, Rosenthal D, Marquardt G. et al. Thoracoscopic microsurgical technique for vertebral surgery—anesthetic considerations. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1998;42(10):1199–204. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 9834805]
Liu JE, Tahmoush AJ, Roos DB, Schwartzman RJ. Shoulder-arm pain from cervical bands and scalene muscle anomalies. J Neurol Sci. 1995 Feb;128(2):175–80. Not eligible outcome. [PubMed: 7738593]
Liusuwan A, Widman L, Abresch RT, McDonald CM. Altered body composition affects resting energy expenditure and interpretation of body mass index in children with spinal cord injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 27 Suppl 1:S24–8, 2004 2004;27(Suppl 1):S24–8. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 15503699]
Logemann JA, Veis S, Colangelo L. A screening procedure for oropharyngeal dysphagia. Dysphagia. 1999 Winter;14(1):44–51. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 9828274]
LoPresti EF, Brienza DM. Adaptive software for head-operated computer controls. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2004;12(1):102–11. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 15068193]
Loudon JK, Cagle PE, Figoni SF, Nau KL, Klein RM. A submaximal all-extremity exercise test to predict maximal oxygen consumption. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(8):1299–303. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9710873]
Lu K, Lee TC, Liang CL, Chen HJ. Delayed apnea in patients with mid- to lower cervical spinal cord injury. Spine. 2000 Jun 1;25(11):1332–8. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10828913]
Luce JM, Culver BH. Respiratory muscle function in health and disease. Chest. 1982;81(1):82–90. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 6459213]
Lundgren-Nilsson A, Tennant A, Grimby G, Sunnerhagen KS. Cross-diagnostic validity in a generic instrument: an example from the Functional Independence Measure in Scandinavia. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2006;4:55. Not eligible outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC1574291] [PubMed: 16928268]
Lunney M. Critical thinking and accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. [Review] [26 refs] International Journal of Nursing Terminologies & Classifications. 2003;14(3):96–107. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 14649031]
Luther SL, Nelson A, Powell-Cope G. Provider attitudes and beliefs about clinical practice guidelines. SCI Nurs. 2004 Winter;21(4):206–12. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 15794420]
Maki KC, Briones ER, Langbein WE, Inman-Felton A, Nemchausky B, Welch M. et al. Associations between serum lipids and indicators of adiposity in men with spinal cord injury. Paraplegia. 1995;33(2):102–9. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 7753565]
Manns PJ, Chad KE. Determining the relation between quality of life, handicap, fitness, and physical activity for persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(12):1566–71. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10597807]
Manns PJ, McCubbin JA, Williams DP. Fitness, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome in men with paraplegia. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2005;86(6):1176–81. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 15954057]
Maranzano E, Latini P, Beneventi S, Perruci E, Panizza BM, Aristei C. et al. Radiotherapy without steroids in selected metastatic spinal cord compression patients. A phase II trial. American Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1996;19(2):179–83. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 8610645]
Matthews JM. Succinylcholine-induced hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis in a patient with necrotizing pancreatitis. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2000;91(6):1552–4. No relevant data. [PubMed: 11094017]
Maurice-Williams RS. Spinal dural arteriovenous malformations—a treatable cause of progressive paraparesis in elderly people. Age Ageing. 1992 Nov;21(6):412–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 1471578]
Maxwell RA, Chavarria-Aguilar M, Cockerham WT, Lewis PL, Barker DE, Durham RM. et al. Routine prophylactic vena cava filtration is not indicated after acute spinal cord injury. J Trauma. 2002 May;52(5):902–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11988656]
Mazzocchio R, Kitago T, Liuzzi G, Wolpaw JR, Cohen LG. Plastic changes in the human H-reflex pathway at rest following skillful cycling training. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;117(8):1682–91. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 16793333]
McColl MA, Friedland J. The effects of age and disability on social support. Int J Rehabil Res. 1995 Dec;18(4):325–40. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8748054]
McDermott S, Moran R, Platt T, Issac T, Wood H, Dasari S. Depression in adults with disabilities, in primary care. Disabil Rehabil. 2005 Feb 4;27(3):117–23. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 15823993]
McGirt MJ, Woodworth GF, Lynch JR, Laskowitz DT. Synthes Award for Resident Research in Spinal Cord & Spinal Column Injury: Statins for the treatment of neurological injury: a role beyond cholesterol lowering. Clinical Neurosurgery. 2004;51:320–8. No relevant data. [PubMed: 15571161]
Meggiorin G, Onali A, Manduco G, Coraddu M. Continuous epidural anesthesia with a double catheter for sedation for surgery of the vertebral dorsolumbar column. Minerva Anestesiologica. 1999;65(9):653–8. Not english language. [PubMed: 10522137]
Mello MT, Silva AC, Rueda AD, Poyares D, Tufik S. Correlation between K complex, periodic leg movements (PLM), and myoclonus during sleep in paraplegic adults before and after an acute physical activity. Spinal Cord. 1997;35(4):248–52. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9143089]
Melman A. Pathophysiologic basis of erectile dysfunction. What can we learn from animal models?. [Review] [27 refs] International Journal of Impotence Research. 2001;13(3):140–2. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 11525309]
Menssen HD, Sakalova A, Fontana A, Herrmann Z, Boewer C, Facon T. et al. Effects of long-term intravenous ibandronate therapy on skeletal-related events, survival, and bone resorption markers in patients with advanced multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2002 May 1;20(9):2353–9. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11981007]
Merli GJ, Crabbe S, Doyle L, Ditunno JF, Herbision GJ. Mechanical plus pharmacological prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis in acute spinal cord injury. Paraplegia. 1992 Aug;30(8):558–62. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 1522997]
Mersdorf A, Goldsmith PC, Diederichs W, Padula CA, Lue TF, Fishman IJ. et al. Ultrastructural changes in impotent penile tissue: a comparison of 65 patients. Journal of Urology. 1991;145(4):749–58. No relevant data. [PubMed: 2005694]
Mirvis SE, Geisler FH. Intraoperative sonography of cervical spinal cord injury: results in 30 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990 Sep;155(3):603–9. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 2117362]
Miyakoshi N, Shimada Y, Suzuki T, Hongo M, Itoi E. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal involvement by hematopoietic malignancies requiring surgical decompression. J Orthop Sci. 2003;8(2):207–12. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 12665958]
Mohr T, Andersen JL, Biering-Sorensen F, Galbo H, Bangsbo J, Wagner A. et al. Long-term adaptation to electrically induced cycle training in severe spinal cord injured individuals. Spinal Cord. 1997;35(1):1–16. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9025213]
Mohr T, Dela F, Handberg A, Biering-Sorensen F, Galbo H, Kjaer M. Insulin action and long-term electrically induced training in individuals with spinal cord injuries. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2001;33(8):1247–52. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 11474322]
Mohr T, Podenphant J, Biering-Sorensen F, Galbo H, Thamsborg G, Kjaer M. Increased bone mineral density after prolonged electrically induced cycle training of paralyzed limbs in spinal cord injured man. Calcif Tissue Int. 1997;61(1):22–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9192506]
Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower daily energy expenditure as measured by a respiratory chamber in subjects with spinal cord injury compared with control subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(6):1223–7. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 9846850]
Morse JM, Mitcham C. The experience of agonizing pain and signals of disembodiment. J Psychosom Res. 1998 Jun;44(6):667–80. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 9678748]
Morton SM, Bastian AJ. Cerebellar contributions to locomotor adaptations during splitbelt treadmill walking. J Neurosci. 2006;26(36):9107–16. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 16957067]
Mostwin JL. Urinary incontinence.[comment] Journal of Urology. 1995;153(2):352–3. No relevant data. [PubMed: 7815581]
Moynahan M, Mullin C, Cohn J, Burns CA, Halden EE, Triolo RJ. et al. Home use of a functional electrical stimulation system for standing and mobility in adolescents with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77(10):1005–13. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 8857878]
Muller G, Odermatt P, Perret C. A new test to improve the training quality of wheelchair racing athletes. Spinal Cord. 2004;42(10):585–90. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15111993]
Munakata M, Kameyama J, Kanazawa M, Nunokawa T, Moriai N, Yoshinaga K. Circadian blood pressure rhythm in patients with higher and lower spinal cord injury: simultaneous evaluation of autonomic nervous activity and physical activity. J Hypertens. 1997;15(12):1745–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9488233]
Muraki S, Yamasaki M, Ehara Y, Kikuchi K, Seki K. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to passive leg cycle exercise in people with spinal cord injuries. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;74(1):23–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8891496]
Muraki S, Yamasaki M, Ehara Y, Kikuchi K, Seki K. Effect of maximal arm exercise on skin blood flux in the paralyzed lower limbs in persons with spinal cord injury. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;74(5):481–3. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8954297]
Muraki S, Yamasaki M, Ishii K, Kikuchi K, Seki K. Relationship between core temperature and skin blood flux in lower limbs during prolonged arm exercise in persons with spinal cord injury. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;72(4):330–4. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8851902]
Murphy RJ, Hartkopp A, Gardiner PF, Kjaer M, Beliveau L. Salbutamol effect in spinal cord injured individuals undergoing functional electrical stimulation training. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(10):1264–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10527085]
Murray S, Collins PD, James MA. An investigation into the ‘carry over’ effect of neurostimulation in the treatment of angina pectoris. Int J Clin Pract. 2004;58(7):669–74. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 15311723]
Mutton DL, Scremin AM, Barstow TJ, Scott MD, Kunkel CF, Cagle TG. Physiologic responses during functional electrical stimulation leg cycling and hybrid exercise in spinal cord injured subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):712–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9228873]
Myllynen P, Koivisto VA, Nikkila EA. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance accompany immobilization. Acta Medica Scandinavica. 1987;222(1):75–81. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 3307311]
Naaman SC, Stein RB, Thomas C. Minimizing discomfort with surface neuromuscular stimulation. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2000;14(3):223–8. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 11272479]
Nash MS, DeGroot J, Martinez-Arizala A, Mendez AJ. Evidence for an exaggerated postprandial lipemia in chronic paraplegia. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2005;28(4):320–5. Less than 100 patients in study. [PMC free article: PMC1864900] [PubMed: 16396382]
Nash MS, Jacobs PL, Mendez AJ, Goldberg RB. Circuit resistance training improves the atherogenic lipid profiles of persons with chronic paraplegia. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2001;24(1):2–9. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 11587430]
Nash MS, Jacobs PL, Montalvo BM, Klose KJ, Guest RS, Needham-Shropshire BM. Evaluation of a training program for persons with SCI paraplegia using the Parastep 1 ambulation system: part 5. Lower extremity blood flow and hyperemic responses to occlusion are augmented by ambulation training. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(8):808–14. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9344298]
Nash MS, Johnson BM, Jacobs PL. Combined hyperlipidemia in a single subject with tetraplegia: ineffective risk reduction after atorvastatin monotherapy. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2004;27(5):484–7. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 15648805]
Nash MS, Montalvo BM, Applegate B. Lower extremity blood flow and responses to occlusion ischemia differ in exercise-trained and sedentary tetraplegic persons. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77(12):1260–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8976309]
Nehra A, Moreland RB. Neurologic erectile dysfunction. [Review] [202 refs] Urologic Clinics of North America. 2001;28(2):289–308. No relevant data. [PubMed: 11402582]
New PW, Rawicki HB, Bailey MJ. Nontraumatic spinal cord injury: demographic characteristics and complications. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2002;83(7):996–1001. No relevant data. [PubMed: 12098161]
Nicolle LE. Asymptomatic bacteriuria: when to screen and when to treat. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 2003;17(2):367–94. No relevant data. [PubMed: 12848475]
Nieshoff EC, Birk TJ, Birk CA, Hinderer SR, Yavuzer G. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of midodrine for exercise performance enhancement in tetraplegia: a pilot study. J Spinal Cord Med. 2004;27(3):219–25. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15478524]
Noel P. Study of afferent conduction in the external saphenous nerve using the method of evoked cerebral potentials. Revue Neurologique. 1975;131(3):193–210. Not english language. [PubMed: 173005]
Nomura K, Takei Y, Yanagida Y. Comparison of cardio-locomotor synchronization during running and cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89(3):221–9. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 12736829]
Norman KE, Pepin A, Barbeau H. Effects of drugs on walking after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(10):699–715. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9800274]
Norton JA, Gorassini MA. Changes in cortically related intermuscular coherence accompanying improvements in locomotor skills in incomplete spinal cord injury. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95(4):2580–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16407422]
O'Connor RJ, Cano SJ, Thompson AJ, Hobart JC. Exploring rating scale responsiveness: does the total score reflect the sum of its parts? Neurology. 2004 May 25;62(10):1842–4. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 15159490]
O'Connor TJ, Cooper RA, Fitzgerald SG, Dvorznak MJ, Boninger ML, VanSickle DP. et al. Evaluation of a manual wheelchair interface to computer games. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2000;14(1):21–31. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11228946]
O'Connor TJ, Fitzgerald SG, Cooper RA, Thorman TA, Boninger ML. Does computer game play aid in motivation of exercise and increase metabolic activity during wheelchair ergometry? Med Eng Phys. 2001;23(4):267–73. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11427364]
Oester YT, Zalis AW, Rodriquez AA. Possible diagnostic applications of sensory evoked potentials. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1972;53(1):21–7. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 4332458]
Ogino H, Sasaki H, Minatoya K, Matsuda H, Yamada N, Kitamura S. Combined use of adamkiewicz artery demonstration and motor-evoked potentials in descending and thoracoabdominal repair. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Aug;82(2):592–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 16863770]
Ohta Y, Hayashi T, Sasaki C, Shiote M, Manabe Y, Shoji M. et al. Cauda equina syndrome caused by idiopathic sacral epidural lipomatosis. Intern Med. 2002;41(7):593–4. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 12132532]
Okawa H, Tajima F, Makino K, Kawazu T, Mizushima T, Monji K. et al. Kinetic factors determining wheelchair propulsion in marathon racers with paraplegia. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(8):542–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10455529]
Okita Y, Takamoto S, Ando M, Morota T, Yamaki F, Matsukawa R. et al. Repair for aneurysms of the entire descending thoracic aorta or thoracoabdominal aorta using a deep hypothermia. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1997 Jul;12(1):120–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 9262092]
Oku Y, Kurusu M, Hara Y, Sugita M, Muro S, Chin K. et al. Ventilatory responses and subjective sensations during arm exercise and hypercapnia in patients with lower-cervical and upper-thoracic spinal cord injuries. Intern Med. 1997;36(11):776–80. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9392348]
Olive JL, McCully KK, Dudley GA. Blood flow response in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injuries. Spinal Cord. 2002;40(12):639–45. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 12483497]
Olive JL, Slade JM, Bickel CS, Dudley GA, McCully KK. Increasing blood flow before exercise in spinal cord-injured individuals does not alter muscle fatigue. J Appl Physiol. 2004;96(2):477–82. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14506095]
Olive JL, Slade JM, Dudley GA, McCully KK. Blood flow and muscle fatigue in SCI individuals during electrical stimulation. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94(2):701–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12391070]
Orlandi G, Fanucchi S, Strata G, Pataleo L, Landucci Pellegrini L, Prontera C. et al. Transient autonomic nervous system dysfunction during hyperacute stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 2000 Nov;102(5):317–21. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11083509]
Osaka T, Endo M, Yamakawa M, Inoue S. Energy expenditure by intravenous administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 mediated by the lower brainstem and sympathoadrenal system. Peptides. 2005;26(9):1623–31. Not human subjects. [PubMed: 16112402]
Ozgurtas T, Alaca R, Gulec M, Kutluay T. Do spinal cord injuries adversely affect serum lipoprotein profiles? Military Medicine. 2003;168(7):545–7. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 12901464]
Pacher P, Batkai S, Kunos G. The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological Reviews. 2006;58(3):389–462. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PMC free article: PMC2241751] [PubMed: 16968947]
Pahl MV, Vaziri ND, Gonzales E. Coagulation profile in persons with long-standing spinal cord injury. J Am Paraplegia Soc. 1994 Jul;17(3):133–5. Case-series. [PubMed: 7964707]
Papadopoulos A, Wright S, Ensor J. Evaluation and attributional analysis of an aromatherapy service for older adults with physical health problems and carers using the service. Complement Ther Med. 1999 Dec;7(4):239–44. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10709309]
Parke WW, Whalen JL, Bunger PC, Settles HE. Intimal musculature of the lower anterior spinal artery. Spine. 1995 Oct 1;20(19):2073–9. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8588161]
Peng CT, Ger J, Yang CC, Tsai WJ, Deng JF, Bullard MJ. Prolonged severe withdrawal symptoms after acute-on-chronic baclofen overdose. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1998;36(4):359–63. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9711203]
Pepin A, Ladouceur M, Barbeau H. Treadmill walking in incomplete spinal-cord-injured subjects: 2. Factors limiting the maximal speed. Spinal Cord. 2003;41(5):271–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12714989]
Pepin A, Norman KE, Barbeau H. Treadmill walking in incomplete spinal-cord-injured subjects: 1. Adaptation to changes in speed. Spinal Cord. 2003;41(5):257–70. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12714988]
Perell K, Scremin A, Scremin O, Kunkel C. Quantifying muscle tone in spinal cord injury patients using isokinetic dynamometric techniques. Paraplegia. 1996;34(1):46–53. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8848323]
Perkash A, Sullivan G, Toth L, Bradleigh LH, Linder SH, Perkash I. Persistent hypercoagulation associated with heterotopic ossification in patients with spinal cord injury long after injury has occurred. Paraplegia. 1993 Oct;31(10):653–9. Case-series. [PubMed: 8259328]
Perkins TA, de NDN, Hatcher NA, Swain ID, Wood DE. Control of leg-powered paraplegic cycling using stimulation of the lumbo-sacral anterior spinal nerve roots. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2002;10(3):158–64. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12503780]
Peterson C. The use of electrical stimulation and taping to address shoulder subluxation for a patient with central cord syndrome. Phys Ther. 2004;84(7):634–43. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15225082]
Petrofsky JS, Laymon M. Blood pressure and heart rate responses during a fatiguing isometric exercise in paraplegic men with hypertension. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;83(4):274–82. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11138564]
Petrofsky JS, Stacy R, Laymon M. The relationship between exercise work intervals and duration of exercise on lower extremity training induced by electrical stimulation in humans with spinal cord injuries. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;82(5):504–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10985608]
Phillips SM, Stewart BG, Mahoney DJ, Hicks AL, McCartney N, Tang JE. et al. Body-weight-support treadmill training improves blood glucose regulation in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004;97(2):716–24. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 15107410]
Phillips WT, Burkett LN. Augmented upper body contribution to oxygen uptake during upper body exercise with concurrent leg functional electrical stimulation in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(11):750–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9848481]
Piatt JH Jr. Detected and overlooked cervical spine injury among comatose trauma patients: from the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study. Neurosurg Focus. 2005 Oct 15;19(4):E6. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 16241108]
Pongratz G, Zietz B, Gluck T, Scholmerich J, Straub RH. Corticotropin-releasing factor modulates cardiovascular and pupillary autonomic reflexes in man: is there a link to inflammation-induced autonomic nervous hyperreflexia? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Jun;966:373–83. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 12114295]
Popovic MR, Keller T, Pappas IP, Dietz V, Morari M. Surface-stimulation technology for grasping and walking neuroprosthesis. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2001 Jan–Feb;20(1):82–93. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11211664]
Popovic MR, Thrasher TA, Adams ME, Takes V, Zivanovic V, Tonack MI. Functional electrical therapy: retraining grasping in spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44(3):143–51. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16130018]
Post MJ, Becerra JL, Madsen PW, Puckett W, Quencer RM, Bunge RP. et al. Acute spinal subdural hematoma: MR and CT findings with pathologic correlates. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994 Nov;15(10):1895–905. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 7863939]
Powell M, Kirshblum S, O'Connor KC. Duplex ultrasound screening for deep vein thrombosis in spinal cord injured patients at rehabilitation admission. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Sep;80(9):1044–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10489006]
Price MJ, Campbell IG. Thermoregulatory responses of spinal cord injured and able-bodied athletes to prolonged upper body exercise and recovery. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(11):772–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10578248]
Price MJ, Campbell IG. Thermoregulatory responses during prolonged upper-body exercise in cool and warm conditions. J Sports Sci. 2002;20(7):519–27. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12166878]
Price MJ, Campbell IG. Effects of spinal cord lesion level upon thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(7):1100–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12840629]
Price R, Lehmann JF, Boswell-Bessette S, Burleigh A, deLateur BJ. Influence of cryotherapy on spasticity at the human ankle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1993 Mar;74(3):300–4. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8439259]
Prophet S. Summary of ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee meeting. Journal of Ahima. 1999;70(2):64–70. quiz 5–6. No relevant data. [PubMed: 10344966]
Protas EJ, Holmes SA, Qureshy H, Johnson A, Lee D, Sherwood AM. Supported treadmill ambulation training after spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(6):825–31. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11387590]
Quirke TE, Ritota PC, Swan KG. Inferior vena caval filter use in U.S. trauma centers: a practitioner survey. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 1997;43(2):333–7. No relevant data. [PubMed: 9291381]
Rades D, Hoskin PJ, Stalpers LJ, Schulte R, Poortmans P, Veninga T. et al. Short-course radiotherapy is not optimal for spinal cord compression due to myeloma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Apr 1;64(5):1452–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 16413695]
Raymond J, Davis GM, Clarke J, Bryant G. Cardiovascular responses during arm exercise and orthostatic challenge in individuals with paraplegia. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;85(1):89–95. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11513326]
Raymond J, Davis GM, Climstein M, Sutton JR. Cardiorespiratory responses to arm cranking and electrical stimulation leg cycling in people with paraplegia. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(6):822–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10378909]
Raymond J, Davis GM, Fahey A, Climstein M, Sutton JR. Oxygen uptake and heart rate responses during arm vs combined arm/electrically stimulated leg exercise in people with paraplegia. Spinal Cord. 1997;35(10):680–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9347597]
Raymond J, Davis GM, van der Plas M. Cardiovascular responses during submaximal electrical stimulation-induced leg cycling in individuals with paraplegia. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2002;22(2):92–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12005161]
Raymond J, Schoneveld K, Van Kemenade CH, Davis GM. Onset of electrical stimulation leg cycling in individuals with paraplegia. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(10):1557–62. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12370555]
Razdan S, Kaul RL, Motta A, Kaul S, Bhatt RK. Prevalence and pattern of major neurological disorders in rural Kashmir (India) in 1986. Neuroepidemiology. 1994;13(3):113–9. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8015664]
Rena F, Moshe S, Abraham O. Couples' adjustment to one partner's disability: the relationship between sense of coherence and adjustment. Soc Sci Med. 1996 Jul;43(2):163–71. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8844921]
Rendeli C, Castorina M, Ausili E, Girardi E, Fundaro C, Caldarelli M. et al. Risk factors for atherogenesis in children with spina bifida. Childs Nervous System. 2004;20(6):392–6. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 15071749]
Rieder HP, Peyer C. Sex differences in the serum lipoprotein relations of normal persons and multiple sclerosis patients. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1970;30(2):305–10. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 5478320]
Rittenberg JD, Burns SP, Little JW. Worsening myelopathy masked by peripheral nerve disorders. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2004;27(1):72–7. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 15156940]
Rodgers MM, Keyser RE, Gardner ER, Russell PJ, Gorman PH. Influence of trunk flexion on biomechanics of wheelchair propulsion. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2000;37(3):283–95. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10917260]
Rodgers MM, Keyser RE, Rasch EK, Gorman PH, Russell PJ. Influence of training on biomechanics of wheelchair propulsion. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(5):505–11. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11732828]
Rohde V, Kuker W, Reinges MH, Gilsbach JM. Microsurgical treatment of spontaneous and non-spontaneous spinal epidural haematomas: neurological outcome in relation to aetiology. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2000;142(7):787–92. discussion 92–3. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10955673]
Roig RL, Worsowicz GM, Stewart DG, Cifu DX. Geriatric rehabilitation. 3. Physical medicine and rehabilitation interventions for common disabling disorders. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2004;85(7 Suppl 3):S12–7. quiz S27–30. No relevant data. [PubMed: 15221717]
Rosche J, Paulus C, Maisch U, Kaspar A, Mauch E, Kornhuber HH. The effects of therapy on spasticity utilizing a motorized exercise-cycle. Spinal Cord. 1997;35(3):176–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9076869]
Rotter KP, Larrain CG. Gallstones in spinal cord injury (SCI): a late medical complication? Spinal Cord. 2003;41(2):105–8. No relevant data. [PubMed: 12595873]
Rousseau MC, Guillotel B. Risk factors for deep venous thrombosis in tetraparesic mentally retarded patients. Brain Inj. 2001 Dec;15(12):1041–4. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11712950]
Roussi J, Bentolila S, Boudaoud L, Casadevall N, Vallee C, Carlier R. et al. Contribution of D-Dimer determination in the exclusion of deep venous thrombosis in spinal cord injury patients. Spinal Cord. 1999 Aug;37(8):548–52. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10455530]
Rubenstein JN, Schaeffer AJ. Managing complicated urinary tract infections: the urologic view. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 2003;17(2):333–51. No relevant data. [PubMed: 12848473]
Rutchik A, Weissman AR, Almenoff PL, Spungen AM, Bauman WA, Grimm DR. Resistive inspiratory muscle training in subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(3):293–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9523781]
Sabatier MJ, Stoner L, Mahoney ET, Black C, Elder C, Dudley GA. et al. Electrically stimulated resistance training in SCI individuals increases muscle fatigue resistance but not femoral artery size or blood flow. Spinal Cord. 2006;44(4):227–33. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16158074]
Sabick MB, Kotajarvi BR, An KN. A new method to quantify demand on the upper extremity during manual wheelchair propulsion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Jul;85(7):1151–9. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 15241767]
Saenz de Tejada I, Goldstein I. Diabetic penile neuropathy. Urologic Clinics of North America. 1988;15(1):17–22. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 2830692]
Sae-Sia W, Wipke-Tevis DD, Williams DA. Elevated sacral skin temperature (T(s)): a risk factor for pressure ulcer development in hospitalized neurologically impaired Thai patients. Appl Nurs Res. 2005 Feb;18(1):29–35. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 15812733]
Safi HJ, Miller CC 3rd. Spinal cord protection in descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic repair. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999 Jun;67(6):1937–9. discussion 53–8. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10391343]
Sairyo K, Katoh S, Sakai T, Mishiro T, Ikata T. Characteristics of velocity-controlled knee movement in patients with cervical compression myelopathy: what is the optimal rehabilitation exercise for spastic gait? Spine. 2001;26(23):E535–8. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 11725252]
Saltzstein RJ, Hardin S, Hastings J. Osteoporosis in spinal cord injury: using an index of mobility and its relationship to bone density. J Am Paraplegia Soc. 1992 Oct;15(4):232–4. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 1431871]
Salvador de la Barrera S, Barca-Buyo A, Montoto-Marques A, Ferreiro-Velasco ME, Cidoncha-Dans M, Rodriguez-Sotillo A. Spinal cord infarction: prognosis and recovery in a series of 36 patients. Spinal Cord. 2001 Oct;39(10):520–5. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11641795]
Sampson EE, Burnham RS, Andrews BJ. Functional electrical stimulation effect on orthostatic hypotension after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Feb;81(2):139–43. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10668765]
Sankale M, Diop B, Quenum C, Ancelle JP, Frament V. 4 atypical cases of primary carcinoma of the liver. Semaine des Hopitaux. 1969;45(5):301–8. Not english language. [PubMed: 4307722]
Scalzitti DA. Because of the risk of developing heterotopic ossification, are passive range of motion exercises contraindicated following traumatic injuries? Phys Ther. 2003;83(7):659–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12872776]
Scelsi R, Scelsi L, Bocchi R, Lotta S. Morphological changes in the skin microlymphatics in recently injured paraplegic patients with ilio-femoral venous thrombosis. Paraplegia. 1995 Aug;33(8):472–5. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 7478743]
Scelza WM, Kalpakjian CZ, Zemper ED, Tate DG. Perceived barriers to exercise in people with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;84(8):576–83. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16034226]
Schalow G. Partial cure of spinal cord injury achieved by 6 to 13 months of coordination dynamic therapy. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;43(5):281–92. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12964256]
Schalow G, Blanc Y, Jeltsch W, Zach GA. Electromyographic identification of spinal oscillator patterns and recouplings in a patient with incomplete spinal cord lesion: oscillator formation training as a method to improve motor activities. Gen Physiol Biophys. 1996;15(Suppl 1):121–220. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8934200]
Schalow G, Paasuke M. Low-load coordination dynamics in athletes, physiotherapists, gymnasts, musicians and patients with spinal cord injury, after stroke, traumatic brain lesion and with cerebral palsy. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;43(4):195–201. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12836583]
Schalow G, Paasuke M, Kolts I. High-load coordination dynamics in athletes, physiotherapists, gymnasts, musicians and patients with CNS injury. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;43(6):353–65. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14535048]
Schizas C, Ballesteros C, Roy P. Cauda equina compression after trauma: an unusual presentation of spinal epidural lipoma. Spine. 2003;28(8):E148–51. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 12698132]
Schmid A, Halle M, Stutzle C, Konig D, Baumstark MW, Storch MJ. et al. Lipoproteins and free plasma catecholamines in spinal cord injured men with different injury levels. Clin Physiol. 2000 Jul;20(4):304–10. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10886263]
Schmid A, Huonker M, Barturen JM, Stahl F, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Konig D. et al. Catecholamines, heart rate, and oxygen uptake during exercise in persons with spinal cord injury. J Appl Physiol. 1998;85(2):635–41. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9688742]
Schmid A, Huonker M, Stahl F, Barturen JM, Konig D, Heim M. et al. Free plasma catecholamines in spinal cord injured persons with different injury levels at rest and during exercise. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1998;68(1):96–100. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9531449]
Schmid A, Huonker M, Stober P, Barturen JM, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Durr H. et al. Physical performance and cardiovascular and metabolic adaptation of elite female wheelchair basketball players in wheelchair ergometry and in competition. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;77(6):527–33. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9862541]
Schmid A, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Huonker M, Konig D, Eisenbarth I, Sauerwein H. et al. Catecholamines response of high performance wheelchair athletes at rest and during exercise with autonomic dysreflexia. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22(1):2–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11258636]
Schmitt AB, Buss A, Breuer S, Brook GA, Pech K, Martin D. et al. Major histocompatibility complex class II expression by activated microglia caudal to lesions of descending tracts in the human spinal cord is not associated with a T cell response. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2000 Nov;100(5):528–36. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 11045675]
Schneider DA, Sedlock DA, Gass E, Gass G. VO2peak and the gas-exchange anaerobic threshold during incremental arm cranking in able-bodied and paraplegic men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1999;80(4):292–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10483798]
Schubert V, Fagrell B. Postocclusive reactive hyperemia and thermal response in the skin microcirculation of subjects with spinal cord injury. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1991;23(1):33–40. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 2035001]
Scott CI Jr. Medical and social adaptation in dwarfing conditions. Birth Defects: Original Article Series. 1977;13(3C):29–43. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 890114]
Scott D, Papa MZ, Sareli M, Velano A, Ben-Ari GY, Koller M. Management of hemorrhoidal disease in patients with chronic spinal cord injury. Tech Coloproctol. 2002 Apr;6(1):19–22. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 12077636]
Scremin AM, Kurta L, Gentili A, Wiseman B, Perell K, Kunkel C. et al. Increasing muscle mass in spinal cord injured persons with a functional electrical stimulation exercise program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(12):1531–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10597802]
Sedlock DA, Schneider DA, Gass E, Gass G. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in spinal cord-injured men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;93(1):231–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15349783]
Seelen HA, Potten YJ, Drukker J, Reulen JP, Pons C. Development of new muscle synergies in postural control in spinal cord injured subjects. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 1998;8(1):23–34. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9667031]
Selmi F, Davies KG, Sharma RR, Redfern RM. Idiopathic spinal extradural lipomatosis in a non-obese otherwise healthy man. British Journal of Neurosurgery. 1994;8(3):355–8. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 7946027]
Sencer W. THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IN MYELORADICULOPATHIES ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS. Journal of the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York. 1964 May–Jun;31:202–11. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 14167677]
Seymour RJ, Lacefield WE. Wheelchair cushion effect on pressure and skin temperature. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1985;66(2):103–8. No relevant data. [PubMed: 3970656]
Shaffer EA. Gallstone disease: Epidemiology of gallbladder stone disease. Best Practice & Research in Clinical Gastroenterology. 2006;20(6):981–96. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 17127183]
Shetty KR, Sutton CH, Rudman IW, Rudman D. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities in young quadriplegic men. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1992;303(4):213–6. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 1562037]
Shiiya N, Kunihara T, Matsuzaki K, Yasuda K. Evolving strategy and results of spinal cord protection in type I and II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005 Jun;11(3):178–85. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 16030477]
Shimizu T, Shimada H, Shirakura K. Scapulohumeral reflex (Shimizu). Its clinical significance and testing maneuver. Spine. 1993 Nov;18(15):2182–90. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8278829]
Shiraishi N, Matsumura G. Prevention of vascular injury to the spinal cord incidence of a great posterior radicular artery. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2005 Mar;81(6):143–6. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 15832868]
Sidman JM. Sexual functioning and the physically disabled adult. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 1977;31(2):81–5. No relevant data. [PubMed: 139107]
Silva AC, Neder JA, Chiurciu MV, Pasqualin DC, da Silva RC, Fernandez AC. et al. Effect of aerobic training on ventilatory muscle endurance of spinal cord injured men. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(4):240–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9589523]
Silver JR, Noori Z. Pulmonary embolism following anticoagulation therapy. International Disability Studies. 1991;13(1):16–9. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 1917798]
Sinderby C, Weinberg J, Sullivan L, Borg J, Lindstrom L, Grassino A. Diaphragm function in patients with cervical cord injury or prior poliomyelitis infection. Spinal Cord. 1996;34(4):204–13. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8963964]
Sinderby C, Weinberg J, Sullivan L, Lindstrom L, Grassino A. Electromyographical evidence for exercise-induced diaphragm fatigue in patients with chronic cervical cord injury or prior poliomyelitis infection. Spinal Cord. 1996;34(10):594–601. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8896125]
Singh A, Crockard HA. Quantitative assessment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy by a simple walking test. Lancet. 1999;354(9176):370–3. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 10437865]
Slade JM, Bickel CS, Dudley GA. The effect of a repeat bout of exercise on muscle injury in persons with spinal cord injury. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;92(3):363–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15138832]
Sliwa JA, Mason K, Yarkony G, Press J, Lovell L. The value of routine chest roentgenograms on admission for rehabilitation after traumatic spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Apr;73(2):84–8. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 8148108]
Smals AG. Impotence: organic causes. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde. 1986;130(15):675–80. Not english language. [PubMed: 3517661]
Smith HC, Davey NJ, Savic G, Maskill DW, Ellaway PH, Frankel HL. Motor unit discharge characteristics during voluntary contraction in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. Exp Physiol. 1999 Nov;84(6):1151–60. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10564711]
Smith J, Caldwell E, Sugrue M. Difference in trauma team activation criteria between hospitals within the same region. Emerg Med Australas. 2005 Oct–Dec;17(56):480–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 16302941]
Stanghelle JK, Festvag LV. Postpolio syndrome: a 5 year follow-up. Spinal Cord. 1997;35(8):503–8. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9267914]
Steers WD. Rat: overview and innervation. [Review] [112 refs] Neurourology & Urodynamics. 1994;13(2):97–118. Not human subjects. [PubMed: 8032363]
Stein RB, Chong SL, James KB, Bell GJ. Improved efficiency with a wheelchair propelled by the legs using voluntary activity or electric stimulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(9):1198–203. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 11552191]
Stein RB, Zehr EP, Lebiedowska MK, Popovic DB, Scheiner A, Chizeck HJ. Estimating mechanical parameters of leg segments in individuals with and without physical disabilities. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1996 Sep;4(3):201–11. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8800224]
Steinberg LL, Lauro FA, Sposito MM, Tufik S, Mello MT, Naffah-Mazzacoratti MG. et al. Catecholamine response to exercise in individuals with different levels of paraplegia. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2000;33(8):913–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10920433]
Steinberg LL, Sposito MM, Lauro FA, Tufik S, Mello MT, Naffah-Mazzacoratti MG. et al. Serum level of serotonin during rest and during exercise in paraplegic patients. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(1):18–20. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9471132]
Sterbis JR, Lewis VL, Bushman W. Urologic and plastic surgical collaboration for continent diversion when urine leakage is complicated by pressure ulcers or obesity. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2003;26(2):124–8. No relevant data. [PubMed: 12828288]
Stoner L, Sabatier M, VanhHiel L, Groves D, Ripley D, Palardy G. et al. Upper vs lower extremity arterial function after spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(2):138–46. Not eligible outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC1864796] [PubMed: 16739557]
Strachan RK, Cook J, Wilkie W, Kennedy NS. An evaluation of pneumatic orthoses in thoracic paraplegia. Paraplegia. 1985;23(5):295–305. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 4069739]
Stroman PW, Nance PW, Ryner LN. BOLD MRI of the human cervical spinal cord at 3 tesla. Magn Reson Med. 1999;42(3):571–6. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 10467302]
Subbotin AV, Kovalenko VN, Apasova NA. The clinical picture and differential diagnosis of spinal strokes. Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S - S - Korsakova. 1970;70(6):824–8. Not english language. [PubMed: 5471604]
Sugiyama T, Fugelso P, Avon M. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in neurologically impaired patients. Semin Urol. 1992 May;10(2):109–11. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 1636068]
Sutbeyaz ST, Koseoglu BF, Gokkaya NK. The combined effects of controlled breathing techniques and ventilatory and upper extremity muscle exercise on cardiopulmonary responses in patients with spinal cord injury. Int J Rehabil Res. 2005;28(3):273–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16046923]
Swarczinski C, Dijkers M. The value of serial leg measurements for monitoring deep vein thrombosis in spinal cord injury. J Neurosci Nurs. 1991 Oct;23(5):306–14. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 1835995]
Sytin LV, Slepushkin VD, Zoloev GK, Argintaev ES, Lasukova TV. Disorders of metabolism and their pathogenesis in patients with spinal cord injuries. Ortopediia Travmatologiia i Protezirovanie 1989(5):16–8. Not english language. [PubMed: 2780028]
Szlachcic Y, Adkins RH, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effect of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2001 Spring;24(1):26–9. Not eligible exposure. [PubMed: 11587431]
Szlachcic Y, Adkins RH, Waters RL, Govindarajan S, Wang J, Yee F. et al. Incidence and clinical correlates of increased serum creatine kinase levels in persons with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2002;25(3):156–60. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 12214901]
Taira T, Kawamura H, Tanikawa T, Iseki H, Kawabatake H, Takakura K. A new approach to control central deafferentation pain: spinal intrathecal baclofen. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1995;65(14):101–5. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8916336]
Taira T, Kawamura H, Tanikawa T, Kawabatake H, Iseki H, Ueda A. et al. A new approach to the control of central deafferentation pain—spinal intrathecal baclofen. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 1995;64:136–8. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8748602]
Takahashi M, Sakaguchi A, Matsukawa K, Komine H, Kawaguchi K, Onari K. Cardiovascular control during voluntary static exercise in humans with tetraplegia. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97(6):2077–82. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15310746]
Tarabulcy E. Neurogenic diseases of the bladder in the geriatric population. Geriatrics. 1974;29(9):123–8. passim. No relevant data. [PubMed: 4853327]
Tariq M, Morais C, Kishore PN, Biary N, Al Deeb S, Al Moutaery K. Neurological recovery in diabetic rats following spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. 1998;15(4):239–51. Not human subjects. [PubMed: 9555970]
Tator CH, Koyanagi I. Vascular mechanisms in the pathophysiology of human spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg. 1997 Mar;86(3):483–92. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 9046306]
Taylor PN, Burridge JH, Dunkerley AL, Wood DE, Norton JA, Singleton C. et al. Clinical use of the Odstock dropped foot stimulator: its effect on the speed and effort of walking. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Dec;80(12):1577–83. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10597809]
Teasell RW, Arnold JM. Alpha-1 adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness in three neuropathic pain states: complex regional pain syndrome 1, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and central pain states following spinal cord injury. Pain Research & Management. 2004;9(2):89–97. No relevant data. [PubMed: 15211988]
Teixeira da Cunha-Filho I, Henson H, Qureshy H, Williams AL, Holmes SA, Protas EJ. Differential responses to measures of gait performance among healthy and neurologically impaired individuals. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84(12):1774–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 14669182]
Telfeian AE, Reiter GT, Durham SR, Marcotte P. Spine surgery in morbidly obese patients. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2002;97(1 Suppl):20–4. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 12120647]
Ter Woerds W, De Groot PC, van Kuppevelt DH, Hopman MT. Passive leg movements and passive cycling do not alter arterial leg blood flow in subjects with spinal cord injury. Phys Ther. 2006;86(5):636–45. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16649888]
Theisen D, Fornusek C, Raymond J, Davis GM. External power output changes during prolonged cycling with electrical stimulation. J Rehabil Med. 2002;34(4):171–5. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12201612]
Theisen D, Vanlandewijck Y, Sturbois X, Francaux M. Cutaneous vascular response and thermoregulation in individuals with paraplegia during sustained arm-cranking exercise. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22(2):97–102. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11281624]
Thijssen DH, Heesterbeek P, van Kuppevelt DJ, Duysens J, Hopman MT. Local vascular adaptations after hybrid training in spinal cord-injured subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(7):1112–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16015126]
Thomas AJ Jr. Ejaculatory dysfunction. Fertility & Sterility. 1983;39(4):445–54. No relevant data. [PubMed: 6832399]
Thomas SL, Gorassini MA. Increases in corticospinal tract function by treadmill training after incomplete spinal cord injury. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94(4):2844–55. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16000519]
Thorfinn J, Sjoberg F, Sjostrand L, Lidman D. Perfusion of the skin of the buttocks in paraplegic and tetraplegic patients, and in healthy subjects after a short and long load. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2006;40(3):153–60. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 16687335]
Thrasher TA, Flett HM, Popovic MR. Gait training regimen for incomplete spinal cord injury using functional electrical stimulation. Spinal Cord. 2006;44(6):357–61. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 16249784]
Thyberg M, Ertzgaard P, Gylling M, Granerus G. Blood pressure response to detrusor pressure elevation in patients with a reflex urinary bladder after a cervical or high thoracic spinal cord injury. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1992 Dec;24(4):187–93. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 1485145]
Tomaio A, Kirshblum SC, O'Connor KC, Johnston M. Treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis in spinal cord injured patients with enoxaparin: a cost analysis. J Spinal Cord Med. 1998 Jul;21(3):205–10. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 9863930]
Trimble MH, Kukulka CG, Behrman AL. The effect of treadmill gait training on low-frequency depression of the soleus H-reflex: comparison of a spinal cord injured man to normal subjects. Neurosci Lett. 1998;246(3):186–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9792623]
Trumbower RD, Faghri PD. Kinematic analyses of semireclined leg cycling in able-bodied and spinal cord injured individuals. Spinal Cord. 2005;43(9):543–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15838528]
Truss MC, Djamilian MH, Tan HK, Hinrichs H, Feistner H, Stief CG. et al. Single potential analysis of cavernous electrical activity. Four years' experience in more than 500 patients with erectile dysfunction. European Urology. 1993;24(3):358–65. No relevant data. [PubMed: 8262103]
Tsuji M, Kurihara A, Uratsuji M, Shoda E. Cervical myelopathy with Prader-Willi syndrome in a 13-year-old boy. A case report. Spine. 1991;16(11):1342–4. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 1750010]
Uijl SG, Houtman S, Folgering HT, Hopman MT. Training of the respiratory muscles in individuals with tetraplegia. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(8):575–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10455534]
Unsal A, Yilmaz B, Turgut AT, Taskin F, Alaca R, Karaman CZ. Evaluation of varicocele frequency of patients with spinal cord injury by color Doppler ultrasonography: a new etiological factor for varicocele? Eur J Radiol. 2006 Jan;57(1):154–7. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 16162396]
Vale FL, Oliver M, Cahill DW. Rigid occipitocervical fusion. J Neurosurg. 1999 Oct;91(2 Suppl):144–50. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10505496]
van Dijk JM, Lubout CM, Brouwer PA. Cervical high-intensity intramedullary lesions without spinal cord compression in achondroplasia. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007 Apr;6(4):304–8. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 17436917]
van Hedel HJ, Waldvogel D, Dietz V. Learning a high-precision locomotor task in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2006;21(3):406–11. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 16211616]
van Hedel HJ, Wirth B, Dietz V. Limits of locomotor ability in subjects with a spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2005;43(10):593–603. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15925947]
Vaziri ND, Gordon S, Nikakhtar B. Lipid abnormalities in chronic renal failure associated with spinal cord injury. Paraplegia. 1982;20(3):183–9. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 7133750]
Vemireddi NK. Sexual counseling for chronically disabled patients. Geriatrics. 1978;33(7):65–9. No relevant data. [PubMed: 149696]
Ventimiglia B, Patti F, Reggio E, Failla G, Morana C, Lopes M. et al. Disorders of micturition in neurological patients. A clinical study of 786 patients. J Neurol. 1998 Mar;245(3):173–7. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 9553849]
Verellen J, Theisen D, Vanlandewijck Y. Influence of crank rate in hand cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(10):1826–31. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15595307]
Veron JP, Escourolle R. Current data on orthostatic hypotension. Presse Medicale. 1968;76(49):2343–6. Not english language. [PubMed: 4902667]
Vestergaard P, Krogh K, Rejnmark L, Mosekilde L. Fracture rates and risk factors for fractures in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(11):790–6. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 9848488]
Vidal J, Javierre C, Curia FJ, Garrido E, Lizarraga MA, Segura R. Long-term evolution of blood lipid profiles and glycemic levels in patients after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2003;41(3):178–81. No relevant data. [PubMed: 12638530]
Vidal J, Javierre C, Segura R, Lizarraga A, Barbany JR, Perez A. Physiological adaptations to exercise in people with spinal cord injury. J Physiol Biochem. 2003;59(1):11–8. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12903900]
Vinet A, Bernard PL, Poulain M, Varray A, Le Gallais D, Micallef JP. Validation of an incremental field test for the direct assessment of peak oxygen uptake in wheelchair-dependent athletes. Spinal Cord. 1996;34(5):288–93. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8963977]
Vinet A, Le Gallais D, Bouges S, Bernard PL, Poulain M, Varray A. et al. Prediction of VO(2peak) in wheelchair-dependent athletes from the adapted Leger and Boucher test. Spinal Cord. 2002;40(10):507–12. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12235532]
Vitenzon AS, Mironov EM, Petrushanskaya KA. Functional electrostimulation of muscles as a method for restoring motor functions. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2005 Sep;35(7):709–14. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 16433066]
Vogel G. Cell biology. Still waiting their turn. Science. 2005;308(5728):1536–7. No relevant data. [PubMed: 15947150]
Wade TP, Andrus CH. Cardiorespiratory effects of laparotomy in patients with spinal cord injury. Am Surg. 1993 Oct;59(10):689–91. Not eligible exposure. [PubMed: 8214973]
Wald A. Systemic diseases causing disorders of defecation and continence. Seminars in Gastrointestinal Disease. 1995;6(4):194–202. No relevant data. [PubMed: 8528644]
Walker WA, Evans BJ, Pate JW, Weiman DS, Riddle JC. Coronary operations in patients with spinal cord injury. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996 Mar;61(3):789–94. Case-series. [PubMed: 8619694]
Wall BM, Huch KM, Runyan KR, Williams HH, Gavras H, Cooke CR. Effects of vasopressin V1-receptor blockade during acute and sustained hypovolemic hypotension. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):R356–64. Not eligible exposure. [PubMed: 8779866]
Wallington M, Mendis S, Premawardhana U, Sanders P, Shahsavar-Haghighi K. Local control and survival in spinal cord compression from lymphoma and myeloma. Radiother Oncol. 1997 Jan;42(1):43–7. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 9132825]
Walterbusch G, Fromke J, Sydow M. A simple method to reduce ischemic time of the spinal cord in extensive thoracoabdominal aneurysm operations. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003 Feb;51(1):46–8. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 12587090]
Wang H, Hiatt WR, Barstow TJ, Brass EP. Relationships between muscle mitochondrial DNA content, mitochondrial enzyme activity and oxidative capacity in man: alterations with disease. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1999;80(1):22–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10367719]
Wang JS, Yang CF, Wong MK. Effect of strenuous arm crank exercise on platelet function in patients with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(2):210–6. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11833024]
Wang JS, Yang CF, Wong MK, Chow SE, Chen JK. Effect of strenuous arm exercise on oxidized-LDL-potentiated platelet activation in individuals with spinal cord injury. Thromb Haemost. 2000;84(1):118–23. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10928481]
Waring WP, Karunas RS. Acute spinal cord injuries and the incidence of clinically occurring thromboembolic disease. Paraplegia. 1991 Jan;29(1):8–16. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 2023773]
Warms CA, Belza BL, Whitney JD, Mitchell PH, Stiens SA. Lifestyle physical activity for individuals with spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Am J Health Promot. 2004;18(4):288–91. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15011927]
Washburn RA, Zhu W, McAuley E, Frogley M, Figoni SF. The physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities: development and evaluation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(2):193–200. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 11833022]
Waters JH, Watson TB, Ward MG. Conus medullaris injury following both tetracaine and lidocaine spinal anesthesia. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 1996;8(8):656–8. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 8982894]
Waters RL, Meyer PR Jr, Adkins RH, Felton D. Emergency, acute, and surgical management of spine trauma. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Nov;80(11):1383–90. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10569431]
Webborn N, Price MJ, Castle PC, Goosey-Tolfrey VL. Effects of two cooling strategies on thermoregulatory responses of tetraplegic athletes during repeated intermittent exercise in the heat. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98(6):2101–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 15677741]
Weck M, Pause M, Pinzer T. Spinal meningioma as differential diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 2001;126(20):590–2. Not english language. [PubMed: 11402925]
Weigang E, Hartert M, von Samson P, Pechstein U, Genstorfer J, Pitzer K. et al. Improved spinal cord perfusion during thoracoabdominal aortic repair. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005 Apr;53(2):69–73. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 15786003]
Weiss HD. Mechanism of erection. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality. 1973;7(2):28. No relevant data. [PubMed: 4806955]
Wekre LL, Stanghelle JK, Lobben B, Oyhaugen S. The Norwegian Polio Study 1994: a nation-wide survey of problems in long-standing poliomyelitis. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(4):280–4. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9589529]
Wernig A, Nanassy A, Muller S. Maintenance of locomotor abilities following Laufband (treadmill) therapy in para- and tetraplegic persons: follow-up studies. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(11):744–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9848480]
Wernig A, Nanassy A, Muller S. Laufband (treadmill) therapy in incomplete paraplegia and tetraplegia. J Neurotrauma. 1999;16(8):719–26. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10511245]
Wheeler GD, Andrews B, Lederer R, Davoodi R, Natho K, Weiss C. et al. Functional electric stimulation-assisted rowing: Increasing cardiovascular fitness through functional electric stimulation rowing training in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(8):1093–9. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 12161830]
Wheeler GD, Ashley EA, Harber V, Laskin JJ, Olenik LM, Sloley D. et al. Hormonal responses to graded-resistance, FES-assisted strength training in spinal cord-injured. Spinal Cord. 1996;34(5):264–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8963972]
Whitehouse FW. Two minutes with diabetes. Medical Times. 1967;95(3):354–5. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 6038963]
Widerstrom-Noga EG, Felipe-Cuervo E, Yezierski RP. Chronic pain after spinal injury: interference with sleep and daily activities. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(11):1571–7. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 11689978]
Wieler M, Stein RB, Ladouceur M, Whittaker M, Smith AW, Naaman S. et al. Multicenter evaluation of electrical stimulation systems for walking. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 May;80(5):495–500. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 10326910]
Wien MF, Garshick E, Tun CG, Lieberman SL, Kelley A, Brown R. Breathlessness and exercise in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 1999;22(4):297–302. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10751134]
Williams RC Jr, Sugiura K, Tan EM. Antibodies to microtubule-associated protein 2 in patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Apr;50(4):1239–47. Not eligible taret population. [PubMed: 15077307]
Willis BK, Greiner F, Orrison WW, Benzel EC. The incidence of vertebral artery injury after midcervical spine fracture or subluxation. Neurosurgery. 1994 Mar;34(3):435–41. discussion 41–2. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 8190218]
Willoughby DS, Priest JW, Jennings RA. Myosin heavy chain isoform and ubiquitin protease mRNA expression after passive leg cycling in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(2):157–63. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10668768]
Willoughby DS, Priest JW, Nelson M. Expression of the stress proteins, ubiquitin, heat shock protein 72, and myofibrillar protein content after 12 weeks of leg cycling in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(5):649–54. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11994804]
Winchester PK, Williamson JW, Mitchell JH. Cardiovascular responses to static exercise in patients with Brown-Sequard syndrome. J Physiol. 2000;527(Pt 1):193–202. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PMC free article: PMC2270059] [PubMed: 10944182]
Winemiller MH, Stolp-Smith KA, Silverstein MD, Therneau TM. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with spinal cord injury: effects of sequential pneumatic compression and heparin. J Spinal Cord Med. 1999 Fall;22(3):182–91. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10685383]
Winther K, Gleerup G, Snorrason K, Biering-Sorensen F. Platelet function and fibrinolytic activity in cervical spinal cord injured patients. Thromb Res. 1992 Feb 1;65(3):469–74. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 1321515]
Witt MA, Grantmyre JE. Ejaculatory failure. World Journal of Urology. 1993;11(2):89–95. No relevant data. [PubMed: 8343800]
Woertler K, Lindner N, Gosheger G, Brinkschmidt C, Heindel W. Osteochondroma: MR imaging of tumor-related complications. Eur Radiol. 2000;10(5):832–40. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10823643]
Wohlgemuth WA, Stoehr M. Percutaneous arterial interventional treatment of exercise-induced neurogenic intermittent claudication due to ischaemia of the lumbosacral plexus. J Neurol. 2002;249(8):988–92. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 12195442]
Wong PY, Wang YC, Chu NK, Tang FT, Wong MK. Body weight, serum uric acid and lipid profile one year after spinal cord injury. Chang Gung Medical Journal. 2001;24(9):569–75. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 11725627]
Yaggie JA, Niemi TJ, Buono MJ. Adaptive sweat gland response after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(6):802–5. No exercise program or physical activity. [PubMed: 12048658]
Yamamoto M, Tajima F, Okawa H, Mizushima T, Umezu Y, Ogata H. Static exercise-induced increase in blood pressure in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(3):288–93. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 10084436]
Yamamoto Y, Noto Y, Saito M, Ichizen H, Kida H. Spinal cord compression by heterotopic ossification associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism. Journal of International Medical Research. 1997;25(6):364–8. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 9427170]
Yamasaki M, Kim KT, Choi SW, Muraki S, Shiokawa M, Kurokawa T. Characteristics of body heat balance of paraplegics during exercise in a hot environment. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2001;20(4):227–32. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 11575185]
Yamasaki M, Komura T, Tahara Y, Katsuno K, Fukuyama Y, Michimuko R. et al. Peak oxygen uptake and respiratory function in persons with spinal cord injury. Appl Human Sci. 1996;15(1):14–7. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 8729471]
Yamasaki M, Komura T, Tahara Y, Muraki S, Tsunawake N, Ehara Y. et al. Relationship between physical characteristics and physiological responses during maximal arm cranking in paraplegics. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(8):579–83. No relevant outcomes. [PubMed: 9713928]
Yekutiel M, Brooks ME, Ohry A, Yarom J, Carel R. The prevalence of hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes in traumatic spinal cord injured patients and amputees. Paraplegia. 1989 Feb;27(1):58–62. Case-series. [PubMed: 2784200]
Yen HL, Cheng CH, Lin JW. Cervical myelopathy due to gouty tophi in the intervertebral disc space. Acta Neurochirurgica. 2002;144(2):205–7. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 11862523]
Yeung JJ, Kim HJ, Abbruzzese TA, Vignon-Clementel IE, Draney-Blomme MT, Yeung KK. et al. Aortoiliac hemodynamic and morphologic adaptation to chronic spinal cord injury. J Vasc Surg. 2006 Dec;44(6):1254–65. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 17145427]
Yokoyama O, Ishiura Y, Nakamura Y, Kunimi K, Mita E, Namiki M. Urodynamic effects of intravesical instillation of lidocaine in patients with overactive detrusor. J Urol. 1997 May;157(5):1826–30. Not eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 9112532]
Yokoyama O, Sakuma F, Itoh R, Sashika H. Paraplegia after aortic aneurysm repair versus traumatic spinal cord injury: functional outcome, complications, and therapy intensity of inpatient rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Sep;87(9):1189–94. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 16935053]
Yoshimatsu H, Nagata K, Goto H, Sonoda K, Ando N, Imoto H. et al. Conservative treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. prediction of treatment effects by multivariate analysis. Spine J. 2001;1(4):269–73. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 14588331]
Yoshimura O, Takayanagi K, Kobayashi R, Hosoda M, Minematsu A, Sasaki H. et al. Possibility of independence in ADL (Activities of Daily Living) for patients with cervical spinal cord injuries—an evaluation based on the Zancolli Classification of Residual Arm Functions. Hiroshima Journal of Medical Sciences. 1998;47(2):57–62. No relevant data. [PubMed: 9674341]
Young WF, Tuma R, O'Grady T. Intraoperative measurement of spinal cord blood flow in syringomyelia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2000 Sep;102(3):119–23. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10996707]
Zafonte R, Millis S, Mann N, Black K, Watanabe T, DeSantis N. et al. Functional independence measure prediction: an initial evaluation of residents' skills. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 May–Jun;79(3):278–82. Not eligible target population. [PubMed: 10821314]
Zamparo P, Pagliaro P. The energy cost of level walking before and after hydro-kinesi therapy in patients with spastic paresis. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1998;8(4):222–8. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 9764444]
Zhou S. Chronic neural adaptations to unilateral exercise: mechanisms of cross education. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2000;28(4):177–84. Not adult chronic SCI patients. [PubMed: 11064852]
Zhu GY, Shen Y. Application of pudendal evoked potentials in diagnosis of erectile dysfunction. Asian Journal of Andrology. 1999;1(3):145–50. Not adult spinal cord injury patients. [PubMed: 11250783]
Zlotolow SP, Levy E, Bauman WA. The serum lipoprotein profile in veterans with paraplegia: the relationship to nutritional factors and body mass index. Journal of the American Paraplegia Society. 1992;15(3):158–62. Less than 100 patients in study. [PubMed: 1500941]
Cover of Carbohydrate and Lipid Disorders and Relevant Considerations in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury
Carbohydrate and Lipid Disorders and Relevant Considerations in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 163.
Wilt TJ, Carlson KF, Goldish GD, et al.


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