PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Williams S, Whitlock E, Smith P, et al. Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Motor Vehicle Occupant Injuries [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2007 Aug. (Evidence Syntheses, No. 51.)

Appendix C: Excluded studies

References

  1. Aldana SG. Financial impact of health promotion programs: a comprehensive review of the literature. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2001;15(5):296–320. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 11502012]
  2. Allen DB, Bergman AB. Social learning approaches to health education: utilization of infant auto restraint devices. Pediatrics. 1976;58(3):323–328. Does not meet quality criteria; 80% attrition. [PubMed: 60736]
  3. Anderson P, Scott E. The effect of general practitioners' advice to heavy drinking men. Br J Addict. 1992;87(6):891–900. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 1525531]
  4. Apsler R, Formica SW, Rosenthal AF, Robinson K. Increases in booster seat use among children of low income families and variation with age. Inj Prev. 2003;9(4):322–325. Not primary care feasible. [PMC free article: PMC1731035] [PubMed: 14693893]
  5. Axelrad ME. Injury prevention in children: Increasing booster seat compliance through the use of appeal. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering. 2004;64(8-B):4017. Not primary care feasible.
  6. Bablouzian L, Freedman ES, Wolski KE, Fried LE. Evaluation of a community based childhood injury prevention program. Inj Prev. 1997;3(1):14–16. Excluded study designs. [PMC free article: PMC1067757] [PubMed: 9113841]
  7. Barfield BR. Evaluation of the effects of health risk appraisals and health promotion teaching on lifestyle behaviors. University of Alabama at Birmingham 1992;113. Does not meet quality criteria; 58% attrition.
  8. Barrios LC, Runyan CW, Downs SM, Bowling JM. Pediatric injury prevention counseling: an observational study of process and content. Patient Educ Couns. 2001;44(2):141–149. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 11479054]
  9. Bass LW, Wilson TR. The pediatrician's influence in private practice measured by a controlled seat belt study. Pediatrics. 1964;33:700–704. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 14158768]
  10. Berger LR, Saunders S, Armitage K, Schauer L. Promoting the use of car safety devices for infants: an intensive health education approach. Pediatrics. 1984;74(1):16–19. Does not meet quality criteria; 50% attrition. [PubMed: 6739211]
  11. Berry TD, Gilmore MR, Geller ES. An individual subject approach to the study of community-based interventions. Environment & Behavior. 1994;26(4):451–476. Not primary care feasible.
  12. Block DE, Hanson TK, Keane A. Child safety seat misuse: home visiting assessment and intervention. Public Health Nurs. 1998;15(4):250–256. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 9682617]
  13. Bohman TM, Barker ED, Bell ML, Lewis CM, Holleran L, Pomeroy E. Early intervention for alcohol use prevention and vehicle safety skills: evaluating the Protecting You/Protecting Me curriculum. J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse. 2004;14(1):17–40. Not primary care feasible.
  14. Bowman JA, Sanson-Fisher RW, Webb GR. Interventions in preschools to increase the use of safety restraints by preschool children. Pediatrics. 1987;79(1):103–109. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 3797156]
  15. Boyce TE, Geller ES. Attempts to increase vehicle safety-belt use among industry workers: What can we learn from our failures? Journal of Organizational Behavior Management. 1999;19(3):27–44. Not primary care feasible.
  16. Bruce B, McGrath P. Group interventions for the prevention of injuries in young children: a systematic review. Injury Prevention. 2005;11(3):143–147. Not primary care feasible. [PMC free article: PMC1730222] [PubMed: 15933404]
  17. Bulaclac MC. work site wellness program. Nurs Manag (Harrow) 1996;27(12):19–21. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 9004693]
  18. Byrd C. Injury prevention program for youthful traffic offenders. Journal of Emergency Nursing. 1997;23(4):326–329. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 9379574]
  19. Chang A, Hearey CD, Gallagher KD, English P, Chang PC. Promoting child passenger safety in children served by a health maintenance organization. Patient Educ Couns. 1989;13(3):297–307. Does not meet quality criteria; non-comparable groups, contamination of intervention. [PubMed: 10293483]
  20. Christophersen ER, Sosland-Edelman D, LeClaire S. Evaluation of two comprehensive infant car seat loaner programs with 1-year follow-up. Pediatrics. 1985;76(1):36–42. Does not meet quality criteria; 41% attrition. [PubMed: 4011356]
  21. Clack ZA, Pitts SR, Kellermann AL. Do reminder signs promote use of safety belts. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;36(6):597–601. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 11097700]
  22. Clark MJ, Schmitz S, Conrad A, Estes C, Healy MM, Hiltibidal J. Effects of an intervention campaign to enhance seat belt use on campus. J Am Coll Health. 1999;47(6):277–280. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 10368562]
  23. Cohn LD, Hernandez D, Byrd T, Cortes M. A program to increase seat belt use along the Texas-Mexico border. American Journal of Public Health. 2002;92(12):1918–1920. Not primary care feasible. [PMC free article: PMC3221488] [PubMed: 12453809]
  24. Cole TB. An injury control strategy for rural North Carolina. North Carolina Medical Journal. 1993;54(10):508–510. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 8255305]
  25. Colletti RB. Hospital-based rental programs to increase car seat usage. Pediatrics. 1983;71(5):771–773. Excluded study design; no control group. [PubMed: 6835761]
  26. Colletti RB. Longitudinal evaluation of a statewide network of hospital programs to improve child passenger safety. Pediatrics. 1986;77(4):523–529. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 3960621]
  27. Colquitt M, Fielding LP, Cronan JF. Drunk drivers and medical and social injury. N Engl J Med. 1987;317(20):1262–1266. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 3670355]
  28. Cooper J. Keeping children safe in cars. Access. 2004;24:16–21. Excluded study designs.
  29. Cooper JF, MacLeod KE, Ragland DR. Evaluation of the California Child Passenger Safety Initiative. Paper UCB-TSC-RR-2004-17. 11-15-2004. University of California, Berkeley, Traffic Safety Center. Excluded study designs.
  30. Cox BS, Cox AB, Cox DJ. Motivating signage prompts safety belt use among drivers exiting senior communities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 2000;33(4):635–638. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PMC free article: PMC1284288] [PubMed: 11214040]
  31. Creehan PA. Sending baby home safely: developing an infant car seat testing program. AWHONN Lifelines. 2001;5(6):60–70. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 11778467]
  32. Culler C, Cunningham J. Compliance with the Child Passenger Protection Law: Effects of a Loaner Program for Low Income Mothers. 1980. Washington, D.C, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Does not meet quality criteria; 62% attrition.
  33. Curry SJ, Ludman EJ, Grothaus LC, Donovan D, Kim E. randomized trial of a brief primary-care-based intervention for reducing at-risk drinking practices. Health Psychol. 2003;22(2):156–165. Focus of behavioral counseling not drinking and driving. [PubMed: 12683736]
  34. Dearing B, Caston RJ, Babin J. The impact of a hospital based educational program on adolescent attitudes toward drinking and driving. J Drug Educ. 1991;21(4):349–359. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 1791519]
  35. Delnevo CD, Hausman AJ. Injury-prevention counseling among residents of internal medicine. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2000;19(1):63–65. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 10865166]
  36. Dennigan E. Commentary on Public health focus: impact of safety-belt use on motor vehicle injuries and costs — Iowa, 1987-1988. ENA'S Nursing Scan in Emergency Care. 1994;4(2):8. No behavioral counseling intervention.
  37. DiGuiseppi C, Roberts IG. Individual-level injury prevention strategies in the clinical setting. Future Child. 2000;10(1):53–82. SER used as source document. [PubMed: 10911688]
  38. Dinh-Zarr T, Goss C, Heitman E, Roberts I, DiGuiseppi C. Interventions for preventing injuries in problem drinkers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(3) SER used as source document. [PubMed: 15266456]
  39. Dinh-Zarr TB, Sleet DA, Shults RA, Zaza S, Elder RW, Nichols JL. et al. Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to increase the use of safety belts. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21(4 Suppl):48–65. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 11691561]
  40. Downs SMK. Clinical preventive services efficacy and adolescents' risky behaviors. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 1995;149(4):374–379. Does not meet cost criteria for inclusion. [PubMed: 7704164]
  41. Dowswell T, Towner EML, Simpson TG, Jarvis SN. Preventing childhood unintentional injuries -- what works? A literature review. Inj Prev. 1996;2(2):140–149. Not primary care feasible. [PMC free article: PMC1067679] [PubMed: 9346079]
  42. Duchossois G, Vanore ML. The development and evolution of a hospital-based child safety seat program. J Trauma Nurs. 2002;9(4):103–110. Excluded study designs.
  43. Dulisse B. Methodological issues in testing the hypothesis of risk compensation. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 1997;29(3):285–92. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 9183466]
  44. Dunn C. Brief motivational interviewing interventions targeting substance abuse in the acute care medical setting. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry. 2003;8(3):188–196. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 12874739]
  45. Durbin DR, Arbogast KB, Moll EK. Seat belt syndrome in children: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2001;17(6):474–477. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 11753199]
  46. Duryea E. Six-month follow-up results of a preventive alcohol education intervention. J Drug Educ. 1997;14(2):97–104. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 6536738]
  47. Ebel BE, Koepsell TD, Bennett EE, Rivara FP. Use of child booster seats in motor vehicles following a community campaign: a controlled trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003;289(7):879–884. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 12588272]
  48. Ehiri JE, Ejere HOD. Interventions for promoting use of booster seats for children aged 4–8 traveling in cars. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005;(3). Excluded study designs.
  49. Elder RW, Nichols JL, Shults RA, Sleet DA, Barrios LC, Compton R. Effectiveness of School-Based Programs for Reducing Drinking and Driving and Riding with Drinking Drivers: A Systematic Review. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(5):288–304. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 15894162]
  50. Elder RW, Shults RA, Sleet DA, Nichols JL, Thompson RS, Rajab W. et al. Effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing drinking and driving and alcohol-involved crashes: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2004;27(1):57–65. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 15212776]
  51. Engstrom I, Gregersen NP, Hernetkoski K, Keskinen E, Nyberg A. Young novice drivers, driver education and training. Literature review. Rapport 491A, 1–138. 2003. Linkoping, Sweden, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Excluded study designs.
  52. Eugenia GM, Cunill M, Planes M, Sullman MJ, Oliveras C. Increasing safety-belt use in Spanish drivers: a field test of personal prompts. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 2003;36(2):249–251. Not primary care feasible. [PMC free article: PMC1284437] [PubMed: 12858989]
  53. Family teaching toolbox. Car seat safety teaching tool. Advances in Neonatal Care 2001; 1(1):53–56. Excluded study designs.
  54. Fleming MF, Barry KL, Manwell LB, Johnson K, London R. Brief physician advice for problem alcohol drinkers. A randomized controlled trial in community-based primary care practices. JAMA. 1997;277(13):1039–1045. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 9091691]
  55. Fleming MF, Manwell LB, Barry KL, Adams W, Stauffacher EA. Brief physician advice for alcohol problems in older adults: a randomized community-based trial. J Fam Pract. 1999;48(5):378–384. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 10334615]
  56. Fleming MF, Mundt MP, French MT, Manwell LB, Stauffacher EA, Barry KL. Brief physician advice for problem drinkers: long-term efficacy and benefit-cost analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26(1):36–43. Does not meet cost quality criteria. [PubMed: 11821652]
  57. Foxcroft DR, Ireland D, Lowe G, Breen R. Primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005;(3). SER used as source document.
  58. Gagnon AJ, Barkun L. Postnatal parental education for improving family health. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005;(3). Excluded study designs.
  59. Gagnon AJ, Barkun L. Postnatal parental education for improving family health. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005;(3). Excluded study designs.
  60. Geddis DC, Appleton IC. Establishment and evaluation of a pilot child car seat rental scheme in New Zealand. Pediatrics. 1986;77(2):167–172. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 3945529]
  61. Geddis DC, Pettengell R. Parent education: its effect on the way children are transported in cars. N Z Med J. 1982;95(707):314–316. Does not meet quality criteria; non-blinded outcome assessment by interventionist. [PubMed: 6954391]
  62. Geller ES. Preventing injuries and deaths from vehicle crashes: encouraging belts and discouraging booze. Social influence processes and prevention New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1990: 249–277. Excluded study designs.
  63. Goebel JB, Copps TJ, Sulayman RF. Infant car seat usage. Effectiveness of a postpartum educational program. JOGN Nurs. 1984;13(1):33–36. Does not meet quality criteria; non-blinded outcome assessment by interventionist. [PubMed: 6560047]
  64. Gofin R, De Leon D, Knishkowy B, Palti H. Injury prevention program in primary care: process evaluation and surveillance. Inj Prev. 1995;1(1):35–39. Does not report designated outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC1067539] [PubMed: 9345991]
  65. Greenberg LW, Coleman AB. A prenatal and postpartum safety education program: influence on parental use of infant car restraints. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1982;3(1):32–34. Does not meet quality criteria; 52% attrition. [PubMed: 7076861]
  66. Griffiths M, Usherwood MM, Reginald PW. Antenatal teaching of the use of seat belts in pregnancy. BMJ. 1992;304(6827):614. Does not report designated outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC1881353] [PubMed: 1559091]
  67. Grossberg PM, Brown DD, Fleming MF. Brief physician advice for high-risk drinking among young adults. Annals of Family Medicine. 2004;2(5):474–480. Focused of behavioral counseling not drinking and driving. [PMC free article: PMC1466715] [PubMed: 15506584]
  68. Grossman DC, Garcia CC. Effectiveness of health promotion programs to increase motor vehicle occupant restraint use among young children. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1999;16(1S):12–22. SER used as source document. [PubMed: 9921382]
  69. Hagenzieker MP, Bijleveld FD, Davidse RJ. Effects of incentive programs to stimulate safety belt use: a meta-analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 1997;29(6):759–777. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 9370012]
  70. Hall ML, Tolbert WG, Cox CL, Lowrance JC. Comprehensive program for increasing use of safety seats and seat belts for children and young adults. HSRC-PR 193. 1993. Chapel Hill, NC, UNC Highway Safety Research Center. No behavioral counseling intervention.
  71. Hartling L, Wiebe N, Russell K, Petruk J, Spinola C, Klassen TP. Graduated driver licensing for reducing motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(2). Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 15106200]
  72. Hletko PJ, Hletko J, Shelness A, Nyberg J. The effect of a toddler/child restraint device rental program on observed correct use. 115–125. 2003. 27th Annual Conference Proceedings, American Association for Automotive Medicine. Does not meet quality criteria; non-comparable groups, selection bias.
  73. Hletko PJ, Hletko J, Shelness A, Nyberg J. The effect of an in-hospital maternity education program on observed correct crash restraint device use. 1982. Kalamazoo, Michigan, Borgess Pediatric Center, 26th Annual Proceedings, American Association for Automotive Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 4–6, 1982. Does not meet quality criteria; non-comparable groups.
  74. Hletko PJ, Robin SS, Hletko JD, Stone M. Infant safety seat use. Reaching the hard to reach. Am J Dis Child. 1987;141(12):1301–1304. Does not meet quality criteria; 60% attrition. [PubMed: 3687872]
  75. Increasing effective child restraint usage amongst rural pre-primary school-aged children. Perth, Australia: Insurance Commission of Western Australia, 1999. Doe not report designated outcomes.
  76. Jagim M. North Dakota emergency nurses promote seat belt use: the “70% × '92” program. Journal of Emergency Nursing. 1992;18(5):449–455. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 1474748]
  77. Jarmark S, Ljungblom B, Turbell T. Infant carriers - A trial in two counties. 316A. 1988. Linkoping, Sweden, Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute. Not primary care feasible.
  78. Johnston BD, Britt J, D'Ambrosio L, Mueller BA, Rivara FP. preschool program for safety and injury prevention delivered by home visitors. Inj Prev. 2000;6(4):305–309. Not primary care feasible. [PMC free article: PMC1730673] [PubMed: 11144634]
  79. Kanthor HA. Car safety for infants: effectiveness of prenatal counseling. Pediatrics. 1976;58(3):320–322. Does not meet quality criteria; outcome assessment not blinded or standardized. [PubMed: 958758]
  80. Kayser RE, Schippers GM, Van Der Staak CP. Evaluation of a dutch educational “Driving While Intoxicated (DWI)” prevention program for driving schools. J Drug Educ. 1995;25(4):379–393. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 8907407]
  81. Kedikoglou S, Belechri M, Dedoukou X, Spyridopoulos T, Alexe D, Pappa E. et al. A maternity hospital-based infant car-restraint loan scheme: public health and economic evaluation of an intervention for the reduction of road traffic injuries. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2005;33(1):42–49. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 15764240]
  82. Kelly R. Effect of a brief physician intervention on seat belt use. J Fam Pract. 1987;24(6):630–632. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 3585268]
  83. Kendrick D, Marsh P, Fielding K, Miller P. Preventing injuries in children: cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care. BMJ. 1999;318(7189):980–983. Does not report designated outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC27827] [PubMed: 10195971]
  84. Kennedy J. “Health of the nation targets.” Keeping babies in cars: the East Surrey scheme... part 2. Prof Care Mother Child. 1993;3(9):251–255. Excluded study designs.
  85. Ker K, Roberts I, Collier T, Beyer F, Bunn F, Frost C. Post-licence driver education for the prevention of road traffic crashes: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37(2):305–313. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 15667817]
  86. Klassen TP, MacKay JM, Moher D, Walker A, Jones AL. Community-based injury prevention interventions. Future of Children. 2000;10(1):83–110. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 10911689]
  87. Knight JR, Sherritt L, Van Hook S, Gates EC, Levy S, Chang G. Motivational interviewing for adolescent substance use: A pilot study. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37(2):167–169. Doe not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 16026730]
  88. Kohn M, Chausmer K, Flood MH. Anticipatory guidance about child safety seat misuse: lessons from safety seat “checkups” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2000;154(6):606–609. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 10850509]
  89. Koschel MJ. Viewpoint. Boosting booster seat use: use simple education to help properly restrain youngsters. Am J Nurs. 2004;104(8):13. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 15300016]
  90. Kreuter MW, Strecher VJ. Do tailored behavior change messages enhance the effectiveness of health risk appraisal? Results from a randomized trial. Health Education Research. 1996;11(1):97–105. Does not meet quality criteria; only evaluated contemplators. [PubMed: 10160231]
  91. Kristenson H, Ohlin H, Hulten-Nosslin MB, Trell E, Hood B. Identification and intervention of heavy drinking in middle-aged men: results and follow-up of 24–60 months of long-term study with randomized controls. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1983; 7. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 6135365]
  92. Lane WG, Liu GC, Newlin E. The association between hands-on instruction and proper child safety seat installation. Pediatrics. 2000;106(4):924–929. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 11044145]
  93. Leverence RR, Martinez M, Romero-Whisler S, Leggott V, Harji F, Milner M. et al. Does office-based counseling of adolescents and young adults improve self-reported safety habits? A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2005;36(6):523–528. Does not meet quality criteria; high contamination, high crossover. [PubMed: 15901518]
  94. Logsdon DN, Lazaro CM, Meier RV. The feasibility of behavioral risk reduction in primary medical care. Am J Prev Med. 1989;5(5):249–256. Does not meet quality criteria; analyzed only 5–12% of enrolled population. [PubMed: 2789846]
  95. Louis B, Lewis M. Increasing car seat use for toddlers from inner-city families. American Journal of Public Health. 1997;87(6):1044–1045. Not primary care feasible. [PMC free article: PMC1380949] [PubMed: 9224195]
  96. Loveland-Cherry CJ, Ross LT, Kaufman SR. Effects of a home-based family intervention on adolescent alcohol use and misuse. J Stud Alcohol Suppl. 1999;13:94–102. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 10225493]
  97. Mackay M. Seat belts and risk compensation. British Medical Journal Clinical Research Ed. 1985;291(6498):757–758. Excluded study designs. [PMC free article: PMC1417161] [PubMed: 3929928]
  98. Making child safety seats part of prescription for good health. Traffic Safety Center Online Newsletter 2002; 1(2):16–20. Excluded study designs.
  99. Manwell LB, Fleming MF, Mundt MP, Stauffacher EA, Barry KL. Treatment of problem alcohol use in women of childbearing age: results of a brief intervention trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24(10):1517–1524. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 11045860]
  100. McGwin G Jr, Willey P, Ware A, Kohler C, Kirby T, Rue LW III. A focused educational intervention can promote the proper application of seat belts during pregnancy. J Trauma Inj Infect Crit Care. 2004;56(5):1016–1021. Does not meet quality criteria; no control group, pre and post done on different populations. [PubMed: 15179240]
  101. Miller JR, Pless IB. Child automobile restraints: evaluation of health education. Pediatrics. 1977;59(6):907–911. Does not meet quality criteria;2 week follow-up, analyzed only completers. [PubMed: 68458]
  102. Miller TR, Levy DT. Cost-outcome analysis in injury prevention and control: eighty-four recent estimates for the United States. Medical Care. 2000;38(6):562–82. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 10843309]
  103. Miller TR, Romano EO, Spicer RS. The cost of childhood unintentional injuries and the value of prevention. Future Child. 2000;10(1):137–163. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 10911691]
  104. Mittelstaedt EA, Simon SR. Developing a child safety seat program. Mil Med. 2004;169(1):30–33. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 14964498]
  105. Mock C, Arreola-Risa C, Trevino-Perez R, Almazan-Saavedra V, Zozaya-Paz JE, Gonzalez-Solis R. et al. Injury prevention counselling to improve safety practices by parents in Mexico. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81(8):591–598. Does not meet quality criteria; 44% attrition. [PMC free article: PMC2572517] [PubMed: 14576891]
  106. Moffit P. Effects of Child Auto Restraint Education and Loan Program on Restraint Use. University of Utah, 1981. Does not meet quality criteria; non-comparable groups, no intention-to-treat.
  107. Mohan D. Evidence-based interventions for road traffic injuries in South Asia. Jcpsp, Journal of the College of Physicians & Surgeons - Pakistan. 2004;14(12):745–746. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 15610636]
  108. Nansel TR, Weaver N, Donlin M, Jacobsen H, Kreuter MW, Simons-Morton B. Baby, Be Safe: the effect of tailored communications for pediatric injury prevention provided in a primary care setting. Patient Education & Counseling. 2002;46(3):175–190. Does not report designated outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC2387242] [PubMed: 11932115]
  109. Nichol KP, Cooney CE. The impact of a hospital-based educational loaner infant car seat program on infant car seat usage in a community. Travel Medicine International. 1984;2(3):155–158. Does not meet quality criteria; no control group, different patients sampled at different times.
  110. O'Connor AM, Stacey D, Entwistle V, Llewellyn-Thomas H, Rovner D, Holmes-Rovner M et al. Decision aids for people facing health treatment or screening decisions. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005;(3). No behavioral counseling intervention.
  111. Palinkas LA, Atkins CJ, Miller C, Ferreira D. Social skills training for drug prevention in high-risk female adolescents. Preventive Medicine. 1996;25(6):692–701. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 8936571]
  112. Petersen R, Connelly A, Martin SL, Kupper LL. Preventive counseling during prenatal care: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2001;20(4):245–250. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 11331111]
  113. Pilley E, McGuire W. Pre-discharge “car seat challenge” for preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005;(3). Not a primary care population. [PubMed: 16437530]
  114. Potamianos G, North WR, Meade TW, Townsend J, Peters TJ. Randomized trial of community-based centre versus conventional hospital management in treatment of alcoholism. Lancet. 1986;2(8510):797–799. Not a primary care population. [PubMed: 2876244]
  115. Quinlan, KP, Holden, J, and Kresnow, M. The feasibility and effectiveness of performing car seat checks with well-child visits at an urban health center. 2006 Unpublished Excluded study design. [PMC free article: PMC2610603] [PubMed: 17916895]
  116. Richardson D, Harrop DS III. Impaired drivers: a call to action for Rhode Island physicians. Medicine & Health, Rhode Island. 2002;85(10):304–305. Excluded study design. [PubMed: 12412517]
  117. Roberts I, Kramer MS, Suissa S. Does home visiting prevent childhood injury? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMJ. 1996;312(7022):29–33. Not primary care feasible. [PMC free article: PMC2349738] [PubMed: 8555855]
  118. Robitaille Y, Legault J, Abbey H, Pless IB. Evaluation of an infant car seat program in a low-income community. Am J Dis Child. 1990;144(1):74–78. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 2294722]
  119. Saalberg J, Morrison A. Household Survey. Evaluation of the League General Insurance Company child safety seat distribution program; DOT HS 806 253. Washington, DC: US Department of Transportation; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1982: 63–120. Not primary care feasible.
  120. Saalberg J, Morrison A. Restraint Use and Injury Experience. Evaluation of the League General Insurance Company child safety seat distribution program; DOT HS 806 253. Washington, DC: US Department of Transportation; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1982: 22–47. Not primary care feasible.
  121. Salzberg PM, Ryser M, Nuse R, Paulsrude S. Effectiveness of the Goal Setting Program: An Intervention for High Risk Drivers. 52. 2005. Olympia, WA, Department of Licensing; State of Washington. Not a primary care population.
  122. Sanghavi DM. Taking well-child care into the 21st century: a novel, effective method for improving parent knowledge using computerized tutorials. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2005;159(5):482–485. Doe not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 15867124]
  123. Segui-Gomez M. Evaluating interventions that promote the use of rear seats for children. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1999;16(1):23–29. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 9921383]
  124. Segui-Gomez M. Evaluating worksite-based interventions that promote safety belt use. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2000;18(4):11–22. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 10793276]
  125. Shults RA, Elder RW, Sleet DA, Nichols JL, Alao MO, Carande-Kulis VG. et al. “Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to reduce alcohol-impaired driving”: Erratum. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23(1):72. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 11691562]
  126. Shults RA, Elder RW, Sleet DA, Nichols JL, Alao MO, Carande-Kulis VG. et al. Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21(4 Suppl):66–88. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 11691562]
  127. Spinks A, Turner C, Nixon J, McClure R. The ‘WHO Safe Communities’ model for the prevention of injury in whole populations. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(2):CD004445. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 15846716]
  128. St Pierre TL, Kaltreider DL, Mark MM, Aikin KJ. Drug prevention in a community setting: a longitudinal study of the relative effectiveness of a three-year primary prevention program in boys & girls clubs across the nation. American Journal of Community Psychology. 1992;20(6):673–706. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 1302446]
  129. Stevens S. Effects of Interventions on Booster Seat Purchase: A Field Study. 2000. No behavioral counseling intervention.
  130. Stewart D. Motor vehicle occupant protection for children. Injury Prevention. 1997;3(4):312. Excluded study designs. [PMC free article: PMC1067863] [PubMed: 9493632]
  131. Streger MR. Keeping kids safe: injury prevention programs in EMS. Emerg Med Serv. 2002;31(6):24. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 12120599]
  132. Stuy M, Green M, Doll J. Child care centers: a community resource for injury prevention. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 1993;14(4):224–9. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 8408664]
  133. Talty J, Sheese J, Gunn S, Stone J, Chappelow M, Wyatt K. et al. Implementing a comprehensive child restraint program in a pediatric hospital: an effective model. Pediatric Nursing. 2000;26(6):619–624. Does not report designated outcomes. [PubMed: 12026365]
  134. Towner E, Dowswell T, Simpson G, Jarvis S. Health promotion in childhood and young adolescence for the prevention of unintentional injuries. Health Promotion Effectiveness Reviews 1996;1–169. Excluded study designs.
  135. Turner C, McClure R, Nixon J, Spinks A. Community-based programs to promote car seat restraints in children 0–16 years - A systematic review. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2005;37(1):77–83. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 15607278]
  136. Vernick JS, Li G, Ogaitis S, MacKenzie EJ, Baker SP, Gielen AC. Effects of high school driver education on motor vehicle crashes, violations, and licensure. Am J Prev Med. 1999;16(1):40–46. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 9921385]
  137. Weinstein ND, Grubb PD, Vautier JS. Increasing automobile seat belt use: an intervention emphasizing risk susceptibility. J Appl Psychol. 1986;71(2):285–290. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 3722078]
  138. Whitlock EP, Polen MR, Green CA, Orleans T, Klein J. Behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce risky/harmful alcohol use by adults: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(7):557–568. No behavioral counseling intervention. [PubMed: 15068985]
  139. Williams G. An Analysis of Prenatal Education Classes: An Early Start to Injury Prevention. University of Kansas, 1988. Does not meet quality criteria; 65% attrition.
  140. Wilson MH, Shock S. Preventing motor vehicle-occupant and pedestrian injuries in children and adolescents. Curr Opin Pediatr. 1993;5(3):284–288. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 8374646]
  141. Winston FK, Durbin DR. Buckle up! Is not enough: enhancing protection of the restrained child. JAMA. 1999;281(22):2070–2072. Excluded study designs. [PubMed: 10367804]
  142. Wojtowicz GG, Peveler LA, Eddy JM, Waggle SB, Fitzhugh EC. The Midfield High School safety belt incentive program. J Sch Health. 1992;62(9):407–410. Not primary care feasible. [PubMed: 1479835]
  143. Worden JK, Flynn BS, Merrill DG, Waller JA, Haugh LD. Preventing alcohol-impaired driving through community self-regulation training. Am J Public Health. 1989;79(3):287–290. Not primary care feasible. [PMC free article: PMC1349548] [PubMed: 2464949]
  144. Wright M, Rivara RP, Ferse D. Evaluation of the Think First head and spinal cord injury prevention program. Inj Prev. 1995;1(2):81–85. Not primary care feasible. [PMC free article: PMC1067557] [PubMed: 9346001]
  145. Zaza S, Sleet DA, Thompson RS, Sosin DM, Bolen JC. Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to increase use of child safety seats. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21(4):31–47. SER used as source document. [PubMed: 11691560]
  146. Zonfrillo MR, Mello MJ, Palmisciano LM. Usefulness of computerized pediatric motor vehicle safety discharge instructions. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(10):1131–1133. Does not meet quality criteria; outcome 96 hours after discharge. [PubMed: 14525750]
Cover of Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Motor Vehicle Occupant Injuries
Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Motor Vehicle Occupant Injuries [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses, No. 51.
Williams S, Whitlock E, Smith P, et al.

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