Inclusion Criteria
Meets criteria for KQs 4, 5, or 5a and:
Drugs: opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and mixed drugs
Study designs: systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) & controlled clinical trials (CCTs), RCTs, CCTs
Publication years: 1994-present,or earlier years if identified in systematic reviews or the 1996 USPSTF report
Populations: adolescents/teens 12–17, young adults 18–25, adults 26+, or pregnant women
Intermediate outcomes: abstinence, decreased use, time to relapse, risk behaviors, social/legal.
Health outcomes: morbidity (infant outcomes, injuries, medical conditions, mental health disorders, quality of life, STD transmission, utilization, violence/unintentional) and mortality.
Conducted in an U.S. applicable country
Primary care feasible or referable: see end of appendix for definitions
Special population (e.g., mentally ill; tracked, but not included)
Exclusion Criteria
Does not evaluate an intervention targeting drug use, misuse, or abuse
Other drugs besides opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and mixed drugs
Non-English abstract
Non-humans
Setting: Intervention not done in primary care, primary care-feasible or widely available for primary care referral
Population: Selective population not normally seen in primary care (e.g. patients recruited from ER or other specialty setting who are injured or on drugs and do not represent a general patient population
Country: Study not conducted in a country applicable to the US population
Outcomes: Does not report designated outcomes
Study quality: Does not meet USPSTF criteria for quality
Study designs: Studies not identified in systematic reviews, authoritative review, comparative effectiveness studies, editorials, letters, non-systematic reviews, non-comparative studies, case control studies, case studies, comment/opinion, protocol (no data), pilot studies, abstracts only, etc.

From: Appendix B. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

Cover of Screening in Primary Care Settings for Illicit Drug Use: Staged Systematic Review for the United States Preventive Services Task Force
Screening in Primary Care Settings for Illicit Drug Use: Staged Systematic Review for the United States Preventive Services Task Force [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses, No. 58.1.
Polen MR, Whitlock EP, Wisdom JP, et al.

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