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Nygren P, Fu R, Freeman M, et al. Screening and Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Systematic Review to Update the 2001 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2008 Jan. (Evidence Syntheses, No. 57.)

Appendix C. Excluded Studies at the Full Text Level


Alanen A. Does screening reduce preterm births? BMJ. 2004;329(7462):374. Wrong study design. [PMC free article: PMC509341] [PubMed: 15310607]
Ancel PY. Perspectives in the prevention of premature birth. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;117(Suppl 1):S2–5. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15530710]
Andrews WW, Hauth JC, Goldenberg RL. Infection and preterm birth. Am J Perinatol. 2000;17(7):357–365. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12141522]
Andrews WW, Sibai BM, Thom EA. et al. Randomized clinical trial of metronidazole plus erythromycin to prevent spontaneous preterm delivery in fetal fibronectin-positive women. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(5 Pt 1):847–855. Evaluates risk factors. [PubMed: 12738139]
Andy C. Antibiotic use and preterm labor: attitudes and practice patterns of North Carolina obstetric providers. J Women's Health. 2003;12(9):903–909. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 14670170]
Arredondo JL, Higuera F, Hidalgo H. et al. Clindamycin vaginal cream vs. oral metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Arch STD HIV Res. 1992;6(3):183–195. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12317784]
Arredondo JL, Higuera F, Lourdes NM. et al. New treatment alternatives in bacterial vaginosis. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 1994;62(AUG):226–234. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 7959144]
Audisio T, Penacino M, Cannistraci R. et al. Detection of bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis infection, and vaginal Candida infection: a comparative study of methods of extracting exudates, with and without a speculum, during pregnancy. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2005;9(4):213–215. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 16205190]
Azargoon A, Darvishzadeh S. Association of bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, and vaginal acidity with outcome of pregnancy. Arch Iran Med. 2006;9(3):213–7. Evaluates risk factors. [PubMed: 16859053]
Balu RB, Savitz DA, Ananth CV. et al. Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal fluid defensins during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187(5):1267–1271. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 12439518]
Bayo M, Berlanga M, Agut M. Vaginal microbiota in healthy pregnant women and prenatal screening of group B streptococci (GBS) Int Microbiol. 2002;5(2):87–90. Prevalence data only. [PubMed: 12180785]
Begum A, Nilufar S, Akther K. et al. Prevalence of selected reproductive tract infections among pregnant women attending an urban maternal and childcare unit in Dhaka, Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003;21(2):112–116. Prevalence data only. [PubMed: 13677438]
Benedetto C, Tibaldi C, Marozio L. et al. Cervicovaginal infections during pregnancy: epidemiological and microbiological aspects. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;16(Suppl 2):9–12. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15590426]
Berger A, Kane KY. Clindamycin for vaginosis reduces prematurity and late miscarriage. J Fam Pract. 2003;52(8):603–604. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12899814]
Boskey ER, Atherly-Trim SA, O'Campo PJ. et al. Acceptability of a self-sampling technique to collect vaginal smears for gram stain diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Women's Health Issues. 2004;14(1):14–18. Evaluates test efficacy. [PMC free article: PMC1839853] [PubMed: 15001184]
Brocklehurst P, Hannah M, McDonald H. Interventions for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.[update in Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD000262; PMID: 12804393]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000 (2): CD000262. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 10796189]
Brown D Jr. Clinical variability of bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis. J Reprod Med. 2004;49(10):781–786. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15568400]
Burtin P, Taddio A, Ariburnu O. et al. Safety of metronidazole in pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172:525–529. Covered by previous report. [PubMed: 7856680]
Camargo RP, Simoes JA, Cecatti JG. et al. Impact of treatment for bacterial vaginosis on prematurity among Brazilian pregnant women: a retrospective cohort study. Sao Paulo Medical Journal/Revista Paulista de Medicina. 2005 May 2;123(3):108–12. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 16021272]
Carey JC, Klebanoff MA. Is a change in the vaginal flora associated with an increased risk of preterm birth? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(4):1341–1346. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15846235]
Carey JC, Klebanoff MA. Bacterial vaginosis and other asymptomatic vaginal infections in pregnancy. Curr Womens Health Rep. 2001;1(1):14–19. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12112946]
Carey JC, Klebanoff MA. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. What have we learned about vaginal infections and preterm birth? Semin Perinatol. 2003;27(3):212–216. Covered by previous report. [PubMed: 12889588]
Caro-Paton T, Carvajal A, Martin de Diego I. et al. Is metronidazole teratogenic? A meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1997;44(2):179–182. Wrong study design. [PMC free article: PMC2042833] [PubMed: 9278206]
Chaijareenont K, Sirimai K, Boriboonhirunsarn D. et al. Accuracy of Nugent's score and each Amsel's criteria in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004;87(11):1270–1274. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 15825698]
Chandran R. Cochrane for clinicians: putting evidence into practice. Screening for and treating asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2002;66(5):780–782. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12322768]
Dodd JM, Flenady V, Cincotta R, et al. Prenatal administration of progesterone for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2005. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 16437505]
Cottrell BH, Shannahan M. Maternal bacterial vaginosis and fetal/infant mortality in eight Florida counties, 1999 to 2000. Public Health Nurs. 2004;21(5):395–403. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15363019]
Culhane JF, Desanto D, Goldenberg RL. et al. Variation in Nugent score and leukocyte count in fluid collected from different vaginal sites. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(1):120–123. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 15625152]
Darwish AM, Makarem MH, Alnashar EM. et al. Screening for bacterial vaginosis in high-risk pregnancy: the experience of a developing country. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005;84(5):483–485. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15842214]
Donders GG. Treatment of sexually transmitted bacterial diseases in pregnant women. Drugs. 2000;59(3):477–485. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 10776830]
Duff P, Lee ML, Hillier SL. et al. Amoxicillin treatment of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;77(3):431–435. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 1992412]
Eckert LO, Moore DE, Patton DL. et al. Relationship of vaginal bacteria and inflammation with conception and early pregnancy loss following in-vitro fertilization. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2003;11(1):11–17. Wrong population. [PMC free article: PMC1852261] [PubMed: 12839628]
Fiorilli A, Molteni B, Milani M. Successful treatment of bacterial vaginosis with a policarbophil-carbopol acidic vaginal gel: results from a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005;120(2):202–205. Wrong population. [PubMed: 15925053]
French JI, McGregor JA, Parker R. Readily treatable reproductive tract infections and preterm birth among black women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194(6):1717–26. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 16731091]
Gjerdingen D, Fontaine P, Bixby M. et al. The impact of regular vaginal pH screening on the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. J Fam Pract. 2000;49(1):39–43. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 10678339]
Goffinet F. Primary predictors of preterm labour. BJOG. 2005;112(Suppl 1):38–47. Evaluates risk factors. [PubMed: 15715593]
Goldenberg RL, Hauth JC, Andrews WW. Intrauterine infection and preterm delivery. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(20):1500–1507. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 10816189]
Greene JF 3rd, Kuehl TJ, Allen SR. The papanicolaou smear: inadequate screening test for bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182(5):1048–1049. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 10819823]
Hauth JC, Macpherson C, Carey JC. et al. Early pregnancy threshold vaginal pH and Gram stain scores predictive of subsequent preterm birth in asymptomatic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188(3):831–835. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12634666]
Hitti J, Hillier SL, Agnew KJ. et al. Vaginal indicators of amniotic fluid infection in preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;97(2):211–219. Wrong population. [PubMed: 11165584]
Hollier LM, Workowski K. Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases in women. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2003;30(4):751–775. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 14719849]
Honest H, Bachmann LM, Knox EM. et al. The accuracy of various tests for bacterial vaginosis in predicting preterm birth: a systematic review. BJOG. 2004;111(5):409–422. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 15104603]
Hoyme UB, Saling E. Efficient prematurity prevention is possible by pH-self measurement and immediate therapy of threatening ascending infection. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;115(2):148–153. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 15262346]
Jacobsson B, Pernevi P, Chidekel L. et al. Bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy may predispose for preterm birth and postpartum endometritis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81(11):1006–1010. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12421167]
Jeffcoat MK, Geurs NC, Reddy MS. et al. Periodontal infection and preterm birth. J Am Dent Assoc. 2001;132:875–878. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 11480640]
Jeffcoat MK, Geurs NC, Reddy MS. et al. Current evidence regarding periodontal disease as a risk factor for preterm birth. Ann Periodontol. 2001;6:183–188. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 11887462]
Joesoef M, Schmid G. Bacterial vaginosis. Clin Evid. 2003(10):1824–1833. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15555177]
Kalinka J, Hanke W, Wasiela M. et al. Socioeconomic and environmental risk factors of bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy. J Perinat Med. 2002;30(6):467–475. Evaluates risk factors. [PubMed: 12530102]
Kalinka J, Laudanski T, Hanke W. et al. Do microbiological factors account for poor pregnancy outcome among unmarried pregnant women in Poland? Fetal Diagn Ther. 2003;18(5):345–352. Evaluates risk factors. [PubMed: 12913347]
Kazy Z, Puho E, Czeizel AE. The possible association between the combination of vaginal metronidazole and miconazole treatment and poly-syndactyly Population-based case-control teratologic study. Reprod Toxicol. 2005;20(1):89–94. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15808791]
Kazy Z, Puho E, Czeizel AE. Gestational age and prevalence of preterm birth after vaginal metronidazole treatment during pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004;87(2):161–162. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15491568]
Kekki M, Kurki T, Kotomaki T. et al. Cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment for bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy among women at low risk for preterm birth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83(1):27–36. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 14678083]
Kekki M, Kurki T, Kurkinen-Raty M, et al. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy predisposes to infectious morbidity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter intervention trial with vaginal clindamycin. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1999;67(Suppl 2). Covered by prior report.
Kekki M, Kurki T, Paavonen J, et al. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in cervix as a marker of infectious complications in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. Lancet. 1999;353(9163). Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 10232319]
Kekki M, Kurki T, Polkonen J, et al. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy is associated with infectious morbidity - a randomized placebo-controlled trial with vaginal clindamycin. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Vol. 1996;75(87). Covered by prior report.
Kekki M, Kurki TP, Polkonen J, et al. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy is associated with increased infectious morbidity - a randomized placebo-controlled intervention trial with vaginal clindamycin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1996; vol 75. Covered by prior report.
King EA, Britt R, McFarlane JM, Hawkins C. Bacterial vaginosis and Chlamydia trachomatis among pregnant abused and nonabused Hispanic women. JOGN Nurs. 2000;29(6):606–612. Prevalence data only. [PubMed: 11110331]
Kirkham C, Harris S, Grzybowski S. Evidence-based prenatal care: part II. Third-trimester care and prevention of infectious diseases. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71(8):1555–1560. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15864896]
Klebanoff MA, Hauth JC, MacPherson CA. et al. Time course of the regression of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy with and without treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190(2):363–370. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 14981375]
Klebanoff MA, Hillier SL, Nugent RP. et al. Is bacterial vaginosis a stronger risk factor for preterm birth when it is diagnosed earlier in gestation? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(2):470–477. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15695989]
Klein LL, Gibbs RS. Use of microbial cultures and antibiotics in the prevention of infection-associated preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190(6):1493–1502. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15284720]
Koumans EH, Kendrick JS. Preventing adverse sequelae of bacterial vaginosis: a public health program and research agenda. Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28(5):292–297. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 11354269]
Koumans EH, Markowitz LE, Hogan V. et al. Indications for therapy and treatment recommendations for bacterial vaginosis in nonpregnant and pregnant women: a synthesis of data. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(Suppl 2):S152–172. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12353202]
Lamont RF. Infection in the prediction and antibiotics in the prevention of spontaneous preterm labour and preterm birth. BJOG. 2003;110(Suppl 20):71–75. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12763116]
Lamont RF, Jones BM, Mandal D. et al. The efficacy of vaginal clindamycin for the treatment of abnormal genital tract flora in pregnancy. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2003;11(4):181–189. Evaluates test efficacy. [PMC free article: PMC1852293] [PubMed: 15108863]
Lamont RF. Recent evidence associated with the condition of preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2003;15(2):91–99. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 12634599]
Lamont RF, Sheehan M, Morgan DJ, et al. Safety and efficacy of clindamycin intravaginal cream for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1999;67(Suppl 2). Covered by prior report.
Lamont RF, Taylor-Robinson D. Review of the accuracy of various diagnostic tests for bacterial vaginosis to predict preterm birth. BJOG. 2005;112(2):259–260. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 15663596]
Larsson PG, Bergstrom M, Forsum U. et al. Bacterial vaginosis. Transmission, role in genital tract infection and pregnancy outcome: an enigma. APMIS. 2005;113(4):233–245. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15865604]
Larsson PG, Forsum U. Bacterial vaginosis—a disturbed bacterial flora and treatment enigma. APMIS. 2005;113(5):305–316. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 16011656]
Lazar PA. Does oral metronidazole prevent preterm delivery in normal-risk pregnant women with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis? J Fam Pract. 2000;49(6):495–496. Covered by prior report. [PubMed: 10923545]
Leitich H, Bodner-Adler B, Brunbauer M. et al. Bacterial vaginosis as a risk factor for preterm delivery: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189(1):139–147. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12861153]
Leitich H, Brunbauer M, Bodner-Adler B. et al. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188(3):752–758. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12634652]
Libman MD, Kramer M, Platt R. et al. Comparison of Gram and Kopeloff stains in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006 Mar;54(3):197–201. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 16427240]
Mastrobattista JM, Bishop KD, Newton ER. Wet smear compared with gram stain diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96(4):504–506. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 11004348]
Mathew R, Kalyani J, Bibi R. et al. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in antenatal women. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2001;44(2):113–116. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 11883123]
McDonald H, Brocklehurst P, Parsons J. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy [Systematic Review] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;4:4. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15674870]
McDonald H, Brocklehurst P, Parsons J. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy [Systematic Review]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006:2. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12804393]
McDonald HM, O'Loughlin JA, Vigneswaran R. et al. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy and efficacy of short-course oral metronidazole treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;84(3):343–348. Covered by prior report. [PubMed: 8058228]
McGregor JA, French JI, Parker R. et al. Prevention of premature birth by screening and treatment for common genital tract infections: results of a prospective controlled evaluation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;173(1):157–167. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 7631673]
McGregor JA, French JI, Seo K. Adjunctive clindamycin therapy for preterm labor: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165(4 Pt 1):867–875. Covered by prior report. [PubMed: 1951545]
Mertz HL, Ernest JM. Antibiotics and preterm labor. Current Women's Health Reports. 2001;1(1):20–26. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12112947]
Miller L, Thomas K, Hughes JP. et al. Randomised treatment trial of bacterial vaginosis to prevent post-abortion complication. BJOG. 2004;111(9):982–988. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 15327614]
Molteni B, D'Antuono A, Bandini P. et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a new chlorhexidine-based vaginal gel in vaginal infections. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004;20(6):849–853. Wrong population. [PubMed: 15200742]
Morgan DJ, Aboud CJ, McCaffrey IM. et al. Comparison of Gram-stained smears prepared from blind vaginal swabs with those obtained at speculum examination for the assessment of vaginal flora. BJOG. 1996;103(11):1105–1108. Covered by prior report. [PubMed: 8916997]
Myers ER. Screening for bacterial vaginosis to prevent preterm birth: assessing effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83(1):2–3. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 14678078]
National Institute of Clinical Excellence. Antenatal care: Routine care for the healthy pregnant woman. 2003. Available at: http://www​.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG6. Accessed Nov 11, 2006. Wrong study design.
Nelson DB, Bellamy S, Gray TS, Nachamkin I. Self-collected versus provider-collected vaginal swabs for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: an assessment of validity and reliability. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003;56(9):862–866. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 14505771]
Nelson DB, Macones G. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: current findings and future directions. Epidemiol Rev. 2002;24(2):102–108. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12762086]
Neri A, Sabah G, Samra Z. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy treated with yoghurt. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1993;72(1):17–19. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 8382424]
Oakeshott P, Hay P, Hay S. et al. Association between bacterial vaginosis or chlamydial infection and miscarriage before 16 weeks' gestation: prospective community based cohort study. BMJ. 2002;325(7376):1334. Wrong study design. [PMC free article: PMC137811] [PubMed: 12468483]
Obata-Yasuoka M, Ba-Thein W, Hamada H. et al. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic method for bacterial vaginosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100(4):759–764. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 12383546]
Okun N, Gronau KA, Hannah ME. Antibiotics for bacterial vaginosis or Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnancy: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(4):857–868. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15802417]
Ovalle A, Martinez MA, Kakarieka E. et al. Antibiotic administration in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes reduces the rate of histological chorioamnionitis: a prospective, randomized, controlled study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;12(1):35–41. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 12422907]
Pastore LM, King TS, Dawson IJ. et al. Prospective validation of a perinatal bacterial vaginosis screening risk score. J Perinatol. 2004;24(12):735–742. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 15306827]
Pastore LM, Thorp JM Jr, Royce RA. et al. Risk score for antenatal bacterial vaginosis: BV PIN points. J Perinatol. 2002;22(2):125–132. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 11896517]
Pawlaczyk M, Friebe Z, Pawlaczyk MT. et al. The effect of treatment for vaginal yeast infection on the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2006;14(1):26–29. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 16603098]
Potter B, Jhorden L, Alfonsi G. Clinical inquiries. Should we screen for bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic patients at risk for preterm labor? J Fam Pract. 2004;53(10):827–831. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15469780]
Purwar M, Ughade S, Bhagat B. et al. Bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2001;27(4):175–181. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 11721727]
Ramsey PS, Lyon MD, Goepfert AR. et al. Use of vaginal polymorphonuclear to epithelial cell ratios for the prediction of preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(1):139–144. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15625155]
Raynes-Greenow CH, Roberts CL, Bell JC. et al. Antibiotics for ureaplasma in the vagina in pregnancy [Systematic Review] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;4:4. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 21901685]
Reid G, Burton J, Devillard E. The rationale for probiotics in female urogenital healthcare. MedGenMed. 2004;6(1):49. Wrong population. [PMC free article: PMC1140735] [PubMed: 15208560]
Riggs MA, Klebanoff MA. Treatment of vaginal infections to prevent preterm birth: a meta-analysis. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2004;47(4):796–807. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15596934]
Romero R, Espinoza J, Chaiworapongsa T. et al. Infection and prematurity and the role of preventive strategies. Semin Neonatal. 2002;7:259–274. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12401296]
Rosenstein IJ, Morgan DJ, Lamont RF. et al. Effect of intravaginal clindamycin cream on pregnancy outcome and on abnormal vaginal microbial flora of pregnant women. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2000;8(34):158–165. Wrong study design. [PMC free article: PMC1784677] [PubMed: 10968599]
Rosenstein IJ, Morgan DJ, Sheehan M, et al. Effect of topical clindamycin on bacterial vaginosis and outcome of pregnancy. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1999;67(Suppl 2). Covered by prior report.
Rosnes J, Network NM. Does vaginal ph or gram stain score alter the likelihood of successful metronidazole treatment of bacterial vaginosis or trichomonas vaginalis during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187(6 (Pt 2). Evaluates test efficacy.
Schmidt H, Hansen JG. Validity of wet-mount bacterial morphotype identification of vaginal fluid by phase-contrast microscopy for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in family practice. APMIS. 2001;109(9):589–594. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 11878711]
Schoeman J, Steyn PS, Odendaal HJ. et al. Bacterial vaginosis diagnosed at the first antenatal visit better predicts preterm labour than diagnosis later in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;25(8):751–753. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 16368577]
Sheffield JS, Andrews WW, Klebanoff MA. et al. Spontaneous resolution of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(3):557–562. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 15738024]
Shennan A, Crawshaw S, Briley A. et al. A randomised controlled trial of metronidazole for the prevention of preterm birth in women positive for cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin: the PREMET Study. BJOG. 2006 Jan;113(1):65–74. Wrong population. [PubMed: 16398774]
Shimano S, Nishikawa A, Sonoda T. et al. Analysis of the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 6083 pregnant women at a hospital in Otaru, Japan. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2004;30(3):230–236. Prevalence data only. [PubMed: 15210049]
Smaill F. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy [Systematic Review] Cochrane DatabaseSyst Rev. 2005;4:4. Out of scope of review. [PubMed: 26252501]
Smart S, Singal A, Mindel A. Social and sexual risk factors for bacterial vaginosis. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80(1):58–62. Wrong study design. [PMC free article: PMC1758378] [PubMed: 14755039]
Sobel JD. What's new in bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis? Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2005;19(2):387–406. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 15963878]
Stetzer BP, Mercer BM. Antibiotics and preterm labor. Clin Obstetrics Gynecol. 2000;43(4):809–817. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 11100298]
Steyn PS, Odendaal HJ, Schoeman J. et al. A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of ascorbic acid supplementation for the prevention of preterm labour. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;23(2):150–155. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12745558]
Strauss RA, Eucker B, Savitz DA. et al. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis from self-obtained vaginal swabs. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2005;13(1):31–35. Evaluates test efficacy. [PMC free article: PMC1784556] [PubMed: 16040325]
Surbek DV, Hoesli IM, Holzgreve W. Morphology assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography differs in patients in preterm labor with vs. without bacterial vaginosis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2000;15(3):242–245. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 10846781]
Taylor-Robinson D, Morgan DJ, Sheehan M. et al. Relation between gram-stain and clinical criteria for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis with special reference to gram grade II evaluation. Int J STD AIDS. 2003;14(1):6–10. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 12590785]
Tebes CC, Lynch C, Sinnott J. The effect of treating bacterial vaginosis on preterm labor. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2003;11(2):123–129. Wrong study design. [PMC free article: PMC1852276] [PubMed: 14627219]
Thinkhamrop J, Hofmeyr GJ, Adetoro O. et al. Prophylactic antibiotic administration in pregnancy to prevent infectious morbidity and mortality [Systematic Review] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;4:4. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 12519571]
Tokyol C, Aktepe OC, Cevrioglu AS. et al. Bacterial vaginosis: comparison of Pap smear and microbiological test results. Mod Pathol. 2004;17(7):857–860. Evaluates test efficacy. [PubMed: 15073605]
Ugwumadu A, Reid F, Hay P. et al. Natural history of bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora in pregnancy and effect of oral clindamycin. Obstetrics Gynecol. 2004;104(1):114–119. Prevalence data only. [PubMed: 15229009]
Ugwumadu AH. Cervical morphology in pregnancy, bacterial vaginosis and the risk of preterm delivery. Ultrasound Obstetrics Gynecol. 2000;15(3):174–176. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 10846769]
Ugwumadu AH. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2002;14(2):115–118. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 11914687]
Varma R, Gupta JK. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: multiple meta-analyses and dilemmas in interpretation. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;124:10–14. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 16129546]
Verhelst R, Verstraelen H, Claeys G. et al. Comparison between Gram stain and culture for the characterization of vaginal microflora: definition of a distinct grade that resembles grade I microflora and revised categorization of grade I microflora. BMC Microbiol. 2005;5:61. Evaluates test efficacy. [PMC free article: PMC1266370] [PubMed: 16225680]
Vermeulen GM, van Zwet AA, Bruinse HW. Changes in the vaginal flora after two percent clindamycin vaginal cream in women at high risk of spontaneous preterm birth. BJOG. 2001;108(7):697–700. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 11467693]
Vigneswaran R, O'Loughlin JA, McDonald HM, et al. Metronidazole treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy, and effect on preterm birth. Prenat Neonatal Med. Vol. 1996;1(1). Wrong study design.
Wasiela M, Krzeminski Z, Hanke W. et al. [Diagnostic value of Gram stain for assessment of vaginal smears during pregnancy] Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2004;56(1):93–98. Not available in English. [PubMed: 15524400]
Witt A, Petricevic L, Kaufmann U. et al. DNA hybridization test: rapid diagnostic tool for excluding bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women with symptoms suggestive of infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40(8):3057–3059. Evaluates test efficacy. [PMC free article: PMC120636] [PubMed: 12149379]
Yen S, Shafer MA, Moncada J. et al. Bacterial vaginosis in sexually experienced and non-sexually experienced young women entering the military. Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;102(5 Pt 1):927–933. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 14672465]
Yudin MH. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: diagnosis, screening, and management. Clin Perinatol. 2005;32(3):617–627. Wrong study design. [PubMed: 16085023]
Yudin MH, Landers DV, Hillier SL. Cytokine profiles in response to bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy before and after treatment with oral or vaginal metronidazole. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2002;10(Suppl 1). Wrong population.
Cover of Screening and Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Systematic Review to Update the 2001 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation
Screening and Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Systematic Review to Update the 2001 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses, No. 57.
Nygren P, Fu R, Freeman M, et al.


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