PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Norris SL, Carson S, Thakurta S, et al. Drug Class Review: Thiazolidinediones: Final Report Update 1 [Internet]. Portland (OR): Oregon Health & Science University; 2008 Aug.

Appendix DExcluded papers

160 papers were excluded after reviewing the full-text of the paper. Exclusion codes are shown below:


1 = Foreign language

2 = Other outcome

3 = Wrong drug (including combination therapy)

4 = Wrong population

5 = Wrong publication type (letter, editorial, non-systematic review, case report, case series <10 patients)

6 = Wrong design (including placebo trials ≤ 3 months’ duration, dose-ranging study, pharmacokinetics, single-dose study, drug interaction)

7 = cannot find the study

8 = duplicated study

AO = abstract only

Aljabri, K., Kozak, S.E., Thompson, D.M. Addition of pioglitazone or bedtime insulin to maximal doses of sulfonylurea and metformin in type 2 diabetes patients with poor glucose control: a prospective, randomized trial. Am. J. Med. 2004; 116 (4):230–5.2
Al-Salman, J., Arjomand, H., Kemp, D. G., Mittal, M. Hepatocellular injury in a patient receiving rosiglitazone. A case report. Ann. Intern. Med. 2000; 132 (2):121–4.5
Alsheikh-Ali, A. A., Abourjaily, H. M., Karas, R. H. Risk of adverse events with concomitant use of atorvastatin or simvastatin and glucose-lowering drugs (thiazolidinediones, metformin, sulfonylurea, insulin, and acarbose). Am J Cardiol 2002; 89 (11):1308–10.6
Alsheikh-Ali, A. A., Karas, R. H. Adverse events with concomitant use of simvastatin or atorvastatin and thiazolidinediones. Am J Cardiol 2004; 93 (11):1417–8.6
Anderson Jr, D. C. Pharmacologic prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann. Pharmacother. 2005; 39 (1):102–9.5
Angelo, J. B., Huang, J., Carden, D. Diabetes prevention: A review of current literature. Advanced Studies in Medicine 2005; 5 (5):250–9.5
Anonymous. Improved risk profile with pioglitazone. Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis 2003; 3:446.5
Anonymous. Inhaled insulin superior to rosiglitazone in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. Formulary 2003; 38:408.5
Anonymous. Insulin sensitizer has favorable effects on blood pressure, lipids. Formulary 2004; 39:346.5
Anonymous. Lipid effects of pioglitazone studied. Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis 2004; 4:209.5
Asnani, S., Richard, B. C., Desouza, C., Fonseca, V. Is weight loss possible in patients treated with thiazolidinediones? Experience with a low-calorie diet. Curr Med Res Opin 2003; 19 (7):609–13.6
Baba, S. Pioglitazone: a review of Japanese clinical studies. Curr Med Res Opin. 17 (3):166–89.2
Baba, T., Shimada, K., Neugebauer, S., Yamada, D., Hashimoto, S., Watanabe, T. The oral insulin sensitizer, thiazolidinedione, increases plasma vascular endothelial growth factor in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2001; 24 (5):953–4.5
Bailey, C. J., Day, C. Antidiabetic drugs. Br J Cardiol 2003; 10 (2):128–36.5
Bajaj, M., Suraamornkul, S., Piper, P., Hardies, L. J., Glass, L., Cersosimo, E., Pratipanawatr, T., Miyazaki, Y., DeFronzo, R. A. Decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations are closely related to hepatic fat content and hepatic insulin resistance in pioglitazone-treated type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89 (1):200–6.6
Bajaj, M., Suraamornkul, S., Pratipanawatr, T., Hardies, L. J., Pratipanawatr, W., Glass, L., Cersosimo, E., Miyazaki, Y., DeFronzo, R. A. Pioglitazone reduces hepatic fat content and augments splanchnic glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2003; 52 (6):1364–70.5
Bakris, G., Viberti, G., Weston, W. M., Heise, M., Porter, L. E., Freed, M. I. Rosiglitazone reduces urinary albumin excretion in type II diabetes. J Hum Hypertens 2003; 17 (1):7–12.2
Baksi, A., James, R. E., Zhou, B., Nolan, J. J. Comparison of uptitration of gliclazide with the addition of rosiglitazone to gliclazide in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on half-maximal doses of a sulphonylurea. Acta Diabetol. 2004; 41 (2):63–9.2
Balkrishnan, R., Rajagopalan, R., Shenolikar, R. A., Camacho, F. T., Whitmire, J. T., Anderson, R. T. Healthcare costs and prescription adherence with introduction of thiazolidinedione therapy in Medicaid type 2 diabetic patients: a retrospective data analysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 20 (10):1633–40.2
Belcher, G., Matthews, D. R. Safety and tolerability of pioglitazone. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2000; 108 (Suppliment 2):S267–S73.2
Bell, D. S., Ovalle, F. How long can insulin therapy be avoided in the patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus by use of a combination of metformin and a sulfonylurea? Endocrine Practice 2000; 6 (4):293–5.3
Bell, D. S., Ovalle, F. Outcomes of initiation of therapy with once-daily combination of a thiazolidinedione and a biguanide at an early stage of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 2004; 6 (5):363–6.6
Bell, D. S. H. Management of type 2 diabetes with thiazolidinediones: Link between (beta)-cell preservation and durability of response. Endocrinologist 2004; 14 (5):293–9.5
Bell, D. S. H., Ovalle, F. Long-term efficacy of triple oral therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract 2002; 8 (4):271–5.2
Bell, D. S. H., Ovalle, F. Tissue triglyceride levels in type 2 diabetes and the role of thiazolidinediones in reversing the effects of tissue hypertriglyceridemia: Review of the evidence in animals and humans. Endocr Pract 2001; 7 (2):135–8.6
Berry, P. Severe congestive cardiac failure and ischaemic hepatitis associated with rosiglitazone. Practical Diabetes International 2004; 21 (5):199–200.6
Bertoni, A. G. Achieving control of diabetic risk factors in primary care settings. Am J Manag Care 2001; 7 (4):411–21.5
Bloomgarden, Z. T. Definitions of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome: The 1st World Congress on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 (3):824–30.5
Bloomgarden, Z. T. Dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 (12):3009–16.5
Bluher, M., Lubben, G., Paschke, R. Analysis of the relationship between the Pro12Ala variant in the PPAR-gamma2 gene and the response rate to therapy with pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003; 26 (3):825–31.5
Bonkovsky, H. L., Azar, R., Bird, S., Szabo, G., Banner, B. Severe cholestatic hepatitis caused by thiazolidinediones: risks associated with substituting rosiglitazone for troglitazone. Dig Dis Sci 2002; 47 (7):1632–7.6
Bragg, T. Rosiglitazone and type 2 diabetes mellitus Lancet 2001; 357:1451.5
Bruun, J. M., Pedersen, S. B., Richelsen, B. Interleukin-8 production in human adipose tissue. Inhibitory effects of anti-diabetic compounds, the thiazolidinedione Ciglitazone and the biguanide Metformin. Horm Metab Res 2000; 32 (11–12):537–41.3
Buchanan, T. A. Pancreatic beta-cell loss and preservation in type 2 diabetes. Clin. Ther. 2003; 25 (Suppl. B):B32–B46.2
Burk, M., Morreale, A. P., Cunningham, F. Conversion from troglitazone to rosiglitazone or pioglitazone in the VA: A multicenter DUE. Formulary 2004; 39 (6):310–7.6
Ceriello, A., Johns, D., Widel, M., Eckland, D. J., Gilmore, K. J., Tan, M. H. Comparison of effect of pioglitazone with metformin or sulfonylurea (monotherapy and combination therapy) on postload glycemia and composite insulin sensitivity index during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28 (2):266–72.2
Chan, K. A., Truman, A., Gurwitz, J. H., Hurley, J. S., Martinson, B., Platt, R., Everhart, J. E., Moseley, R. H., Terrault, N., Ackerson, L., Selby, J. V. A cohort study of the incidence of serious acute liver injury in diabetic patients treated with hypoglycemic agents. Arch. Intern. Med. 2003; 163 (6):728–34.6
Chase, M. P., Yarze, J. C. Pioglitazone-associated fulminant hepatic failure. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2002; 97 (2):502–3.6
Cheng, A. Y., Fantus, I. G. Thiazolidinedione-induced congestive heart failure. Ann. Pharmacother. 2004; 38 (5):817–20.6
Chitturi, S., George, J. Hepatotoxicity of commonly used drugs: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensives, antidiabetic agents, anticonvulsants, lipid-lowering agents, psychotropic drugs. Semin. Liver Dis. 2002; 22 (2):169–83.5
Cluxton, R. J., Jr., Li, Z., Heaton, P. C., Weiss, S. R., Zuckerman, I. H., Moomaw, C. J., Hsu, V. D., Rodriguez, E. M. Impact of regulatory labeling for troglitazone and rosiglitazone on hepatic enzyme monitoring compliance: findings from the state of Ohio Medicaid program. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety 2005; 14 (1):1–9.5
Dandona, P., Aljada, A., Chaudhuri, A. Vascular reactivity and thiazolidinediones. Am. J. Med. 2003; 115 Suppl 8A:81S-6S.2
Decsi, T., Molnar, D. Insulin resistance syndrome in children:pathophysiology and potential management strategies. Paediatr Drugs 2003; 5 (5):291–9.2
Derosa, G., Cicero, A. F. G., Murdolo, G., Ciccarelli, L., Fogari, R. Comparison of metabolic effects of orlistat and sibutramine treatment in Type 2 diabetic obese patients. Diabetes, Nutri Metab Clin 2004; 17 (4):222–9.5
Desmet, C., Warzee, B., Gosset, P., Melotte, D., Rongvaux, A., Gillet, L., Fievez, L., Seumois, G., Vanderplasschen, A., Staels, B., Lekeux, P., Bureau, F. Pro-inflammatory properties for thiazolidinediones. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2005; 69 (2):255–65.2
Dhawan, M., Agrawal, R., Ravi, J., Gulati, S., Silverman, J., Nathan, G., Raab, S., Brodmerkel, G., Jr. Rosiglitazone-induced granulomatous hepatitis. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2002; 34 (5):582–4.6
Diamant, M., Heine, R. J. Thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetes mellitus: current clinical evidence. Drugs 2003; 63 (13):1373–405.5
Ebcioglu, Z., Morgan, J., Carey, C., Capuzzi, D. Paradoxical lowering of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in 2 patients receiving fenofibrate and a thiazolidinedione. Ann. Intern. Med. 2003; 139 (9):W80.5
Einhorn, D., Rendell, M., Rosenzweig, J., Egan, J. W., Mathisen, A. L., Schneider, R. L. Pioglitazone hydrochloride in combination with metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clin. Ther. 2000; 22 (12):1395–409.2
Farley-Hills, E., Sivasankar, R., Martin, M. Fatal liver failure associated with pioglitazone. Br. Med. J. 2004; 329 (7463):429.6
Fonarow, G. C. Approach to the management of diabetic patients with heart failure: role of thiazolidinediones. Am. Heart J. 2004; 148 (4):551–8.2
Forman, L. M., Simmons, D. A., Diamond, R. H. Hepatic failure in a patient taking rosiglitazone. Ann. Intern. Med. 2000; 132 (2):118–21.6
Freid, J., Everitt, D., Boscia, J. Rosiglitazone and hepatic failure. Ann. Intern. Med. 2000; 132 (2):164.5
Gale, E. A. M. Lessons from the glitazones: A story of drug development. Lancet 2001; 357 (9271):1870–5.2
Gegick, C. G., Altheimer, M. D. Comparison of effects of thiazolidinediones on cardiovascular risk factors: observations from a clinical practice. Endocr Pract 2001; 7 (3):162–9.5
Goke, B., German Pioglitazone Study, G. Improved glycemic control and lipid profile in a randomized study of pioglitazone compared with acarbose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatments in Endocrinology 2002; 1 (5):329–36.2
Gouda, H. E., Khan, A., Schwartz, J., Cohen, R. I. Liver failure in a patient treated with long-term rosiglitazone therapy. Am. J. Med. 2001; 111 (7):584–5.6
Grossman, E. Rosiglitazone reduces blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in type 2 diabetes: G Bakris et al. J Hum Hypertens 2003; 17 (1):5–6.5
Hachey, D. M., O’Neil, M. P., Force, R. W. Isolated elevation of alkaline phosphatase level associated with rosiglitazone. Ann. Intern. Med. 2000; 133 (9):752.6
Haffner, S. M., Greenberg, A. S., Weston, W. M., Chen, H., Williams, K., Freed, M. I. Effect of rosiglitazone treatment on nontraditional markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 2002; 106 (6):679–84.2
Hanefeld, M., Belcher, G. Safety profile of pioglitazone. Int J Clin Pract. Supplement 2001; (121):27–31.2
Herman, W. H., Dirani, R. G., Horblyuk, R., O’Neill, M. C., Kravitz, B., Heise, M. A., Bakst, A., Freed, M. I., Group, R. S. Reduction in use of healthcare services with combination sulfonylurea and rosiglitazone: findings from the Rosiglitazone Early vs Sulfonylurea Titration (RESULT) study. Am J Manag Care 2005; 11 (4):273–8.5
Hirose, H., Kawai, T., Yamamoto, Y., Taniyama, M., Tomita, M., Matsubara, K., Okazaki, Y., Ishii, T., Oguma, Y., Takei, I., Saruta, T. Effects of pioglitazone on metabolic parameters, body fat distribution, and serum adiponectin levels in Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 2002; 51 (3):314–7.6
Honisett, S. Y., Stojanovska, L., Sudhir, K., Kingwell, B. A., Dawood, T., Komesaroff, P. A. Hormone therapy impairs endothelial function in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with rosiglitazone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89 (9):4615–9.6
Inzucchi, S. E., Kernan, W. N., Viscoli, C. M., Brass, L. M., Bravata, D. M., McVeety, J. C., Horowitz, R. I. Pioglitazone improves insulin resistance after stroke. Diabetes 2002; 51 (Suppl 2):A139.5
Inzucchi, S. E., Masoudi, F. A., Wang, Y., Kosiborod, M., Foody, J. M., Setaro, J. F., Havranek, E. P., Krumholz, H. M. Insulin-sensitizing antihyperglycemic drugs and mortality after acute myocardial infarction: Insights from the national heart care project. Diabetes Care 2005; 28 (7):1680–9.6
Isley, W. L. Glitazones: Good for glycemia. Good for the liver? Diabetes Technol Ther 2003; 5 (1):43–4.5
Isley, W. L. Hepatotoxicity of thiazolidinediones. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 2003; 2 (6):581–6.2
Jovanovic, L., Hassman, D. R., Gooch, B., Jain, R., Greco, S., Khutoryansky, N., Hale, P. M. Treatment of type 2 diabetes with a combination regimen of repaglinide plus pioglitazone. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2004; 63 (2):127–34.5
Kalyoncu, N. I., Yaris, F., Ulku, C., Kadioglu, M., Kesim, M., Unsal, M., Dikici, M., Yaris, E. A case of rosiglitazone exposure in the second trimester of pregnancy. Reprod. Toxicol. 2005; 19 (4):563–4.6
Kane, M. P., Busch, R. S., Bakst, G., Hamilton, R. A. Substitution of pioglitazone for troglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes. Endocr Pract 2004; 10 (1):18–23.5
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Kaneko, T., Baba, S. Clinical efficacy of Pioglitazone (AD-4833)]. Nippon Rinsho - Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine 1997; 55 Suppl:142–6.1
Karter, A. J., Moffet, H. H., Liu, J., Parker, M. M., Ahmed, A. T., Ferrara, A., Selby, J. V. Achieving good glycemic control: initiation of new antihyperglycemic therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry. Am J Manag Care 2005; 11 (4):262–70.5
Kernan, W. N., Inzucchi, S. E., Viscoli, C. M., Brass, L. M., Bravata, D. M., Horwitz, R. I. Insulin resistance and risk for stroke. Neurology 2002; 59 (6):809–15.2
Ko, S. H., Song, K. H., Ahn, Y. B., Yoo, S. J., Son, H. S., Yoon, K. H., Cha, B. Y., Lee, K. W., Son, H. Y., Kang, S. K. The effect of rosiglitazone on serum lipoprotein(a) levels in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 2003; 52 (6):731–4.5
Lawrence, I. G. Rosiglitazone monotherapy and type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2001; 18 (SUPPL. 4):6–8.5
Lawrence, J. M., Reid, J., Taylor, G. J., Stirling, C., Reckless, J. P. Favorable effects of pioglitazone and metformin compared with gliclazide on lipoprotein subfractions in overweight patients with early type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 (1):41–6.2
Lee, W. M. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity. N. Engl. J. Med. 2003; 349 (5):474–85.2
Lenhard, M. J., Funk, W. B. Failure to develop hepatic injury from rosiglitazone in a patient with a history of troglitazone-induced hepatitis. Diabetes Care 2001; 24 (1):168–9.6
Lewin, A. J., Kipnes, M. S., Meneghini, L. F., Plotkin, D. J., Perevozskaya, I. T., Shah, S., Maccubbin, D. L., Mitchel, Y. B., Tobert, J. A., Simvastatin/Thiazolidinedione Study, G. Effects of simvastatin on the lipid profile and attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals when added to thiazolidinedione therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin. Ther. 2004; 26 (3):379–89.6
Lien, L. F., Feinglos, M. N. Protease inhibitor-induced diabetic complications: Incidence, management and prevention. Drug Safety 2005; 28 (3):209–26.2
Maaravi, Y., Stessman, J. Mild, reversible pancytopenia induced by rosiglitazone. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:1536.5
Maeda, K. Hepatocellular injury in a patient receiving pioglitazone. Ann. Intern. Med. 2001; 135 (4):306.6
Malinowski, J. M., Bolesta, S. Rosiglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a critical review. Clin. Ther. 2000; 22 (10):1151–68; discussion 49–50.5
Marcy, T. R., Britton, M. L., Blevins, S. M. Second-generation thiazolidinediones and hepatotoxicity. Ann. Pharmacother. 2004; 38 (9):1419–23.6
Martens, F. M., Visseren, F. L., Lemay, J., de Koning, E. J., Rabelink, T. J. Metabolic and additional vascular effects of thiazolidinediones. Drugs 2002; 62 (10):1463–80.2
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Matthews, D. R. Guidance on rosiglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lancet 2001; 357 (9254):481.5
May, L. D., Lefkowitch, J. H., Kram, M. T., Rubin, D. E. Mixed hepatocellular-cholestatic liver injury after pioglitazone therapy. Ann. Intern. Med. 2002; 136 (6):449–52.6
McCluskey, D., Touger, M. S., Melis, R., Schleusener, D. S., McCluskey, D. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study administering glimepiride to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with rosiglitazone monotherapy. Clin. Ther. 2004; 26 (11):1783–90.2
Miyazaki, Y., He, H., Mandarino, L. J., DeFronzo, R. A. Rosiglitazone improves downstream insulin receptor signaling in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes 2003; 52 (8):1943–50.6
Mudaliar, S., Chang, A. R., Henry, R. R. Thiazolidinediones, peripheral edema, and type 2 diabetes: incidence, pathophysiology, and clinical implications. Endocr Pract 2003; 9 (5):406–16.2
Mukhtar, R., Reckless, J. P. D. Dyslipidaemia in Type 2 diabetes: Effects of the thiazolidinediones pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. Diabet Med, Supplement 2005; 22 (3):6–10.2
Nag, S., McCulloch, A., Jariwala, S. Liver enzymes and rosiglitazone Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis 2003; 3 (1):62–3.6
Nagai, Y., Abe, T., Nomura, G. Does pioglitazone, like troglitazone, increase serum levels of lipoprotein(a) in diabetic patients? Diabetes Care 2001; 24 (2):408–9.2
Nagasaka, S., Abe, T., Kawakami, A., Kusaka, I., Nakamura, T., Ishikawa, S., Saito, T., Ishibashi, S. Pioglitazone-induced hepatic injury in a patient previously receiving troglitazone with success. Diabet Med 2002; 19 (4):347–8.6
Nagasaka, S., Aiso, Y., Yoshizawa, K., Ishibashi, S. Comparison of pioglitazone and metformin efficacy using homeostasis model assessment. Diabet Med 2004; 21 (2):136–41.2
Nagashima, K., Lopez, C., Donovan, D., Ngai, C., Fontanez, N., Bensadoun, A., Fruchart-Najib, J., Holleran, S., Cohn, J. S., Ramakrishnan, R., Ginsberg, H. N. Effects of the PPAR(gamma) agonist pioglitazone on lipoprotein metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J. Clin. Invest. 2005; 115 (5):1323–32.6
Nakamura, T., Ushiyama, C., Osada, S., Shimada, N., Ebihara, I., Koide, H. Effect of pioglitazone on dyslipidemia in hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes. Ren. Fail. 2001; 23 (6):863–4.2
Nesto, R. W., Bell, D., Bonow, R. O., Fonseca, V., Grundy, S. M., Horton, E. S., Le Winter, M., Porte, D., Semenkovich, C. F., Smith, S., Young, L. H., Kahn, R., American Heart, A., American Diabetes, A. Thiazolidinedione use, fluid retention, and congestive heart failure: a consensus statement from the American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association. October 7, 2003. Circulation 2003; 108 (23):2941–8.5
Niemeyer, N. V., Janney, L. M. Thiazolidinedione-induced edema Pharmacotherapy 2002; 22 (7):924–9..5
Normen, L., Frohlich, J., Montaner, J., Harris, M., Elliott, T., Bondy, G. Combination therapy with fenofibrate and rosiglitazone paradoxically lowers serum HDL cholesterol. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 (9):2241–2.6
Ovalle, F., Bell, D. S. Lipoprotein effects of different thiazolidinediones in clinical practice. Endocr Pract 2002; 8 (6):406–10.4
Owens, D. R. Thiazolidinediones: A pharmacological overview. Clin Drug Invest 2002; 22 (8):485–505.2
Padwal, R., Majumdar, S. R., Johnson, J. A., Varney, J., McAlister, F. A. A systematic review of drug therapy to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28 (3):736–44.2
Page, R. L., 2nd, Gozansky, W. S., Ruscin, J. M. Possible heart failure exacerbation associated with rosiglitazone: case report and literature review. Pharmacotherapy 2003; 23 (7):945–54.6
Palmer, A. J., Valentine, W. J., Ray, J. A. Thiazolidinediones for diabetes mellitus: Considerations for reimbursements by third-party payers. Disease Management and Health Outcomes 2004; 12 (6):363–75.2
Panigrahy, D., Shen, L. Q., Kieran, M. W., Kaipainen, A. Therapeutic potential of thiazolidinediones as anticancer agents. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2003; 12 (12):1925–37.2
Parhofer, K. G., Otto, C., Geiss, H. C., Laubach, E., Goke, B. Effect of pioglitazone on lipids in well controlled patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 --results of a pilot study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2005; 113 (1):49–52.5
Patel, C., Wyne, K. L., McGuire, D. K. Thiazolidinediones, peripheral oedema and congestive heart failure: What is the evidence? Diabetes Vasc Disease Research 2005; 2 (2):61–6.5
Pavo, I., Jermendy, G., Varkonyi, T. T., Kerenyi, Z., Gyimesi, A., Shoustov, S., Shestakova, M., Herz, M., Johns, D., Schluchter, B. J., Festa, A., Tan, M. H. Effect of pioglitazone compared with metformin on glycemic control and indicators of insulin sensitivity in recently diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88 (4):1637–45.2
Peters Harmel, A. L., Kendall, D. M., Buse, J. B., Boyle, P. J., Marchetti, A., Lau, H. Impact of adjunctive thiazolidinedione therapy on blood lipid levels and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin 2004; 20 (2):215–23.5
Petersen, K. U. From toxic precursors to safe drugs. Mechanisms and relevance of idiosyncratic drug reactions. Arzneimittelforschung 2002; 52 (6):423–9.5
Petrofsky, J., Lee, S., Bweir, S., Laymon, M. Improvement in Autonomic Function with Rosiglitazone in Type 2 Diabetes. J Appl Res 2003; 3 (3):270–81.5
Pfutzner, A., Marx, N., Lubben, G., Langenfeld, M., Walcher, D., Konrad, T., Forst, T. Improvement of cardiovascular risk markers by pioglitazone is independent from glycemic control: results from the pioneer study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45 (12):1925–31.2
Pinto, A. G., Cummings, O. W., Chalasani, N. Severe but reversible cholestatic liver injury after pioglitazone therapy. Ann. Intern. Med. 2002; 137 (10):857.6
Pistrosch, F., Passauer, J., Fischer, S., Fuecker, K., Hanefeld, M., Gross, P. In type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone therapy for insulin resistance ameliorates endothelial dysfunction independent of glucose control. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 (2):484–90.2
Poulsen, M. K., Henriksen, J. E., Hother-Nielsen, O., Beck-Nielsen, H. The combined effect of triple therapy with rosiglitazone, metformin, and insulin aspart in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2003; 26 (12):3273–92
Ramachandran, A., Snehalatha, C., Salini, J., Vijay, V. Use of glimepiride and insulin sensitizers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes—a study in Indians. J. Assoc. Physicians India 2004; 52:459–63.2
Ramsdell, J. W., Braunstein, S. N., Stephens, J. M., Bell, C. F., Botteman, M. F., Devine, S. T. Economic model of first-line drug strategies to achieve recommended glycaemic control in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus Pharmacoeconomics 2003; 21 (11):819–37.5
Ravinuthala, R. S., Nori, U. Rosiglitazone toxicity. Ann. Intern. Med. 2000; 133 (8):658.6
Raz, I., Mouritzen, U., Vaz, J., Hershkovitz, T., Wainstein, J., Harman-Boehm, I. Addition of biphasic insulin aspart 30 to rosiglitazone in type 2 diabetes mellitus that is poorly controlled with glibenclamide monotherapy. Clin. Ther. 2003; 25 (12):3109–23.6
Rendell, M. S., Glazer, N. B., Ye, Z. Combination therapy with pioglitazone plus metformin or sulfonylurea in patients with Type 2 diabetes: influence of prior antidiabetic drug regimen. J Diabetes Complications 2003; 17 (4):211–7.5
Reusch, J. E. B., Regensteiner, J. G., Watson, P. A. Novel actions of thiazolidinediones on vascular function and exercise capacity. Am. J. Med. 2003; 115 (8 Suppl. 1):69–74.5
Roman Ramos, R., Flores Saenz, J. L. E., Alarcon Aguilar, F. J., Contreras Weber, C. C., Rivas Vilchis, J. F., Trujillo Arriaga, H. M. Normalization of impaired glucose tolerance with rosiglitazone. Investigacion Medica Internacional 2000; 27 (1):9–13.1
Saenz, A., Fernandez-Esteban, I., Mataix, A., Ausejo, M., Roque, M., Moher, D. Metformin monotherapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2005; 3:3.2
Sarafidis, P. A., Lasaridis, A. N., Nilsson, P. M., Hitoglou-Makedou, A. D., Pagkalos, E. M., Yovos, J. G., Pliakos, C. I., Tourkantonis, A. A. The effect of rosiglitazone on urine albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Am. J. Hypertens. 2005; 18 (2):227–34.5
Sarker, A., Semple, R. K., Dinneen, S. F., O’Rahilly, S., Martin, S. C. Severe hypo-alpha-lipoproteinemia during treatment with rosiglitazone. Diabetes Care2004; 27 (11):2577–80.6
Scheen, A. J. Combined thiazolidinedione-insulin therapy: should we be concerned about safety? Drug Safety 2004; 27 (12):841–56.5
Scheen, A. J. Hepatotoxicity with thiazolidinediones: is it a class effect? Drug Safety 2001; 24 (12):873–88.2
Schwartz, S., Sievers, R., Strange, P., Lyness, W. H., Hollander, P. Insulin70/30 mix plus metformin versus triple oral therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes after failure of two oral drugs: Efficacy, safety, and cost analysis. Diabetes Care 2003; 26 (8):2238–43.6
Seino, H., Yamaguchi, H., Misaki, A., Sakata, Y., Kitagawa, M., Yamazaki, T., Kikuchi, H., Abe, R. Clinical effect of combination therapy of pioglitazone and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Curr Med Res Opin 2003; 19 (8):675–82.2
Seufert, J., Lubben, G., Dietrich, K., Bates, P. C. A comparison of the effects of thiazolidinediones and metformin on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin. Ther. 2004; 26 (6):805–18.2
Shadid, S., Jensen, M. D. Angioneurotic edema as a side effect of pioglitazone. Diabetes Care 2002; 25 (2):405.6
Shah, M., Kolandaivelu, A., Fearon, W. F. Pioglitazone-induced heart failure despite normal left ventricular function. Am. J. Med. 2004; 117 (12):973–4.6
Sidhu, J. S., Cowan, D., Kaski, J. C. The effects of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, on markers of endothelial cell activation, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen levels in non-diabetic coronary artery disease patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 42 (10):1757–63.5
Singh, N. Rosiglitazone and heart failure: long-term vigilance. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2004; 9 (1):21–5.6
Srivastava, A. K., Mehdi, M. Z. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of vanadium compounds. Diabetic Medicine 2005; 22 (1):2–13.5
Starkey, K., Heufelder, A., Baker, G., Joba, W., Evans, M., Davies, S., Ludgate, M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in thyroid eye disease: contraindication for thiazolidinedione use? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88 (1):55–9.6
Tan, M. H., Johns, D., Glazer, N. B. Pioglitazone reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin. Chem. 2004; 50 (7):1184–8.2
Thomas, M. L., Lloyd, S. J. Pulmonary edema associated with rosiglitazone and troglitazone.. Ann. Pharmacother. 2001; 35 (1):123–4.6
Tiikkainen, M., Hakkinen, A. M., Korsheninnikova, E., Nyman, T., Makimattila, S., Yki-Jarvinen, H. Effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on liver fat content, hepatic insulin resistance, insulin clearance, and gene expression in adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2004; 53 (8):2169–76.2
Tolman, K. G. Thiazolidinedione hepatotoxicity: a class effect? Int J Clin Pract. Supplement 2000; (113):29–34.5
Viberti, G., Kahn, S. E., Greene, D. A., Herman, W. H., Zinman, B., Holman, R. R., Haffner, S. M., Levy, D., Lachin, J. M., Berry, R. A., Heise, M. A., Jones, N. P., Freed, M. I. A diabetes outcome progression trial (ADOPT): an international multicenter study of the comparative efficacy of rosiglitazone, glyburide, and metformin in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 25 (10):1737–43.2
Vikram, N. K., Misra, A., Devi, J. R. Accelerated hypertension due to rosiglitazone therapy. Indian Heart J. 2002; 54 (6):733.6
Wagstaff, A. J., Goa, K. L. Spotlight on rosiglitazone in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treat Endocrinol 2002; 1 (6):411–4.5
Watanabe, I., Tani, S., Anazawa, T., Kushiro, T., Kanmatsuse, K. Effect of pioglitazone on arteriosclerosis in comparison with that of glibenclamide. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005; 68 (2):104–10.2
Winokur, A., SS, I., GC, E., Urquhart, R., Mariz, S. Time course of efficacy of pioglitazone. Diabetes 2004; 53 (Suppl 2):A482.5
Wooltorton, E. Rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos) and heart failure. CMAJ 2002; 166 (2):219.5
Yamasaki, Y., Kawamori, R., Wasada, T., Sato, A., Omori, Y., Eguchi, H., Tominaga, M., Sasaki, H., Ikeda, M., Kubota, M., Ishida, Y., Hozumi, T., Baba, S., Uehara, M., Shichiri, M., Kaneko, T. Pioglitazone (AD-4833) ameliorates insulin resistance in patients with NIDDM. AD-4833 Glucose Clamp Study Group, Japan. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 1997; 183 (3):173–83.2
Yanagawa, T., Araki, A., Sasamoto, K., Shirabe, S., Yamanouchi, T. Effect of antidiabetic medications on microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 2004; 53 (3):353–7.5
Yang, J., Di, F., He, R., Zhu, X., Wang, D., Yang, M., Wang, Y., Yuan, S., Chen, J. Effect of addition of low-dose rosiglitazone to sulphonylurea therapy on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Chin. Med. J. 2003; 116 (5):785–7.2
Yang, J. K., Di, F. S., He, R. H., Zhu, X. S., Wang, D. Q., Yang, M. G., Wang, Y. G., Yang, T., LiuXh, Chen, J. W. Clinical study on rosiglitazone monotherapy of early type 2 diabetes. China Pharmacy 2002; 13 (10):608–10.2
Yaris, F., Yaris, E., Kadioglu, M., Ulku, C., Kesim, M., Kalyoncu, N. I. Normal pregnancy outcome following inadvertent exposure to rosiglitazone, gliclazide, and atorvastatin in a diabetic and hypertensive woman. Reprod. Toxicol. 2004; 18 (4):619–21.6
Yates, S. W. Comparative effects of available thiazolidinediones: A review of the literature. P and T 2004; 29 (9):584-8+90.5
Yosefy, C., Magen, E., Kiselevich, A., Priluk, R., London, D., Volchek, L., Viskoper, R. J., Jr. Rosiglitazone improves, while Glibenclamide worsens blood pressure control in treated hypertensive diabetic and dyslipidemic subjects via modulation of insulin resistance and sympathetic activity. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 2004; 44 (2):215–22.2
Zhou, Z., Li, X., Huang, G., Peng, J., Yang, L., Yan, X., Wang, J. Rosiglitazone combined with insulin preserves islet beta cell function in adult-onset latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA). Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2005; 21 (2):203–8.4
Zinman, B. PPAR gamma agonists in type 2 diabetes: how far have we come in ‘preventing the inevitable’? A review of the metabolic effects of rosiglitazone. Diabetes Obes Metab 2001; 3 Suppl 1:S34–43.2

Excluded papers Update 1

41 papers were excluded after reviewing full text of the paper.

Excluded StudiesCode
Bailey CJ, Bagdonas A, Rubes J, et al. Rosiglitazone/metformin fixed-dose combination compared with uptitrated metformin alone in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 24-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Clin Ther. Oct 2005;27(10):1548–1561.3
Berhanu P, Kipnes MS, Khan MA, et al. Effects of pioglitazone on lipid and lipoprotein profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia after treatment conversion from rosiglitazone while continuing stable statin therapy.[erratum appears in Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2006 Sep;3(2):71]. Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research. May 2006;3(1):39–44.6
Cao Z, Zhou YJ, Zhao YX, Liu YY, Guo YH, Cheng WJ. Rosiglitazone could improve clinical outcomes after coronary stent implantation in nondiabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Chin Med J. 2006;119(14):1171–1175.2
Cobitz A, Zambanini A, Sowell M, al. e. A retrospective evaluation of congestive heart failure and myocardial ischemia events in 14 237 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in 42 short-term, double-blind, randomized clinical studies with rosiglitazone.. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety. 2008;17:769–781.6
Colucciello M. Vision loss due to macular edema induced by rosiglitazone treatment of diabetes mellitus. Arch Ophthalmol. Sep 2005;123(9):1273–1275.5
Dagdelen S, Gedik O. Rosiglitazone-associated pseudotumour cerebri. Diabetologia. Jan 2006;49(1):207–208.5
Davidson JA, Perez A, Zhang J, The Pioglitazone 343 Study G. Addition of pioglitazone to stable insulin therapy in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: results of a double-blind, multicentre, randomized study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006;8(2):164–174.6
Esposito K, Ciotola M, Carleo D, et al. Effect of rosiglitazone on endothelial function and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(5):1071–1076.2
Feig DS, Briggs GG, Koren G. Oral antidiabetic agents in pregnancy and lactation: a paradigm shift? The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2007;41(7):1174–1180.5
Garg R, Gopal J, Jones GR. Rosiglitazone: safety and efficacy in combination with insulin in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with insulin alone. Journal of diabetes and its complications. 2007;21(1):1–6.6
Goldstein BJ, Weissman PN, Wooddell MJ, Waterhouse BR, Cobitz AR. Reductions in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes with rosiglitazone added to metformin compared with dose escalation of metformin: an EMPIRE trial sub-study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22(9):1715–1723.3
Govindarajan R, Ratnasinghe L, Simmons DL, et al. Thiazolidinediones and the risk of lung, prostate, and colon cancer in patients with diabetes. J Clin Oncol. Apr 20 2007;25(12):1476–1481.2
Hollander P, Yu D, Chou HS. Low-dose rosiglitazone in patients with insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(12):1284–1290.6
Home PD, Bailey CJ, Donaldson J, Chen H, Stewart MW. A double-blind randomized study comparing the effects of continuing or not continuing rosiglitazone + metformin therapy when starting insulin therapy in people with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. Jun 2007;24(6):618–625.6
Investigators DT, Bosch J, Yusuf S, et al. Effect of ramipril on the incidence of diabetes. The New England journal of medicine. 2006;355(15):1551–1562.3
Jacob AN, Salinas K, Adams-Huet B, Raskin P. Weight gain in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007;9(3):386–393.3
Kendall C, Wooltorton E. Rosiglitazone (Avandia) and macular edema. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal. Feb 28 2006;174(5):623.5
Khan M, Murray FT, Karunaratne M, Perez A. Pioglitazone and reductions in post-challenge glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006;8(1):31–38.2
Ko GT, Tsang PC, Wai HP, Kan EC, Chan HC. Rosiglitazone versus bedtime insulin in the treatment of patients with conventional oral antidiabetic drug failure: a 1-year randomized clinical trial. Advances in therapy. 2006;23(5):799–808.6
Meymeh RH, Wooltorton E. Diabetes drug pioglitazone (Actos): risk of fracture. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal. Sep 25 2007;177(7):723–724.5
Nichols GA, Gomez-Caminero A. Weight changes following the initiation of new anti-hyperglycaemic therapies. Diabetes Obes Metab. Jan 2007;9(1):96–102.6
Osei K, Gaillard T, Cook C, Kaplow J, Bullock M, Schuster D. Discrepancies in the regulation of plasma adiponectin and TNF-alpha levels and adipose tissue gene expression in obese African Americans with glucose intolerance: a pilot study using rosiglitazone. Ethnicity & Disease. 2005;15(4):641–648.6
Raz I, Stranks S, Filipczak R, et al. Efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart30 combined with pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes poorly controlled on glibenclamide (glyburide) monotherapy or combination therapy: an 18-week, randomized, open-label study. Clin Ther. 2005;27(9):1432–1443.6
Reynolds LR, Kingsley FJ, Karounos DG, Tannock LR. Differential effects of rosiglitazone and insulin glargine on inflammatory markers, glycemic control, and lipids in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;77(2):180–187.6
Riedel AA, Heien H, Wogen J, Plauschinat CA. Secondary failure of glycemic control for patients adding thiazolidinedione or sulfonylurea therapy to a metformin regimen. Am J Manag Care. Aug 2007;13(8):457–463.6
Riedel AA, Heien H, Wogen J, Plauschinat CA. Loss of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were receiving initial metformin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinedione monotherapy. Pharmacotherapy. Aug 2007;27(8):1102–1110.6
Roden M, Laakso M, Johns D, et al. Long-term effects of pioglitazone and metformin on insulin sensitivity in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic medicine:a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2005;22(8):1101–1106.8
Rosenstock J, Sugimoto D, Strange P, Stewart JA, Soltes-Rak E, Dailey G. Triple therapy in type 2 diabetes: insulin glargine or rosiglitazone added to combination therapy of sulfonylurea plus metformin in insulin-naive patients. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(3):554–559.6
Seber S, Ucak S, Basat O, Altuntas Y. The effect of dual PPAR alpha/gamma stimulation with combination of rosiglitazone and fenofibrate on metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. Jan 2006;71(1):52–58.6
Sivagnanam G. Rosiglitazone and macular edema. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal. Aug 1 2006;175(3):276.5
Stewart MW, Cirkel DT, Furuseth K, et al. Effect of metformin plus roziglitazone compared with metformin alone on glycaemic control in well-controlled Type 2 diabetes. Diabetic medicine:a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2006;23(10):1069–1078.3
Strowig SM, Raskin P. The effect of rosiglitazone on overweight subjects with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(7):1562–1567.4
Tang WHW. Do thiazolidinediones cause heart failure? A critical review.[erratum appears in Cleve Clin J Med. 2006 Jun;73(6):588]. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. Apr 2006;73(4):390–397.5
Tran MT, Navar MD, Davidson MB. Comparison of the glycemic effects of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in triple oral therapy in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. Jun 2006;29(6):1395–1396.6
Triplitt C, Glass L, Miyazaki Y, et al. Comparison of glargine insulin versus rosiglitazone addition in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients on metformin plus sulfonylurea. Diabetes Care. Nov 2006;29(11):2371–2377.6
Turk T, Pietruck F, Dolff S, et al. Repaglinide in the management of new-onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation. American journal of transplantation:official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. 2006;6(4):842–846.3
Villanueva G, Baldwin D. Rosiglitazone therapy of posttransplant diabetes mellitus. Transplantation. Nov 27 2005;80(10):1402–1405.6
Vinik AI, Zhang Q. Adding insulin glargine versus rosiglitazone: health-related quality-of-life impact in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(4):795–800.6
Weissman PN, Goldstein BJ, Rosenstock J, et al. Effects of rosiglitazone added to submaximal doses of metformin compared with dose escalation of metformin in type 2 diabetes: the EMPIRE Study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21(12):2029–2035.6
Xiang AH, Peters RK, Kjos SL, et al. Effect of pioglitazone on pancreatic beta-cell function and diabetes risk in Hispanic women with prior gestational diabetes. Diabetes. Feb 2006;55(2):517–522.4
Yokoyama J, Sutoh N, Higuma T, et al. Efficacy and safety of low-dose pioglitazone after primary coronary angioplasty with the use of bare metal stent in patients with acute myocardial infarction and with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. Heart & Vessels. May 2007;22(3):146–151.6
Copyright © 2008, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.
Cover of Drug Class Review: Thiazolidinediones
Drug Class Review: Thiazolidinediones: Final Report Update 1 [Internet].
Norris SL, Carson S, Thakurta S, et al.
Portland (OR): Oregon Health & Science University; 2008 Aug.

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