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This is an update of a previously published review published in 2012 investigating the efficacy of psychological therapies for parents of children with a longstanding or life‐threatening physical illness. This review updates includes studies that have been conducted in the previous two years to give an up‐to‐date review of the evidence.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 15, 2015

This clinical guideline is an update of NICE’s previous guidance on generalised anxiety disorder. It was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, and sets out clear evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for healthcare professionals on how to treat and manage generalised anxiety disorder in adults.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2011

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in early childhood in the majority of cases. It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous. Certain patterns of atopic eczema are recognised. In infants, atopic eczema usually involves the face and extensor surfaces of the limbs and, while it may involve the trunk, the napkin area is usually spared. A few infants may exhibit a discoid pattern (circular patches). In older children flexural involvement predominates, as in adults. Diagnostic criteria are discussed in Chapter 3. As with other atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic eczema often has a genetic component. In atopic eczema, inherited factors affect the development of the skin barrier, which can lead to exacerbation of the disease by a large number of trigger factors, including irritants and allergens. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or improve during childhood while others persist into adulthood, and some children who have atopic eczema `will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence of events is sometimes referred to as the ‘atopic march’. The epidemiology of atopic eczema is considered in Chapter 5, and the impact of the condition on children and their families/caregivers is considered in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2007

Diabetes is a long-term condition that can have a major impact on the life of a child or young person, as well as their family or carers. In addition to insulin therapy, diabetes management should include education, support and access to psychological services, as detailed here and in this guideline. Preparations should also be made for the transition from paediatric to adult services, which have a somewhat different model of care and evidence base.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2015

This guideline covers the management of persistent or recurrent low back pain defined as non-specific low back pain that has lasted for more than 6 weeks, but for less than 12 months. It does not address the management of severe disabling low back pain that has lasted longer than 12 months.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK).

Version: May 2009

The programme has shown the benefits of interdisciplinarity collaboration in dementia research from diagnosis through to end-of-life care and demonstrated the value of mixed methodologies in addressing complex problems.

Programme Grants for Applied Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2015

This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of psychosis and schizophrenia in adults. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, people with psychosis and schizophrenia, their carers and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning highquality care for people with psychosis and schizophrenia while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for people with psychosis and schizophrenia and their carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2014

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and complex mental disorder characterised by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image and behaviour. In the DSM-IV system, the criterion for a diagnosis of BPD is five of nine presenting symptoms. The Office for National Statistics 2000 survey of psychiatric morbidity in private households identified seven people per 1000, which indicates that for a primary care trust of 500,000, there would be 3500 individuals meeting the criteria for BPD.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2006

Bulimia nervosa (BN) is an eating disorder in which people binge on food and then try to make up for this by extreme measures such as making themselves sick, taking laxatives or starving themselves. We reviewed studies of psychotherapies, including a specific form of psychotherapy called cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT‐BN). We compared psychotherapy to control groups who got no treatment (e.g. people on waiting lists) and the specific CBT‐BN with other types of psychotherapy. We found that CBT was better than other therapies, and better than no treatment, at reducing binge eating. Other psychotherapies were also better than no treatment in reducing binge eating. Some studies found that self‐help using the CBT manual can be helpful, but more research and larger trials are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 7, 2009

It is thought that psychological factors may play an important part in asthma, although this could not be determined in a previous review of psychological interventions in adults with asthma. Although there were twelve studies in this review that met inclusion criteria, the studies were small and study quality was poor. One finding did indicate that psychological interventions led to an improvement in peak flow. However, this finding would require confirmation in additional studies of better quality. No endorsement of psychological interventions can be made on the basis of the current literature.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 19, 2005

Many people experience pain from an injury or disease that goes away within three months, but for some people the pain continues. When the pain involves changes to nerves we call the pain 'neuropathic'. Although the condition is increasingly common, the treatments we have help only a few people. Following unsuccessful surgical or pharmacological treatment, people with chronic pain may be offered psychologically‐based rehabilitation to improve their quality of life. While we know that this can help people with other types of chronic pain, this treatment for neuropathic pain alone has received less research attention.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 29, 2015

Psychotherapeutic approaches, mainly cognitive behavior therapy, and antidepressant medication are the two treatment modalities that have received most support in controlled outcome studies of bulimia nervosa. Using a more conservative statistical approach, combination treatments were superior to single psychotherapy. This was the only statistically significant difference between treatments. The number of trials might be insufficient to show the statistical significance of a 19% absolute risk reduction in efficacy favouring psychotherapy or combination treatments over single antidepressants. Psychotherapy appeared to be more acceptable to subjects. When antidepressants were combined with psychological treatments, acceptability of the latter was significantly reduced.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 23, 2001

Sickle cell disease is a group of blood disorders. It can cause anaemia, which if severe can reduce mobility. It may also allow small blood vessels to become blocked causing pain in muscle and bone and it can damage major organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys, and lungs. People with sickle cell disease are more vulnerable to severe infections. Treatment is usually in response to symptoms and designed to ease pain. Psychological treatment to help people cope with sickle cell disease might complement current medical treatment. There are four types of treatment: patient education; cognitive therapy (to do with thoughts and feelings); behavioural therapy (to do with actions); psychodynamic psychotherapy (talking to relieve emotional pain). We searched for randomised or quasi‐randomised controlled trials which compared psychological treatments to each other or to no treatment in sickle cell disease. We included seven studies in the review, of which five, with 260 people, had data we could enter into the review. One study showed that cognitive behaviour therapy reduced the affective part of pain (feelings about pain), but not the sensory part (pain intensity). Another study of this therapy had inconclusive results for coping strategies and showed no difference on how different groups used the health service. A study using cognitive behavioural therapy with teenagers and their families at home did not show any difference when compared with education about sickle cell disease. One education study did not show a reduction in depression. Furthermore, one study in patient education helped improve attitudes to healthcare workers and medication use in adolescents and young adults. The authors believe that some patient education seems relevant for children, adolescents and young adults, while methods to improve the ability to cope in both children and adults are important. Nonetheless, these results may not apply to across all ages, clinical severity, types of pain (acute or chronic) that people with sickle cell disease have, or which country they live in. More research needs to be done in this area.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 8, 2015

This review examined the effect of psychological interventions in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) on health related quality of life, emotional state and disease activity. Overall, 21 studies were included in the review, but not all provided sufficient data for the different study questions. All studies were of low methodological quality. Most studies examined combination therapies, often aimed at improving stress management. For example, a therapy might include patient information sessions, training in relaxation techniques and psychotherapy sessions, such as group therapy. Others were restricted to just providing information materials to patients. None of the included studies reported any side effects of psychological interventions.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 15, 2011

Major depression is one of the common mental illnesses characterised by persistent low mood and loss of interest in pleasurable activities, accompanied by a range of symptoms, including weight loss, insomnia, fatigue, loss of energy, inappropriate guilt, poor concentration and morbid thoughts of death. Whilst antidepressants remain the mainstay of treatment for depression in healthcare settings, psychological therapies are still important alternative or additional interventions for depressive disorders. Nowadays, a diverse range of psychological therapies are available (such as cognitive‐behavioural therapies, behavioural therapies, psychodynamic therapies, humanistic therapies and integrative therapies). It is very important to know whether one type of psychological therapy is more effective than another, and to know which psychological therapy is the most effective treatment for depression. In this review, we focused on one of these—behavioural therapies (BT)—because they are relatively simple to deliver, and interest in them has recently been renewed. Behavioural therapies are usually based purely on operant and respondent principles, aimed to change the patient's depressive mood by changing his or her behaviour patterns. Whilst a number of BT models have been developed, we categorised the following approaches as behavioural therapies in this review: behavioural therapy (based on Lewinsohn's model, which focused on increasing pleasant activities), behavioural activation (originated from behavioural component of cognitive‐behavioural therapy and based on Jacobson's work in 1996), social skills training/assertiveness training and relaxation therapy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 16, 2013

We reviewed the evidence for the effect of psychological interventions on the psychological impact, quality of life and survival among women with non‐metastatic breast cancer (that is cancer that has not spread beyond the breast).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 28, 2015

To assess the efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and harms of treatments for insomnia disorder in the general adult population and older adults.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2015

For efficacy and mechanisms evaluation, there is a need for robust methods for making valid causal inferences in explanatory analyses of the mechanisms of treatment-induced change in clinical outcomes in randomised trials. This report aims to disseminate these methods, aiming specifically at trial practitioners. Our recommendations are that in order to demonstrate both efficacy and mechanism, it is necessary to (1) demonstrate a treatment effect on the primary (clinical) outcome, (2) demonstrate a treatment effect on the putative mediator (mechanism) and (3) demonstrate a causal effect from the mediator to the outcome. Appropriate regression models should be applied for (3) or, alternatively, instrumental variable approaches that account for unmeasured confounding provided a valid instrument can be identified. We discuss the implications for trial design, especially in stratified medicine.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: November 2015

Psychological therapies have been proposed for the treatment of pathological and problem gambling, and this review summarised current evidence for these therapies. It included best‐quality randomised trials, where therapy was compared with conditions including 'no treatment’ controls or referral to Gamblers Anonymous. It considered categories of therapy including: (1) cognitive‐behaviour therapy (CBT); (2) motivational interviewing therapy; (3) integrative therapy; and (4) other psychological therapy. The search identified 14 studies and we combined data from these. Data from nine studies indicated benefits of CBT in the period immediately following treatment. However, there were few studies across longer periods of time (e.g. 12 months) after treatment, and little is known about whether effects of CBT are lasting. Data from three studies of motivational interviewing therapy suggested some benefits in terms of reduced gambling behaviour, but not necessarily other symptoms of pathological and problem gambling. However, the data come from few studies and conclusions regarding motivational interviewing therapy require further research. There were also few studies that provided evidence on integrative therapies (two studies) and other psychological therapies (one study), and there is currently insufficient data to evaluate the efficacy of these therapies

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: November 14, 2012

Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is a very common condition, in which people suffer from excessive worry or anxiety about everyday events and problems. Psychological therapies are a popular form of treatment for anxiety disorders. This review aimed to find out whether psychological therapies are effective for GAD, and whether cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is more effective than other psychological therapy approaches, including psychodynamic and supportive therapies. The review included 25 studies, with a total of 1305 participants. All the studies used a CBT approach, and compared CBT against treatment as usual or waiting list (13 studies), or against another psychological therapy (12 studies). The review showed that people attending for psychological therapy based on a CBT approach were more likely to have reduced anxiety at the end of treatment than people who received treatment as usual or were on a waiting list for therapy. CBT was also very effective in reducing secondary symptoms of worry and depression. People who attended for group CBT and older people were more likely to drop out of therapy. None of the studies comparing CBT with treatment as usual or waiting list looked at the long‐term effectiveness of CBT. It is not clear whether people attending for CBT sessions were more likely to have reduced anxiety than people attending for psychodynamic therapy or supportive therapy, because only one study compared CBT with psychodynamic therapy, and the six studies that compared CBT with supportive therapy showed differing results. None of the studies included in the review reported on the possible side effects or acceptability of psychological therapies. More studies should be carried out to establish whether psychodynamic and supportive therapies are effective for GAD, and whether CBT is more helpful than other psychological therapy approaches in treating GAD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 24, 2007

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