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Treats restless leg syndrome (RLS) and pain caused by shingles.

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Gabapentin is a medicine used primarily to treat epilepsy and also pain caused by damage to nerves (neuropathic pain). Gabapentin is not normally used to treat pain due to injury or pain after an operation; it is debatable whether gabapentin is an effective pain medicine under such circumstances. We aimed to investigate whether gabapentin is effective in the treatment of acute postoperative pain in adults. We identified four unpublished clinical trials with 370 participants who received either gabapentin or placebo (sugar pill). Gabapentin 250 mg does provide some relief in acute postoperative pain but it is not as good as some other medicines commonly used in this setting, particularly ibuprofen, diclofenac, and naproxen, and probably paracetamol (acetaminophen) alone or in combination with a weak opioid.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Various medicines, collectively termed 'antiepileptics', are used to treat epilepsy. For several years, some of these drugs have also been used for preventing migraine attacks. For the present review, researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the evidence about the effects of gabapentin and two related drugs (pregabalin and gabapentin enacarbil) in adult patients (≥ 16 years of age) with 'episodic' migraine (headache on < 15 days per month). They examined research published up to 15 January 2013, along with three unpublished and previously confidential drug company research reports, and found six relevant studies, five of gabapentin and one of gabapentin enacarbil, both over a wide dose range. The studies showed that neither gabapentin nor gabapentin enacarbil was more effective than placebo at reducing the frequency of migraine headaches. Gabapentin commonly caused side effects, especially dizziness and somnolence (sleepiness). No studies of pregabalin were identified, and research on this drug is desirable.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

There is no good evidence to support or contradict the suggestion that gabapentin at daily doses of 1200 to 2400 mg reduces pain in fibromyalgia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

This review is an update of a previously published review and is now currently up to date as from 18/07/2013.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Various medicines, collectively termed 'antiepileptics', are used to treat epilepsy. For several years, three antiepileptics have also been recommended as drugs of first choice (topiramate and valproate) or third choice (gabapentin) for preventing migraine attacks. These three drugs, along with one other (pregabalin), are the subject of separate Cochrane reviews. For the present review, researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the evidence about the effect of other antiepileptics in adult patients (≥ 16 years of age) with 'episodic' migraine (headache on < 15 days per month). They examined research published up to 15 January 2013 and found 10 studies of nine different antiepileptics. The majority of these drugs were no better than placebo for migraine prophylaxis (acetazolamide, carisbamate, clonazepam, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, and vigabatrin). In one study each, carbamazepine and levetiracetam were better than placebo, and there was no significant difference between zonisamide and topiramate (a drug proven to be effective for migraine prophylaxis). None of these studies was of high methodological quality. The quantity and quality of the evidence were such that no firm conclusions could be drawn about the effect or lack of effect of any of the antiepileptics studied.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

There is moderate‐quality evidence that oral gabapentin at doses of 1200 mg daily or more has an important effect on pain in some people with moderate or severe neuropathic pain after shingles or due to diabetes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

The purpose of this report is to examine the evidence for the use of gabapentin for the treatment of adults with HIV-associated neuropathic pain.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: January 22, 2016

Bibliographic details: Zhang WW, Li MQ, Liu L.  Meta-analysis of gabapentin in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Chinese Journal of Contemporary Neurology and Neurosurgery 2013; 13(9): 760-765

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant drug that has been used for a number of off-label indications, including neuropathic pain. It is thought to act by binding to calcium channels and modulating calcium influx, or by blocking new synapse formation. Neuropathic pain tends to be chronic, is complex, and can be difficult to treat effectively. Treatment often involves pharmacologic and physical therapies, although conventional analgesics may not be effective.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: September 26, 2014

Pharmacological management of neuropathic pain (NP) includes medications such as anticonvulsants, antidepressants, serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, opioid analgesics, cannabinoids and methadone. Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant and has been used to manage neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is not without side effects and there is also potential for misuse. Side effects associated with gabapentin include somnolence, dizziness, peripheral edema and gait disturbances. Gabapentinoids (including gabapentin) in high doses may result in sedative and psychedelic effects. Gabapentin is structurally related to the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) but does not bind to the GABA receptors. Its mechanism of action is through binding to calcium channels and modulating the influx of calcium and thereby bestowing antiepileptic, analgesic and sedative effects. Recent research also suggests that gabapentin acts by blocking new synapse formation. Gabapentin is available in various dosages and formulations. Besides the immediate release gabapentin there is an extended release, gastro-retentive formulation and an extended release gabapentin prodrug (enacarbil) that rapidly hydrolyses to gabapentin.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: April 14, 2015

Study found evidence that some treatments (ginger, vitamin B6, antihistamines, metoclopramide) were better than placebo for mild symptoms of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP), but there is little on the effectiveness of treatments in more severe NVP/hyperemesis gravidarum.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: October 2016

Bibliographic details: Chen ZB, Wu Y, Lia XF, Liu Y, Ma MG, Liu QD, Tan MH.  Gabapentin for restless legs syndrome: a systematic review. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine 2012; 12(6): 727-733 Available from: http://www.cjebm.org.cn/oa/DArticle.aspx?type=view&id=201206019

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Substantial progress has been made during the last decades in our understanding of acute pain mechanisms, and this knowledge has encouraged the search for novel treatments. Of particular interest has been the observation that tissue injury initiates a number of modulations of both the peripheral and the central pain pathways, which convert the system from a 'physiological' to a 'pathological' mode of processing afferent information. Gabapentin, which binds to the alpha(2)delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, is active in animal models of 'pathological' but not in models of 'physiological' pain. Consequently, attention has so far been focused on neuropathic pain as a target for the clinical use of gabapentin and analogues. Recently, several reports have indicated that gabapentin may have a place in the treatment of post-operative pain. This article presents a brief summary of the potential mechanisms of post-operative pain, and a systematic review of the available data of gabapentin and pregabalin for post-operative analgesia. It is concluded that the results with gabapentin and pregabalin in post-operative pain treatment published so far are promising. It is suggested that future studies should explore the effects of 'protective premedication' with combinations of various antihyperanalgesic and analgesic drugs for post-operative analgesia.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to assess the effect of gabapentin on tinnitus via a systematic review.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

PURPOSE: Gabapentin's role in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain is well known. What is less well established is its role for managing postoperative pain. In order to clarify whether gabapentin's utility in acute pain control is more than just theoretical, we conducted a meta-analysis of all randomized trials that addressed gabapentin's role in acute postoperative pain control. We specifically addressed whether gabapentin reduces pain scores, analgesia consumption, and/or analgesia-related side effects in the first 24 hr following surgery.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

BACKGROUND: Gabapentin and pregabalin have antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic properties useful for treating neuropathic pain. These properties may also be beneficial in acute postoperative pain. In this study we evaluated randomized, controlled trials examining the analgesic efficacy, adverse effects, and clinical value of gabapentinoids in postoperative pain.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

OBJECTIVE: A mixed treatment comparison (MTC) was performed to investigate the relative efficacy and safety of licensed pharmaceuticals for moderate-to-severe restless legs syndrome (RLS).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

BACKGROUND: Many clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of gabapentin and pregabalin administration in the perioperative period as an adjunct to reduce acute postoperative pain. However, very few clinical trials have examined the use of gabapentin and pregabalin for the prevention of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). We (1) systematically reviewed the published literature pertaining to the prevention of CPSP (≥ 2 months after surgery) after perioperative administration of gabapentin and pregabalin and (2) performed a meta-analysis using studies that report sufficient data. A search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, IPA, and CINAHL) for relevant English-language trials to June 2011 was conducted.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

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