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Urinary alkalisation for uncomplicated urinary tract infections

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common form of bacterial infection among women and can cause pain and frequent urination.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Biocompatible dialysis fluids for peritoneal dialysis

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a form of treatment for people with advanced kidney disease to an extent where their own kidney function is inadequate to meet the body's requirements. PD is flexible, and allows for therapy to be instituted by patients at home. After initial surgical insertion of a catheter into the abdomen, patients are required to perform regular exchange of PD solution at a prescribed rate to allow clearance of toxins and fluids across the peritoneal membrane. Unfortunately, the longevity of PD is limited, which is largely due to peritoneal membrane injury that results from the use of biologically 'unfriendly' PD solutions. The 'unfriendly' characteristics of these solutions include high glucose levels, glucose breakdown products and acidity. To overcome these hurdles, biocompatible PD solutions (i.e. neutral pH, lowered levels of glucose breakdown products, use of materials alternative to glucose such as icodextrin) have been manufactured that are designed to cause less damage to the peritoneal membrane. This review of interventions testing the benefits and harms of biocompatible PD solutions identified 36 studies (2719 patients).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Endometrial biomarkers for the non‐invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

The endometrium refers to the tissue that lines the womb and is shed during menstruation. Women with endometriosis have endometrial tissue growing outside the womb, within the pelvic cavity. This tissue responds to reproductive hormones causing painful periods, chronic lower abdominal pain and difficulty conceiving. Currently the only reliable way of diagnosing endometriosis is to perform keyhole surgery and visualise the endometriotic deposits inside the abdomen. Because surgery is risky and expensive, various tests within the endometrium that can be obtained during an in‐office womb sampling procedure have been assessed for their ability to detect endometriosis non‐invasively or with minimal invasion. An accurate test could lead to the diagnosis of endometriosis without the need for surgery, or it could reduce the need for diagnostic surgery so only women who were most likely to have endometriosis would require it. Review teams have also evaluated other non‐invasive ways of diagnosing endometriosis using blood, urine and imaging tests as well as a combination of several testing methods in separate Cochrane reviews within this series.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of urethral cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 19, 2016

Bicarbonate‐ versus lactate‐buffered solutions for acute continuous haemodiafiltration or haemofiltration

People with acute kidney injury (AKI) have serious loss of kidney function and are unable to rid wastes from the body in urine. People with AKI need dialysis (haemofiltration) which requires use of buffered solutions (dialysates) to rid waste from their blood. Different dialysates can have various effects on the balance of blood chemistry. Maintaining balanced blood chemistry helps to reduce risks of heart, blood circulation and blood pressure problems. We assessed the benefits and harms of bicarbonate‐buffered solutions and lactate‐buffered solutions by analysing results from four randomised controlled studies that together involved 171 participants. The evidence was flawed by study design and reporting problems, and the small number of people in the studies. Based on limited evidence from one study (117 participants), we found that people treated with bicarbonate‐buffered solutions may experience fewer heart and blood circulation problems and high blood pressure events. The studies did not include enough evidence to make recommendations about the use of these solutions.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of renal cell cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 7, 2016

Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 27, 2016

Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood such as cancers of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, reproductive system, skin, and others.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 1, 2016

Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of pituitary tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 27, 2016

Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of plasma cell neoplasms (including multiple myeloma).

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 5, 2016

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of Wilms tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 1, 2016

Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 19, 2016

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of metastatic cancer that has spread from an unidentified primary tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 28, 2016

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 11, 2016

Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors).

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 30, 2015

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 3, 2016

Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood central nervous system germ cell tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 29, 2016

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of gestational trophoblastic disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 28, 2016

Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood liver cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 3, 2016

Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood neuroblastoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: November 21, 2016

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