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Thyroid function tests

The thyroid is a vitally important hormonal gland, which mainly works for the body’s metabolism. It is located in the front part of the neck below the voice box and is butterfly-shaped. The functions of the thyroid gland include the production of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine, also called thyroxine (T4).

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 30, 2016

Overactive thyroid: Overview

The thyroid gland helps regulate many of the body’s functions. An overactive thyroid causes some of these functions to speed up. Hyperthyroidism often leads to a visible enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter).

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 9, 2014

Amifostine for salivary glands in high‐dose radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system consisting of several subtypes like papillary carcinoma (accounting for 80% of cases) and follicular carcinoma (accounting for 11% of cases). These are collectively referred to as 'differentiated thyroid cancer'. Treatment with radioactive iodine after surgery (ablation of the thyroid gland or 'thyroidectomy') is important for the detection of metastatic disease and for the destruction of the remaining thyroid tissue with microscopic cancer. After radioactive iodine treatment, adverse effects may happen in the salivary glands and cause salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine or months later and progress in intensity with time. Secondary complications reported include dry mouth ('xerostomia') and taste alterations.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Thyroid hormone therapy or minimally invasive treatments for benign thyroid nodules

Nodules (lumps) within the thyroid gland are common and usually benign. They are more frequent in women, the elderly and in iodine‐deficient areas. Thyroid nodules are often observed as an incidental finding in the course of ultrasonography of the thyroid, nodules of more than 1 cm in size are usually detected by palpation of the thyroid gland during a physical examination. Thyroid nodules may occur as a single nodule or as multiple nodules and may contain fluid (cyst). About 5 in 100 palpable thyroid nodules have a risk of becoming malignant (thyroid cancer). Thyroid nodules are often treated with thyroid hormones in order to reduce the size of the nodule. If thyroid nodules cause problems such as pressure symptoms or cosmetic complaints, surgery may be performed. Other therapies try to destroy the thyroid nodule by means of minimally invasive procedures (techniques which are less invasive than open surgery) and are usually performed on an outpatient basis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of thyroid cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 17, 2016

Testing Treatments: Better Research for Better Healthcare. 2nd edition

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011

Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood such as cancers of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, reproductive system, skin, and others.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: February 2, 2017

Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of parathyroid cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 27, 2016

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 11, 2016

Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood vascular tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 14, 2016

Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adult Hodgkin lymphoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 3, 2016

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 3, 2016

Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 9, 2016

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of gestational trophoblastic disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 28, 2016

Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood neuroblastoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 19, 2017

Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 16, 2016

Heavy periods: Overview

Most women do not lose much blood during their period, and only have to change their sanitary pads or tampons every few hours. Having to change these very often is a sign of heavy menstrual bleeding. If blood loss is interfering with a woman’s daily activities and making her feel weak, there are various things she can do about it.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 19, 2013

Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of pituitary tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 27, 2016

Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 19, 2016

Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 29, 2016

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