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School‐based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18

It is estimated that as many at 1.9 million deaths worldwide are attributable to physical inactivity, and that inactivity is a key risk factor in the development of most chronic diseases and cancers. This is alarming particularly because it is known that physical activity patterns track from childhood into adulthood.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Psychological interventions for needle‐related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents

Psychological interventions (for example, distraction, hypnosis, coping skills training) are treatments used to reduce pain and distress (anxiety and fear, or both) that children and adolescents experience while undergoing medical procedures involving needles. There is strong evidence that distraction and hypnosis are effective in reducing the pain and distress that children and adolescents experience during needle procedures. Distraction techniques can often be quite simple, such as reading the child stories, watching television, listening to music, or talking about something other than the needle. Sometimes parents or nurses are involved in helping to distract the child, although that is not always necessary. Interventions such as hypnosis may require some teaching by a trained professional for a child to learn. Other psychological treatments, such as explaining what is going to happen before or during the procedure (labelled 'providing information or preparation or both'), using virtual reality (for example, interactive video equipment, goggles, computers showing images, games, stories), or a combination of various strategies have been tested. More research is needed to know whether they are effective for reducing children's pain and distress during needles.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Obstructive sleep apnea: CPAP breathing therapy: How to deal with common problems

CPAP therapy can improve breathing at night and significantly relieve symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. However, wearing a sleeping mask at night takes some getting used to and may require support.CPAP stands for “continuous positive airway pressure.” In this form of treatment, people with obstructive sleep apnea wear a mask while they sleep that covers only their nose or their mouth and nose. The mask is connected to a respirator through a tube. This respirator blows compressed air into the airways. The incoming air keeps the airways open, preventing breathing pauses.Therapy with the breathing mask takes some getting used to, but most people can already handle their CPAP machine quite well after one or two nights. Others have problems and stop using the machine. This information offers some practical tips for dealing with common problems.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 15, 2015

Insomnia: Overview

If constant worry or bad sleep habits are preventing you from sleeping properly, there are many products and approaches you could try out to get a better night's sleep. These include relaxation techniques and improving your "sleep hygiene."

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 11, 2013

Environmental and behavioural interventions to reduce activity limitation and improve quality of life in older people with visual impairment

Visual impairment in older people is associated with avoidance of physical activity, anxiety and depression as well as an increased risk of falls and fractures. Standard ways to improve vision‐related quality of life include provision of glasses, filters and other vision‐related equipment ‐ in other words, interventions which generally make reading or watching television or using a computer more achievable. The use of behavioural strategies to improve a person's skill and confidence in activity or environmental changes in the home, work or leisure environment, such as improved lighting or highlighting stair edges, may help reduce activity restriction and improve quality of life, both outside and inside the home. We searched for evidence from high quality trials on environmental or behavioural interventions in older adults, living in the community or in residential settings, with irreversible vision impairment which aimed to reduce activity restriction or increase general physical activity. We found no trials that met the inclusion criteria for the review. Further research into this highly important issue needs to be done before any conclusions can be made.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

This review looks at different types of rehabilitation therapy for people with mental health problems. It compares life skills training with occupational therapy and peer support (where a group of people with mental health problems were encouraged to help each other). Comparison was also made with standard or usual care. Life skills, occupational therapy and peer support all aim to promote health by enabling people to perform meaningful and purposeful activities.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Insomnia: Problems sleeping – Information for teenagers

If you often feel so tired and exhausted that you have trouble doing everyday tasks during the day, you are not getting enough sleep. It is estimated that about one out of five people have trouble sleeping. But the good news is that there are a number of things you can do about this problem on your own. Find out about the different options here. Most teenagers can get by on about eight hours of sleep per night. But this is just an average. You might need a different amount of sleep. The sleep times given here refer to what is known as "total sleep time." This begins the moment you turn off the light and close your eyes. It ends when you are properly awake the next morning and get up. You do not need to sleep soundly for eight hours every night.It is not normal to have a very difficult time getting up in the morning. By this we do not mean sometimes still being a little tired in the morning and wanting to get in a few more winks. It is only a problem if you regularly feel really beat first thing in the morning and can hardly make it out of bed. Teenagers often get into the habit of going to bed late even during the week and then sleeping for a very long time on the weekend. This kind of irregular sleeping pattern can lead to sleep problems.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 24, 2013

Obstructive sleep apnea: Overview

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) might be the cause if you feel absolutely beat in the morning despite getting enough sleep. Most people with sleep apnea snore and have breathing pauses at night that often go unnoticed. This can cause problems in your daily routine and increase your risk of developing other conditions.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 30, 2015

Living with metastatic breast cancer

Being diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer often means dealing with feelings of fear, anger and grief. Talking with close friends or relatives can help you cope with the flood of feelings. Exercise, relaxation and other activities that can take your mind off the cancer can improve your general wellbeing in everyday life too.Once metastatic tumors have developed outside of the breast tissue, complete recovery can rarely be expected. Then the aim of treatment is to keep your overall health and quality of life as good as possible for as long as possible.It is common to worry about only having very little time left. At the start it might feel like your entire life is now about waiting for the cancer to progress, new symptoms to arise and further treatments. This can make you feel dejected and hopeless, which may sometimes be more draining and troubling than the physical effects of the disease and its treatment. Many women also feel lonely at times, cut off from the outside world and their friends.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 7, 2016

Fatigue (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about fatigue, a condition marked by extreme tiredness and inability to function because of lack of energy, often seen as a complication of cancer or its treatment.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 7, 2015

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