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Managed alcohol as a harm reduction intervention for alcohol addiction in populations at high risk for substance abuse

Managed alcohol programmes (MAPs) are harm reduction initiatives that treat the alcohol abuse of vulnerable people by serving controlled amounts of alcohol on a daily schedule, with the goal of ensuring individuals consume safe alcoholic beverages in an environment that has been shown to retain vulnerable people in treatment programmes, decrease alcohol consumption and improve social functioning (decreasing criminal activity, seeking regular medical care and improving quality of life). As well as MAP, there are alternative interventions such as brief intervention, moderate drinking and abstinence oriented 12‐step programmes. With the exception of 12‐step programmes, which emphasise abstinence, these interventions are aimed at changing drinking patterns and reducing the associated behaviours. No experimental studies were available to demonstrate the effectiveness of MAPs in reducing alcohol use or antisocial behaviour compared with other treatments.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Substance abuse treatment for juvenile offenders: a review of quasi-experimental and experimental research

Bibliographic details: Tripodi SJ, Bender K.  Substance abuse treatment for juvenile offenders: a review of quasi-experimental and experimental research. Journal of Criminal Justice 2011

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

[Do smoking bans really help: the effect of tobacco-control policy on patients in substance-abuse treatment]

Bibliographic details: Donath C, Metz K, Kroger C.  [Do smoking bans really help: the effect of tobacco-control policy on patients in substance-abuse treatment]. [Helfen Rauchverbote wirklich: der Einfluss von Tabakpolitik auf Patienten in Suchtrehabilitationskliniken.] Sucht 2005; 51(5): 291-300

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

[The community reinforcement approach: a review of an integrative approach to substance-abuse treatment]

Bibliographic details: Lange W, Reker M, Driessen M.  [The community reinforcement approach: a review of an integrative approach to substance-abuse treatment]. [Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA): Uberblick uber ein integratives Konzept sur Behandlung von Abhangigikeitserkrankungen.] Sucht 2008; 54(1): 13-23

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Therapeutic communities for substance related disorder

Therapeutic communities (TCs) are a popular treatment for the rehabilitation of drug users. The results of this review show that there is little evidence that TCs offer significant benefits in comparison with other residential treatment, or that one type of TC is better than another. Prison TC may be better than prison on it's own or Mental Health Treatment Programmes to prevent re‐offending post‐release for in‐mates.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Neurotrophic Stimulation Therapy for the Management of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Abuse Disorders: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness [Internet]

Centers offering a neurotrophic stimulation approach to managing mental health disorders are available in Canada. The objective of this report is to systematically review the literature for evidence of clinical effectiveness for the use of any component of neurotrophic stimulation alone or in combination with another component in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or substance use disorders. A second report will address the clinical effectiveness of neuromodulation therapy in depression and anxiety disorders.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: July 20, 2015
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Do tobacco cessation interventions provided during substance abuse treatment or recovery help tobacco users to quit?

Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, and smoking rates are especially high among people who are dependent on alcohol or other drugs. People who are being treated for alcohol or other drug addictions have not usually been offered treatment to help them stop smoking at the same time. There has been concern that trying to stop smoking might make people in treatment less likely to recover from other addictions.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Yoga for the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Depression, and Substance Abuse: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet]

The purpose of this Rapid Response report is to review the clinical effectiveness of yoga for treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), depression and substance abuse (SA), and to summarize the guidelines that are associated with the use of yoga for these conditions.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: June 22, 2015
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The effect of non‐specialist health workers on people with mental, neurological and substanceabuse disorders in developing countries

In developing countries, most people with mental, neurological and substanceabuse (MNS) disorders do not receive adequate care mainly because of a lack of mental health professionals. Non‐specialist health workers, but also other professionals with health roles, such as teachers, may therefore have an important role to play in delivering MNS health care.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

[Acupuncture of the ear as therapeutic approach in the treatment of alcohol and substance abuse: a systematic review]

Bibliographic details: Kunz S, Schulz M, Syrbe G, Driessen M.  [Acupuncture of the ear as therapeutic approach in the treatment of alcohol and substance abuse: a systematic review]. [Ohrakupunktur in der Therapie alkohol und substanzbezogener Storungen: eine Ubersicht.] Sucht 2004; 50(3): 196-203 Available from: http://www.psycontent.com/content/j37715347561x068/

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Motivational interviewing is a short psychological treatment that can help people cut down on drugs and alcohol

More than 76 million people worldwide have alcohol problems, and another 15 million have drug problems. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a psychological treatment that aims to help people cut down or stop using drugs and alcohol. The drug abuser and counsellor typically meet between one and four times for about one hour each time. The counsellor expresses that he or she understands how the clients feel about their problem and supports the clients in making their own decisions. He or she does not try to convince the client to change anything, but discusses with the client possible consequences of changing or staying the same. Finally, they discuss the clients' goals and where they are today relative to these goals. We searched for studies that had included people with alcohol or drug problems and that had divided them by chance into MI or a control group that either received nothing or some other treatment. We included only studies that had checked video or sound recordings of the therapies in order to be certain that what was given really was MI. The results in this review are based on 59 studies. The results show that people who have received MI have reduced their use of substances more than people who have not received any treatment. However, it seems that other active treatments, treatment as usual and being assessed and receiving feedback can be as effective as motivational interviewing. There was not enough data to conclude about the effects of MI on retention in treatment, readiness to change, or repeat convictions.The quality of the research forces us to be careful about our conclusions, and new research may change them.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Research suggests that Treatment Foster Care can help youth with behaviour problems. More research needed

Treatment foster care (TFC) is a foster family‐based intervention that aims to provide young people (and, where appropriate, their families) with an individually tailored programme designed to help bring about positive changes in their lives. TFC was designed to help children whose difficulties or circumstances place them at risk of multiple placements and/or more restrictive placements such as hospital or secure residential or youth justice settings. This review set out to assess the impact of Treatment Foster Care on a range of outcomes for children and young people in such circumstances, including psychosocial and behavioural outcomes, delinquency, placement stability, and discharge status. Five studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in the USA. Four focussed on young delinquents or children with a range of behaviour problems. The fifth examined the effectiveness of TFC for young people in a state mental hospital. Findings indicate that TFC care may be a useful intervention to help place these usually hard to place children and young people in family settings. Results indicate some clinically meaningful decreases in: antisocial behaviour, the number of days children and young people running away from placement; the number of criminal referrals and the time spent in locked settings. There is some evidence that young people in Treatment Foster Care spent more time in treatment over the long‐term and more time at home. Examination of educational and employment outcomes showed improvements in school attendance, homework completion and finding work.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Psychosocial interventions for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programmes compared to other interventions

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of psychosocial interventions, such as contingency management (CM) and motivational interviewing based (MIB) techniques vs. usual care for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programmes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Antipsychotic drug treatment of schizophrenic patients with substance abuse disorders

BACKGROUND/AIM: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in developing adequate treatments for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and a comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). In the present paper we aim to critically review published reports on the use of conventional and second-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and comorbid SUD, to provide clinicians with a clearer view of the pharmacological treatment of this highly prevalent dual diagnosis based upon the evidence arising from the scientific literature.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Psychological therapies versus antidepressant medication, alone and in combination for depression in children and adolescents

Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with suggested overall prevalence rates for adolescents (13 to 18 years) being 5.7% and for children (under 13 years) 2.8%. Common symptoms of depression in children and adolescents include low mood, a loss of interest in once enjoyed activities, difficulties with concentration and motivation, changes in appetite and sleep, irritability, physical symptoms such as headaches or stomach aches and in some cases thoughts of suicide. If left untreated, depressive disorders in the younger years are likely to continue into adulthood, and can be increasingly difficult to treat as time goes on. Both psychological therapies and antidepressant medication can be used to treat depression in children and adolescents. Psychological therapies, sometimes called 'talking therapies', involve working with a qualified therapist to treat the depression. Psychological therapies in common use are cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and psychodynamic therapy. There are many different types of antidepressant medication, all of which have been developed specifically to work on chemicals in the brain that are believed to be linked to depression. Research has been undertaken on psychological therapies and antidepressant medication, alone and in combination, to asses the effects of these interventions on depression in children and adolescents.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Motivationsbehandlung bei Patienten mit der Doppeldiagnose Psychose und Sucht [Motivational interviewing for patients with comorbid schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders: a review]

Patients with schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders [dually diagnosed patients (DD)] show an unfavourable course of the illness and little interest in participating on specific integrated treatment programmes. Motivational interviewing (MI) has been shown to be effective among other substance abuse disorders and it aims to enhance intrinsic motivation to change problem behaviour. MI has been adapted for DD. The present paper reviews the empirical evidence for the efficacy of MI in DD. A search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO was conducted and the methodological quality of the identified trials was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration and to the JADAD Scale. We identified 4 randomised studies with a total of 346 participants, in which MI interventions of 1 to 3 sessions were compared with various control conditions over a follow-up period of up to 6 months. With regard to the main outcome measures "subsequent participation at integrated treatment programme" (1 x positive, 2 x negative) and "substance use" (1 x positive, 1 x negative,) the studies gained contradictory results. In all 4 studies, there were relevant general methodological limitations (randomisation, blindness of raters, description of the reasons for drop-outs) and specific methodological shortcomings (sample size and sample homogenity, numbers of MI sessions, assessment of motivational status). Hence, at present the evidence for supporting MI in DD is not clear. This may be due to the methodological problems mentioned above or it may be that there is, in fact, no effect. Therefore, there is an urgent need for further research of MI in DD.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Alcohol and drug screening for preventing injury among people whose job involves driving

Alcohol and drug abuse are serious public health problems worldwide. Workplace alcohol and drug testing is a common intervention, especially in developed nations, but it is costly and its use is controversial. This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of alcohol and drug screening among occupational drivers for preventing injury.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Substance abuse treatment for women who are under correctional supervision in the community: a systematic review of qualitative findings

This systematic review was conducted to more fully analyze qualitative research findings relating to community-based court-supervised substance abuse treatment for women and to make recommendations regarding treatment enhancement. Five reports of qualitative research met the inclusion criteria. Findings from these reports were extracted and analyzed using constant comparative methods. Women who are referred to court-sanctioned substance abuse treatment programs may initially be reluctant to participate. Once engaged, however, they advocate for a full complement of well-financed comprehensive services. To optimize treatment effectiveness, women recommend gender-specific programs in which ambivalence is diminished, hope is instilled, and care is individualized.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Patient attitudes towards change in adapted motivational interviewing for substance abuse: a systematic review

Adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) represents a category of effective, directive and client-centered psychosocial treatments for substance abuse. In AMI, patients' attitudes towards change are considered critical elements for treatment outcome as well as therapeutic targets for alteration. Despite being a major focus in AMI, the role of attitudes towards change in AMI's action has yet to be systematically reviewed in substance abuse research. A search of PsycINFO, PUBMED/MEDLINE, and Science Direct databases and a manual search of related article reference lists identified 416 published randomized controlled trials that evaluated AMI's impact on the reduction of alcohol and drug use. Of those, 54 met the initial inclusion criterion by evaluating AMI's impact on attitudes towards change and/or testing hypotheses about attitudes towards change as moderators or mediators of outcome. Finally, 19 studies met the methodological quality inclusion criterion based upon a Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale score ≥ 7. Despite the conceptual importance of attitudes towards change in AMI, the empirical support for their role in AMI is inconclusive. Future research is warranted to investigate both the contextual factors (ie, population studied) as well as deployment characteristics of AMI (ie, counselor characteristics) likely responsible for equivocal findings.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Maternal mental health and integrated programs for mothers with substance abuse issues

To examine the impact of integrated treatment programs (those with substance use treatment and pregnancy-, parenting-, or child-related services) on maternal mental health, we compiled a database of studies of integrated programs published between 1990 and 2007 with outcome data on maternal mental health. There were 18 cohort studies, 3 randomized trials, and 2 quasi-experimental studies. Of the five studies comparing integrated to nonintegrated programs, three studies provided enough information to allow for them to be combined in a meta-analysis. The average effect size was 0.23 (95% CI = 0.15 to 0.31, SE = 0.04), p < .001. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity among the studies, Q = 5.66, p = .059. This meta-analysis is the first systematic quantitative review of studies evaluating the impact of integrated programs on maternal mental health. Findings suggest that integrated programs may be associated with a small advantage over nonintegrated programs in improving maternal mental health. This review highlights the need for further research with improved methodology, study quality, and reporting to improve our understanding of how best to meet the mental health needs of mothers with substance abuse issues.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

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