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About - Rubella

A viral infection caused by the rubella virus. It is initially manifested with flu-like symptoms that last one or two days, followed by the development of a characteristic red rash which lasts from one to five days. The rash first appears in the neck and face. It subsequently spreads to the rest of the body.

Results: 1 to 20 of 39

Using the combined vaccine for protection of children against measles, mumps and rubella

Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) are three very dangerous infectious diseases which cause severe morbidity, disability and death in low‐income countries.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: a systematic review

Bibliographic details: Wu YM, Li G, Zhao WL.  Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: a systematic review. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine 2010; 10(7): 862-868

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Passive immunisation (giving antibodies) for preventing rubella (German measles) after contact with it

People who have had rubella (German measles), or rubella vaccine, have antibodies against the virus in their blood. These antibodies protect them from getting rubella should they come into contact with it again. These antibodies can be extracted from blood donated by these people.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders among children: a meta-analysis

Bibliographic details: Hobson KA, Mateu PF, Coryn CL, Graves C.  Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders among children: a meta-analysis. World Medical and Health Policy 2012; 4(2): 5 Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1515/1948-4682.1225/abstract

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

A systematic review of rubella vaccination strategies implemented in the Americas: impact on the incidence and seroprevalence rates of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of rubella vaccination strategies on the rates of acquired rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the Americas.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Systematic review of the literature on postpartum care: selected contraception methods, postpartum Papanicolaou test, and rubella immunization

BACKGROUND: The postpartum period is a time when many routine interventions are provided to mothers. This review examined the published evidence for the effectiveness of selected contraceptive methods, Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and rubella immunization.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Efficacy and safety of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live viral vaccines in transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive drugs

The authors concluded that available published data on the efficacy and safety of live viral vaccines was insufficient to derive evidence-based guidelines for use of such vaccines in transplant recipients on immunosuppression. The reliability of the authors’ conclusion is unclear given multiple flaws in the review methods and small number of low quality studies reviewed.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Association of autistic spectrum disorder and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence

This review assessed the association between autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The authors found no association between ASD and MMR, but there was insufficient evidence to completely exclude a possible association between MMR and a rare variant form of ASD. This was a well-conducted review, but the quality and nature of the included studies were varied.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Safety of live-virus vaccines for children with immune deficiency

PURPOSE: Conduct an integrative literature review to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of live-virus vaccines, namely, the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines, in children who are immune compromised by exogenous medication either posttransplant or while undergoing maintenance chemotherapy for leukemia.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

Vaccination in paediatric patients with auto-immune rheumatic diseases: a systematic literature review for the European League against Rheumatism evidence-based recommendations

OBJECTIVES: To analyze available evidence on vaccinations in paediatric patients with rheumatic and autoinflammatory diseases. This evidence formed the basis of the recently constructed European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for vaccination of these patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

How can you avoid getting chickenpox?

Chickenpox is highly contagious. If you are not vaccinated and have never had chickenpox, contact with someone who has it will almost always lead to infection. Early vaccination and being careful around those who have chickenpox are the most important precautions you can take.Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which is one of the herpes viruses. The German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) at the Robert Koch Institute recommends being vaccinated to lower your chances of infection. If you or someone in your family gets chickenpox there are several things you can do to avoid spreading it to others.Most importantly, people who have chickenpox should avoid contact with anyone who hasn’t had it and with people who have a greater risk of developing more severe symptoms. This especially includes people with a weakened immune system, newborn babies, and non-vaccinated adults. The virus can harm unborn children during pregnancy, and can be life-threatening for newborns. Generally speaking, though, chickenpox rarely has any serious consequences in children who are otherwise healthy. But it can be unpleasant.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 6, 2017

Fever in children: Overview

Many parents start feeling anxious when their child has a hot, flushed face and is running a high fever. Most of the time a harmless viral infection is the cause. But it is still good for parents to know the signs of more serious medical problems and to realize when a doctor is needed.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 17, 2016

Fertility: Assessment and Treatment for People with Fertility Problems

This guideline offers best practice advice on assisting people of reproductive age who have problems conceiving.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).

Version: February 2013
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Respiratory Precautions for Protection from Bioaerosols or Infectious Agents: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet]

There are a number of infectious diseases that are transmitted from person to person via the respiratory route, including influenza, tuberculosis (TB), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, and these infectious agents are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are vulnerable to exposure to these agents given the nature of their jobs, and as a result, risk both becoming infected, and spreading the infectious agents to other patients. To avoid transmission of these infectious diseases to (HCWs), exposure-appropriate respiratory precautions are sometimes necessary to protect both HCWs and the patients they care for. However, the selection of respiratory equipment depends on the pathogen, aerosol generation rate, and ventilation rate.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: August 19, 2014
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Public Health Interventions to Reduce the Secondary Spread of Measles [Internet]

Measles is a highly communicable infectious disease, with 90% of susceptible contacts (those who have not had measles or are unimmunized) becoming infected after exposure to a person with measles. Serious complications include blindness, encephalitis, and pneumonia. Treatment is limited; however, measles is largely preventable through immunization, with efficacy approaching 100% after two doses of measles-containing vaccine. Although vaccination programs have eliminated endemic measles (i.e., measles circulating within the country) in Canada, outbreaks occur due to foreign travel and pools of unimmunized Canadians. Public health interventions to reduce the secondary spread of measles are vaccination of susceptible contacts; human immunoglobulin (Ig) for susceptible contacts; quarantine of susceptible contacts; isolation of active measles cases; and special vaccination clinics or activities during outbreaks to increase population immunization coverage. The objective of this study is to inform the development of a Canadian public health intervention strategy by systematically reviewing the clinical evidence on the effectiveness of these five public health interventions in reducing the secondary spread of measles during an outbreak in a population similar to Canada that has achieved elimination of endemic measles.

Rapid Response Report: Systematic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: May 2015
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Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization in the United States

To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the safety of vaccines recommended for routine immunization of children, adolescents, and adults in the United States as of 2011.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: July 2014
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Antenatal Care: Routine Care for the Healthy Pregnant Woman

The original antenatal care guideline was published by NICE in 2003. Since then a number of important pieces of evidence have become available, particularly concerning gestational diabetes, haemoglobinopathy and ultrasound, so that the update was initiated. This update has also provided an opportunity to look at a number of aspects of antenatal care: the development of a method to assess women for whom additional care is necessary (the ‘antenatal assessment tool’), information giving to women, lifestyle (vitamin D supplementation, alcohol consumption), screening for the baby (use of ultrasound for gestational age assessment and screening for fetal abnormalities, methods for determining normal fetal growth, placenta praevia), and screening for the mother (haemoglobinopathy screening, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and preterm labour, chlamydia).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: March 2008
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Varicella and influenza vaccines may reduce morbidity in patients with blood cancers

Viral infections cause significant disease and even death in patients with blood cancers. In the current systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of viral vaccines in these patients. The pre‐defined primary outcome was incidence of the infection concerned. Secondary outcomes were mortality due to the viral infection, all‐cause mortality, incidence of complications, incidence of severe viral infection, hospitalization rate, in vitro immune response and frequency of adverse effects. Eight RCTs were included. They evaluated heat‐inactivated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine (two trials), influenza vaccines (five trials) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (one trial). There were no RCTs on other viral vaccines (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella). Only the two trials on VZV vaccine reported our pre‐defined primary outcome. All trials reported some of the pre‐defined secondary outcomes. We found that inactivated VZV vaccine might reduce the severity of herpes zoster when given before and after stem cell transplant in adults with lymphoma or leukemia. Inactivated influenza vaccine might reduce upper and lower respiratory infections and hospitalization in adults with multiple myeloma who are undergoing chemotherapy, or children with leukemia or lymphoma within two years post‐chemotherapy. However, the quality of evidence is not high. Local adverse effects occur frequently with the vaccines, although serious adverse effects appear uncommon. Further high‐quality RCTs are needed to clarify the benefits and optimal regimens of viral vaccines for patients with blood cancers.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Postnatal Care: Routine Postnatal Care of Women and Their Babies [Internet]

This guideline has been written within a conceptual framework which places the woman and her baby at the centre of care, appreciating that all postnatal care should be delivered in partnership with the woman and should be individualised to meet the needs of each mother-infant dyad. The guideline aims to identify the essential ‘core care’ which every woman and her baby should receive, as appropriate to their needs, during the first 6–8 weeks after birth, based upon the best evidence available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK).

Version: July 2006
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Donor Breast Milk Banks: The Operation of Donor Milk Bank Services

Seventeen donor breast milk banks are currently in operation in the UK. These provide donor milk to babies, including pre-term babies and babies with growth restriction.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: February 2010
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