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Prevents rotavirus infection in infants and children.

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Results: 20

Rotavirus vaccines can prevent diarrhoea caused by rotavirus, but we are still not clear about safety and whether they prevent deaths

Rotavirus diarrhoea causes illness and death in young children. The benefits of the vaccine were different depending on the type of vaccine. The reviewers are unable to make conclusive recommendations regarding the use of rotavirus vaccines.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Vaccines for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea: vaccines in use

Rotavirus infection is a common cause of diarrhoea in infants and young children, and can cause mild illness, hospitalization, and death. Rotavirus infections results in approximately half a million deaths per year in children aged under five years, mainly in low‐ and middle‐income countries. Since 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that a rotavirus vaccine be included in all national immunization programmes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

[Evaluation of the safety of rotavirus vaccine in infants: systematic review of scientific literature]

Bibliographic details: Reyna-Figueroa J, Vidal-Vazquez P, Hernandez-Hernandez LC, Esparza-Aguilar M, Misael Gomez-Altamirano C, Richardson Lopez-Collada V.  [Evaluation of the safety of rotavirus vaccine in infants: systematic review of scientific literature]. [Evaluacion de la seguridad de la vacuna contra rotavirus en lactantes: revision sistematica de la literatura cientifica.] Vacunas 2010; 11(2): 54-60 Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1576988710700121

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Rotavirus vaccine and diarrhea mortality: quantifying regional variation in effect size

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea mortality remains a leading cause of child death and rotavirus vaccine an effective tool for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea. New data suggest vaccine efficacy may vary by region.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Distribution of rotavirus strains and strain-specific effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccine after its introduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: Concerns exist about whether monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccines provide adequate protection against diverse strains and whether vaccine introduction will lead to selective pressure. We aimed to investigate the distribution of rotavirus strains and strain-specific rotavirus vaccine effectiveness after vaccine introduction.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Vaccines for the prevention of diarrhea due to cholera, shigella, ETEC and rotavirus

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years along with its long-term impact on growth and cognitive development. Despite advances in the understanding of diarrheal disorders and management strategies, globally nearly 750,000 children die annually as a consequence of diarrhea.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Acute infectious diarrhea: Common germs and routes of infection

In Germany, infectious diarrhea is most commonly caused by the norovirus. Infants and young children often have rotavirus infections as well. Viral infections are usually quite intense but short. Bacterial infectious diarrhea is also widespread in adults.Infections with the highly contagious norovirus or rotavirus typically start with sudden and severe symptoms such as diarrhea or vomiting. These symptoms usually go away after a few days. Since 2013, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) has recommended that infants be vaccinated against the rotavirus.Bacterial infectious diarrhea is most often caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. Like viruses, bacteria such as Campylobacter or Salmonella can also be transmitted through direct contact with infected people or by touching contaminated objects.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 4, 2016

The effect of rotavirus vaccine on diarrhoea mortality

This review concluded that rotavirus vaccines were efficacious against rotavirus morbidity and mortality and would have the potential to reduce child mortality in low-income countries if implemented appropriately. These conclusions reflected the available evidence, but should be interpreted with some caution given the small number and quality of included studies as well as limitations in reporting of the review process.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization in the United States

To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the safety of vaccines recommended for routine immunization of children, adolescents, and adults in the United States as of 2011.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: July 2014
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Systematic review of the economic value of diarrheal vaccines

Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of child mortality in low-income settings and morbidity across a range of settings. A growing number of studies have addressed the economic value of new and emerging vaccines to reduce this threat. We conducted a systematic review to assess the economic value of diarrheal vaccines targeting a range of pathogens in different settings. The majority of studies focused on the economic value of rotavirus vaccines in different settings, with most of these concluding that vaccination would provide significant economic benefits across a range of vaccine prices. There is also evidence of the economic benefits of cholera vaccines in specific contexts. For other potential diarrheal vaccines data are limited and often hypothetical. Across all target pathogens and contexts, the evidence of economic value focuses the short-term health and economic gains. Additional information is needed on the broader social and long-term economic value of diarrhea vaccines.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Infectious diarrhea: Traveler's diarrhea

When people travel to faraway countries, their stomach and bowel often have to get used to new foods and new ways of preparing food. Diarrhea is quite common during travels to distant countries. Traveler's diarrhea typically only lasts a few days and usually doesn't need to be treated. There are certain things you can do to try to avoid getting it.The risk is higher in the tropics and subtropics. There are a number of reasons for this. For instance, your stomach and bowel might have a hard time coping with unfamiliar foods such as very spicy dishes and exotic ingredients. Poor hygiene, high temperatures and inadequate cooling of foods make it easier for bacteria to thrive in foods or water. Traveler's diarrhea is most often caused by bacteria. But viruses can also be transmitted through foods or water.If diarrhea is severe or lasts a long time, it is particularly important to replace the lost fluids and salts. You should see a doctor if the symptoms don't improve or if you develop severe diarrhea within a few days or weeks of returning from travels to a distant country.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 4, 2016

Safety of Probiotics to Reduce Risk and Prevent or Treat Disease

To catalog what is known about the safety of interventions containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and/or Bacillus strains used as probiotic agents in research to reduce the risk of, prevent, or treat disease.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2011
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Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Clostridium difficile: Update [Internet]

Update a 2011 review of differences in accuracy of diagnostic tests and the effects of interventions to prevent and treat Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2016

Patient safety in ambulance services: a scoping review

This study aimed to identify and map available evidence relating to patient safety when using ambulance services. There was inconsistency of information on attitudes and approaches to patient safety, exacerbated by a lack of common terminology. Patient safety needs to become a more prominent consideration for ambulance services and development of new models of working must include adequate training and monitoring of clinical risks. Providers and commissioners need a full understanding of the safety implications of introducing new models of care. Areas requiring further work include the safety surrounding discharging patients, patient accidents, equipment and treatment, delays in transfer/admission to hospital, and treatment and diagnosis, with a clear need for increased reliability and training for improving handover to hospital.

Health Services and Delivery Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: May 2015
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Empirical and Simulation-Based Comparison of Univariate and Multivariate Meta-Analysis for Binary Outcomes [Internet]

Many questions in evidence-based medicine involve multiple outcomes. They can be approached with separate, independent meta-analyses, or they can be analyzed jointly, in a single model. We aimed to compare separate (univariate) with joint (multivariate) meta-analysis in real examples and in an illustrative simulation study.

Methods Research Reports - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2013
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Postnatal Care: Routine Postnatal Care of Women and Their Babies [Internet]

This guideline has been written within a conceptual framework which places the woman and her baby at the centre of care, appreciating that all postnatal care should be delivered in partnership with the woman and should be individualised to meet the needs of each mother-infant dyad. The guideline aims to identify the essential ‘core care’ which every woman and her baby should receive, as appropriate to their needs, during the first 6–8 weeks after birth, based upon the best evidence available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK).

Version: July 2006
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Childhood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hematopoietic cell transplantation in treating childhood cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: March 7, 2017

Diarrhoea and Vomiting Caused by Gastroenteritis: Diagnosis, Assessment and Management in Children Younger than 5 Years

When young children suddenly experience the onset of diarrhoea, with or without vomiting, infective gastroenteritis is by far the most common explanation. A range of enteric viruses, bacteria and protozoal pathogens may be responsible. Viral infections account for most cases in the developed world. Gastroenteritis is very common, with many infants and young children experiencing more than one episode in a year.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: April 2009
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Coeliac Disease: Recognition, Assessment and Management

Coeliac disease is an autoimmune condition associated with chronic inflammation of the small intestine, which can lead to malabsorption of nutrients. Dietary proteins, known as glutens, which are present in wheat, barley and rye activate an abnormal mucosal immune response. Clinical and histological improvements usually follow when gluten is excluded from the diet.

NICE Guideline - Internal Clinical Guidelines Team (UK).

Version: September 2015
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Decision and Simulation Modeling in Systematic Reviews [Internet]

The purpose of this study is to provide guidance for determining when incorporating a decision-analytic model alongside a systemic review would be of added value for decisionmaking purposes. The purpose of systematic reviews is to synthesize the current scientific literature on a particular topic in the form of evidence reports and technology assessments to assist public and private organizations in developing strategies that improve the quality of health care and decisionmaking. However, there is often not enough evidence to fully address the questions that are relevant for decisionmakers. Decision models may provide added value alongside systematic reviews by adding a formal structure, which can be informed by the evidence.

Methods Research Reports - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2013
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