Home > Search Results

Results: 20

Use of adrenaline with lidocaine for surgery on fingers and toes

Review question: We reviewed the evidence on the use of adrenaline with lidocaine for surgery on fingers and toes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Low molecular weight heparin for preventing vascular occlusion in replanted fingers or toes after amputation injuries

Microvascular surgery refers to any surgery involving small sized blood vessels that is performed under the operating microscope, allowing the repair of arteries and veins of the digits. These are typically 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. Replantation is the reattachment of a completely detached body part, with fingers and thumbs being the most commonly replanted body parts. This is often referred to as digital replantation. In principle, digital replantation involves not only restoring the blood flow through the arteries and veins but also restoring the bony skeleton of the toes, fingers or thumbs, along with repairing the tendons and nerves as indicated. Occlusion of one or more of the repaired vessels due to the formation of a clot (thrombus) within the blood vessel results in failure of the replantation. Anticoagulant medications are used to reduce clotting, and they could potentially prevent such a complication. Anticoagulants such as unfractionated heparin (UFH) have therefore been used to prevent clot formation after digital replantation. It is unclear if low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has similar benefit. This systematic review identified only two randomised controlled trials comparing UFH with LMWH, with a total of 114 patients. No studies were identified that compared LMWH with placebo, no treatment or other anticoagulants. The limited data from the two trials showed no difference between LMWH and UFH in the success rate for digital replantation but there were less frequent anticoagulation‐related adverse events (such as bleeding) with LMWH. The available evidence is insufficient to make a firm conclusion.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

There is insufficient evidence from randomised controlled trials to assess efficacy of surgical and non‐surgical interventions for Morton's neuroma. More research is needed.

Morton's neuroma is a common, painful condition affecting the web spaces of the toes. Limited evidence from one randomised controlled trial indicated that surgery involving cutting the relevant nerve and implanting it into a muscle tendon may yield better long‐term results than standard surgical removal of the nerve. There is little evidence from randomised controlled trials to support the use of insoles. There were no randomised controlled trials reporting the effect of corticosteroid injections. Adverse events following surgery were common. Well‐designed trials are needed to guide clinical practice.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Umbilical artery catheters in the newborn: effects of catheter design (end vs side hole)

Using umbilical artery catheters with the hole in the side instead of end leads to serious complications. The umbilical artery catheters (tubes) (UACs) commonly used in neonatal intensive care to monitor babies can sometimes cause them problems. They can be used with different accompanying doses of the drug heparin, and in different positions. The design of catheters can vary. The review found that catheters with a hole in the side instead of at the end resulted in one in three babies experiencing aortic thrombosis (a clot in the heart's major artery).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Detecting melanoma

In order to detect melanoma early on, you can either check your skin for abnormalities yourself or have a doctor examine it. Skin cancer can be treated more effectively if it is detected before it spreads to other parts of the body.The older you get, the more your skin changes, and new moles or age spots (solar lentigo) may develop. This is a normal part of aging. So some people decide to wait and keep an eye on any skin abnormalities. Others want to know right away if something is wrong, and go to a doctor to have it checked out. But it is only rarely a serious disease like cancer.People who have been diagnosed with melanoma say that the affected mole had changed in size, shape or color before. Carefully checking your skin on a regular basis is a good way to notice any changes. Women often devote more time to skin care than men and are more attentive. So it is often women who find abnormalities.A full-body check involves inspecting every square inch of your skin, including the skin between your toes, on the soles of your feet and on your ears. Some people use a mirror for parts of their body that are difficult to see, or they might ask a friend or partner to help. Keeping a record of things like the size of suspicious-looking moles or taking pictures of them can make it easier to tell later on whether it has changed.It is not always easy to know what kinds of skin changes might be cancer. If you find an abnormality, it is best to have your doctor inspect it more closely if it does not go away after four to eight weeks. Skin cancer is not painful at an early stage. If it does hurt, the cancer may have already reached an advanced stage.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 10, 2015

How effective are athlete's foot treatments?

Athlete's foot is very common and usually does not cause any serious problems. But affected skin can crack, and be itchy and unattractive. The fungus can spread to the nails, and on rare occasions to other areas of skin. The infection can usually be treated effectively with creams, gels or sprays.Athlete's foot fungi grow particularly well in the areas between our toes. It is often moist and warm there, and the skin on our feet is also a good breeding ground for fungus. Topical treatment will usually clear up the infection within a few weeks. Tablets only have to be taken in exceptional cases.Good hygiene is also important so that other people do not become infected and to prevent the infection from returning. That includes regularly changing socks, towels and bedding and washing them at over 60 degrees Celsius.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 14, 2015

Creams, lotions and gels (topical treatments) for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot

We found lots of evidence to show fungal skin infections of the skin of the feet (athlete's foot or tinea pedis) are effectively managed by over the counter topical antifungal creams, lotions and gels. The most effective topical agent was terbinafine. Other topical agents such as azoles, ciclopiroxolamine, butenafine, tolnaftate and undecanoate were also effective in curing athlete's foot.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Oral antifungal drugs for treating athlete's foot (tinea pedis)

Athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a fungal infection of the feet that is easily spread and difficult to get rid of. This review compared different oral antifungal drugs (i.e. drugs taken by mouth), and it included 15 trials, involving 1438 participants. There are several different kinds of oral treatments, and the trials we found considered all the oral drugs used to treat athlete's foot. We found terbinafine and itraconazole to be more effective than placebo. And we found terbinafine to be more effective than griseofulvin. Griseofulvin is a treatment that was developed much earlier than the new treatments, such as terbinafine and itraconazole; these newer treatments tend to be most evaluated. Trials of other drugs were not large enough to show differences between them. All drugs had side‐effects; gastrointestinal effects were the most common.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Calcium channel blockers for primary Raynaud's phenomenon

Raynaud's phenomenon is a disorder whereby blood vessels in the fingers and toes constrict and reduce blood flow, causing pain and discolouration. This is usually in response to cold exposure or emotional stress. In a small number of cases, Raynaud's phenomenon is associated with an underlying disease but, for most people, it is idiopathic (of uncertain cause, or 'primary'). Primary Raynaud's phenomenon is extremely common (especially in women), with one UK study suggesting that over 15% of the population are affected. For people with primary Raynaud's phenomenon who do not respond to conservative measures (e.g. keeping warm), calcium channel blockers represent the first line in drug treatment. Calcium channel blockers (sometimes called calcium antagonists) are drugs that affect the way calcium passes into certain muscle cells and they are the most commonly prescribed medication for primary Raynaud's phenomenon.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Athlete's foot: Overview

Nearly everyone has had experience with athlete’s foot. The warm and moist spaces between our toes are the perfect place for fungi to grow and spread, typically causing skin redness and cracking. It can be treated effectively with creams, gels and sprays. We provide information on the various treatments.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 14, 2015

Surgical interventions for treating acute Achilles tendon ruptures

Rupture of the Achilles tendon is common and said to be increasing. It typically occurs in males in their 30s and 40s who play sport intermittently. People present with severe pain in the tendon, at the back of the ankle. Signs include a palpable gap at the rupture site, and marked weakness of ankle plantar‐flexion (movement so toes point downwards). Options for management include non‐surgical interventions (plaster of Paris, bracing or splinting) or surgical repair of the tendon. Following either method of treatment, the ankle may be immobilised for up to 12 weeks (in a cast, allowing no movement at the ankle and variable weight‐bearing), or mobilised early (in a brace, allowing movement at the ankle and partial to full weight‐bearing).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Oral vasodilator drugs to reduce the symptoms of primary Raynaud's phenomenon

Raynaud's phenomenon is caused by short term constriction of the small arteries in the extremities, usually the fingers. For a few minutes, usually, the fingertips go white and feel numb or tingle and prickle. Then the blood flow returns and they become warm and red, which can also be painful. For some people the toes, ears, nose, tongue or nipples are affected. Cold or emotional stress can trigger the attacks. Keeping warm, stopping smoking and avoiding using tools that vibrate can prevent attacks but sometimes drug therapy is needed. Calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine are the drugs of choice but can have unwanted side effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

What kinds of massage are there?

Massages are used for relaxation as well as to relieve certain symptoms. There are many different kinds of therapeutic massage. Therapeutic massages can sometimes be painful.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 2, 2014

Scarlet fever: Overview

A doctor can usually diagnose scarlet fever fairly quickly based on its typical rash and a dark-red tongue, sometimes referred to as a “strawberry tongue.” Serious complications are very rare nowadays, and because scarlet fever is caused by bacteria, antibiotics are an effective treatment.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 30, 2014

Warts: Overview

Almost everyone has a wart at some point in their life. They are contagious and hard to get rid of. Children and young people are especially at risk: They often get them at the swimming pool or after doing sports. How can you protect yourself from these annoying warts – and how can you get rid of them?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 30, 2014

Rheumatoid arthritis: Overview

Inflamed joints, pain and reduced flexibility can be signs of rheumatoid arthritis, but they may also be caused by osteoarthritis. Here you can find an overview of the typical symptoms and causes of rheumatoid arthritis. You can also read about the usual course of this chronic condition and the different treatment options.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 11, 2016

Lymphedema (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of lymphedema, a condition in which lymph fluid builds up in tissues and causes swelling.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 29, 2015

Pruritus (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about pruritus (itching of the skin) as a complication of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management and treatment of pruritus are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 15, 2016

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 11, 2016

Testing Treatments: Better Research for Better Healthcare. 2nd edition

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...