Home > Search Results

Pulmonary hypertension, or PH, is increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries. These arteries carry blood from your heart to your lungs to pick up oxygen.

Results: 1 to 20 of 480

Milrinone for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a condition caused by a failure in the systemic and pulmonary circulation to convert from the antenatal circulation pattern to the normal postnatal pattern. Due to persistent high pressure in the pulmonary vessels, less than normal blood flows to the lungs and thus less oxygen reaches the organs of the body. Milrinone may cause the pulmonary vessels to relax and allow for an increased oxygen supply for the body. However, the review found no trials of the use of milrinone for babies with persistent pulmonary hypertension. Research is needed into the effects of milrinone on PPHN.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Hydralazine for pulmonary hypertension in low birth weight infants with chronic lung disease

In premature infants, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with chronic lung disease (CLD) is associated with high mortality rate. With the exception of oxygen supplementation, no specific interventions have been established as an effective treatment for PAH in premature infants with CLD. Vasodilators could be effective treatments to reduce pulmonary arterial pressure, but little has been proven regarding their clinical effectiveness and concern remains regarding adverse effects. This review found no trials of the use of hydralazine for low birth weight infant with PAH related to CLD. However, since hydralazine is inexpensive and potentially beneficial, randomised controlled trials are recommended.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Phosphodiesterase 5 (sildenafil) inhibitors for pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the lung circulation. It can occur without a known cause, or it can be caused by another lung disease or be secondary to abnormalities in the left side of the heart. The review sought to determine whether there was evidence that sildenafil (also known as Viagra), a drug which opens up the arteries and increases the flow of blood, could decrease pulmonary artery blood pressure and alleviate symptoms of PH. A limited number of studies of short term i duration indicated that the drug can open up the arteries. One small longer‐term study found some favourable effects in terms of symptoms, but in the absence of longer term outcomes, we could not establish whether this meant that the people given the drug felt that their levels of daily activity were better. Future studies should be longer in duration, and should measure the impact of treatment on daily activities, mortality, quality of life and exercise capacity.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Magnesium sulfate for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

The blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs (pulmonary arteries) is normally much lower than the blood pressure in the rest of the body. Before a baby is born the muscle surrounding the pulmonary arteries is tightly constricted resulting in a very high pressure in these arteries. After birth the arteries dilate and the pressure drops. In persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn this drop in pulmonary blood pressure, for a variety of reasons, fails to occur.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension in neonates

Some babies develop persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PPHN), a condition where the pressure in the blood vessels that allows blood to flow to the lungs remains abnormally high. Persistent high pressure in these vessels leads to less blood flow to the lungs and therefore less oxygen reaching the blood and all organs of the body. Sildenafil may cause these vessels to relax and allow for improved blood flow and improved oxygen delivery to all organs. This treatment is especially useful in the settings where other treatment approaches are not available. However, in resourceful environment, further studies are needed to compare sildenafil with existing treatment for effect and safety.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Prostacyclin for pulmonary hypertension in adults

Prostacyclin may benefit patients with pulmonary hypertension (raised blood pressure in the lungs) in the short term but studies longer in duration are required. Pulmonary hypertension occurs when blood is pumped through arteries in the lungs at an increased pressure. The condition can lead to heart failure and death. Once the diagnosis is made, life expectancy ranges from a few months to a few years. Most current treatments apart from lung transplantation do not improve survival. Over an 8‐12 week period prostacyclin improved exercise capacity and some measures of blood flow when given intravenously or via injection to patients with pulmonary hypertension. However, with intravenous administration there can be serious side effects as the drug has to be given continuously via a pump into a catheter placed into a central vein. It is not clear how long the drug continues to confer benefit without serious side effects. Prostacyclin can also be given by mouth, under the skin or through an inhaler. These forms of administration may be safer than intravenous prostacyclin and there is evidence that these may be effective in the short term.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Selexipag (Uptravi) for pulmonary arterial hypertension: Overview

Selexipag (trade name: Uptravi) has been approved in Germany since May 2016 for adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension (high blood pressure). The drug can be combined with other blood-pressure-lowering (antihypertensive) medications.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 15, 2016

Macitentan (Opsumit) for pulmonary arterial hypertension: Overview

Macitentan (trade name: Opsumit) has been approved in Germany since December 2013 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (high blood pressure) in adults. This drug can be combined with other blood-pressure-lowering (antihypertensive) medications.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 9, 2017

Exercise in pulmonary hypertension

Bibliographic details: Hassan A, Alison J, Redfern J.  Exercise in pulmonary hypertension. Physical Therapy Reviews 2011; 16 (1): 19-24 Available from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/ptr/2011/00000016/00000001/art00004

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Endothelin receptor antagonists for pulmonary arterial hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, or pulmonary capillaries, together known as the lung vasculature, leading to shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, and other symptoms, all of which are exacerbated by exertion. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reclassified pulmonary hypertension into five groups based on their mechanisms rather than associated conditions. We have focused on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) only in this review. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease characterised by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance which leads to right ventricular failure and ultimately death.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Drug Therapy for Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Review of the Comparative Clinical Effectiveness [Internet]

Riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator (sGC), is currently the only drug with Health Canada approved indication for the management of inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or persistent or recurrent CTEPH after surgical treatment in adults 18 years or older with progressive pulmonary hypertension (PH) of World Health Organization (WHO) functional class II or III. The WHO functional class ranges from I to IV, with higher numbers indicating greater functional limitations. Since histopathology studies suggest that CTEPH and primary pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) share common pathways in their pathophysiology and manifest similar small-vessel changes, vasoactive therapies with evidence of efficacy in PAH are commonly prescribed off-label for CTEPH patients who require medical intervention. In Canada, specific therapies for PAH include sGC stimulators, endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5), and prostacyclin analogues. The objective of this report is to review current evidence of comparative efficacy and safety of monotherapy or combination therapy of medical interventions for patients with CTEPH.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: September 9, 2014
Show search results within this document

Exercise‐based rehabilitation in pulmonary hypertension

What is pulmonary hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension is a condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs is elevated well above normal. Often with a gradual onset, it affects individuals of all ages, significantly reduces quality of life and results in premature death.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Riociguat (Adempas): Management of Inoperable Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension [Internet]

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease subtype of pulmonary hypertension. It is a progressive disease characterized by the presence of non-resolving or recurrent thrombi distributed within the pulmonary arteries. This can obstruct or occlude the luminal space, eventually leading to increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), pulmonary hypertension, and right-sided heart failure. Although the exact etiology of CTEPH remains poorly understood, it may arise following an initial episode of acute pulmonary embolism (PE); however, up to 60% of CTEPH patients have not had any antecedent episode of acute PE. The epidemiology of CTEPH is likewise not well established. Some surveillance data estimate CTEPH to occur in 0.1% to 0.5% of patients surviving an initial episode of acute PE; however, the true incidence of CTEPH is likely to be higher, owing to an unknown number of undetected cases either presenting occultly or latently in the setting of acute PE or through non-venous thromboembolism etiologies.

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: July 2015
Show search results within this document

Blood thinners for pulmonary hypertension

The heart has four chambers: two upper and two lower chambers. The lower right chamber, also known as the right ventricle, pumps blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where the blood receives oxygen. Pulmonary hypertension occurs when pressure in the pulmonary arteries is increased to above normal (8 to 25 mmHg). When this happens over time, inflammation of the pulmonary artery occurs. The arteries may then become stiff and tighten. These changes make it difficult for the heart to pump blood to the lungs. The heart becomes weaker as it tries to push against this pressure; the resulting disturbance to blood flow can lead to blood clots. These clots can travel to the lungs, which can worsen the person's condition and may result in death.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Drugs for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension — Project Protocol [Internet]

CADTH will undertake a systematic review to compare the efficacy and safety of new and existing drug therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and will examine their cost-effectiveness. The review will include drug therapies that are available in Canada (epoprostenol, treprostinil, bosentan, ambrisentan, macitentan, sildenafil, tadalafil) and one for which the clinical development program is advanced but is not yet approved for the treatment of PAH in Canada (riociguat).

CADTH Therapeutic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: February 2014
Show search results within this document

Inhaled nitric oxide to treat high blood pressure of the pulmonary vessels after surgery in infants and children with congenital heart disease

We reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide for treatment of high blood pressure in the pulmonary vessels in infants and children born with heart disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Drugs for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Comparative Efficacy, Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness — Recommendations Report [Internet]

The Canadian Drug Expert Committee (CDEC) recommends that sildenafil or tadalafil be the preferred initial therapy for adult patients with functional class (FC) II and III pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).

CADTH Therapeutic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: March 2015
Show search results within this document

Drugs for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Comparative Efficacy, Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness [Internet]

The objective of this therapeutic review is to conduct a systematic review to assess the comparative efficacy and safety and to determine the cost-effectiveness of drug therapies for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adults.

CADTH Therapeutic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: March 2015
Show search results within this document

Macitentan (Opsumit): For Long-Term Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension [Internet]

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; also classified as Group 1 pulmonary hypertension [PH]) is a rare, debilitating, progressive, and life-threatening disease of the pulmonary vasculature, characterized by vascular proliferation and remodelling of small pulmonary arteries. PAH is defined by an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≥ 25 mm Hg and a pulmonary wedge pressure of ≤ 15 mm Hg. If left untreated, it can lead to right heart failure and premature death.

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: July 2015
Show search results within this document

Endothelin receptor antagonists for persistent pulmonary arterial hypertension

Background: Some newborn babies develop abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries of the lung. This condition is called persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Babies with PPHN present with breathing difficulties and low oxygen levels.Traditionally such babies are managed with respirators and administration of a special gas called nitric oxide. In many cases, babies do not improve in spite of these measures. A new class of drugs called endothelin receptor antagonists are being tested for PPHN.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (940)...

Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

See all (6)...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...